Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Modelling the distribution and compositional variation of plant communities at the continental scale
Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Suárez-Seoane, Susana ; Chytrý, Milan ; Hennekens, Stephan M. ; Willner, Wolfgang ; Hájek, Michal ; Agrillo, Emiliano ; Álvarez-Martínez, Jose M. ; Bergamini, Ariel ; Brisse, Henry ; Brunet, Jörg ; Casella, Laura ; Dítě, Daniel ; Font, Xavier ; Gillet, François ; Hájková, Petra ; Jansen, Florian ; Jandt, Ute ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Lenoir, Jonathan ; Rodwell, John S. ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Sekulová, Lucia ; Šibík, Jozef ; Škvorc, Željko ; Tsiripidis, Ioannis - \ 2018
Diversity and Distributions 24 (2018)7. - ISSN 1366-9516 - p. 978 - 990.
community distribution models - ecosystem properties - extent of occurrence - generalized dissimilarity modelling - habitat conservation - plant communities - vegetation
Aim: We investigate whether (1) environmental predictors allow to delineate the distribution of discrete community types at the continental scale and (2) how data completeness influences model generalization in relation to the compositional variation of the modelled entities. Location: Europe. Methods: We used comprehensive datasets of two community types of conservation concern in Europe: acidophilous beech forests and base-rich fens. We computed community distribution models (CDMs) calibrated with environmental predictors to predict the occurrence of both community types, evaluating geographical transferability, interpolation and extrapolation under different scenarios of sampling bias. We used generalized dissimilarity modelling (GDM) to assess the role of geographical and environmental drivers in compositional variation within the predicted distributions. Results: For the two community types, CDMs computed for the whole study area provided good performance when evaluated by random cross-validation and external validation. Geographical transferability provided lower but relatively good performance, while model extrapolation performed poorly when compared with interpolation. Generalized dissimilarity modelling showed a predominant effect of geographical distance on compositional variation, complemented with the environmental predictors that also influenced habitat suitability. Main conclusions: Correlative approaches typically used for modelling the distribution of individual species are also useful for delineating the potential area of occupancy of community types at the continental scale, when using consistent definitions of the modelled entity and high data completeness. The combination of CDMs with GDM further improves the understanding of diversity patterns of plant communities, providing spatially explicit information for mapping vegetation diversity and related habitat types at large scales.
The steering role of plant-soil interactions in natural community dynamics and nature restoration
Wubs, Engel Reinder Jasper - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten; T.M. Bezemer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434447 - 242
soil plant relationships - soil - plants - ecological restoration - terrestrial ecosystems - soil inoculation - plant communities - soil ecology - bodem-plant relaties - bodem - planten - ecologisch herstel - terrestrische ecosystemen - bodeminoculatie - plantengemeenschappen - bodemecologie

Biodiversity is declining worldwide and many ecosystems have been degraded due to human actions. There have been many attempts to restore degraded ecosystems, but restoration success varies. Past human management has left important abiotic and biotic legacies and active intervention is needed to overcome these legacies. Legacy effects include altered abiotic conditions and limited availability of appropriate seeds. However, plants also have many interactions with the myriad organisms that inhabit the soil. Soil biota include e.g. bacteria, fungi, nematodes, collembolan, and mites. Restoring plant-soil interactions may be key to successful ecological restoration, because studies on natural succession in ecosystems show that both plant and soil communities develop in concert. In addition, late-successional soil communities promote the performance of late-succession plant species that are often the target species for restoration. The aims of my thesis were to 1) test whether inoculation of living soil can improve restoration of species-rich grasslands and dry heathlands, and 2) understand how plant-soil interactions affect plant composition and diversity.

In a large-scale field experiment, called “Reijerscamp-experiment”, I tested the potential of soil inoculation to speed up ecosystem restoration. On a former arable field large areas of on average 0.5 ha were inoculated with a thin layer of <1 cm living soil, which was taken either from a mid-succession grassland or a dry-heathland. After six years I monitored the species composition of the vegetation and the soil community. I found that both types of inoculum had substantially altered the community composition of both soil and vegetation. Moreover, the soil inocula had caused a shift in the direction of the respective donor communities. In a parallel mesocosm experiment I repeated the experiment while sowing a standardized species-rich seed mixture to ensure that seed availability was the same in all treatments. Also in this case the sown plant community developed towards the respective communities found in the donor sites. Consequently the soil community is, at least in part, able to steer plant community composition in the field.

I also tested how mixtures of inocula from different donor systems affect restoration success. In a greenhouse experiment I made replacement series of soil inocula sourced from arable fields, mid-succession grasslands and dry heathlands and monitored the responses of target and ruderal plant species. The target species all responded positively to higher proportions of heathland material in the inoculum, while the responses of the ruderal species were variable. Interestingly, a 50:50 mixture of arable and heathland inoculum strongly reduced the growth of the ruderal species. Soil inoculation may be considered as a way of microbiome engineering, which is a newly emerging field mainly used to improve human health and agricultural production. My results show that conceptually similar techniques can be applied to improve inocula for the restoration of ecological communities.

In a second field experiment I tested the long-term consequences of soil inoculation with and without sowing mid-successional plant species for plant and soil community composition. I found that sowing strongly altered plant community composition for over two decades. Soil inoculation, on the other hand, substantially altered the composition of the soil nematode community and that these effects persisted for at least 15 years. However, in contrast to the Reijerscamp experiment, the effect of soil inoculation on vegetation composition was transient. I propose that in this case the presence of an intact arable top soil, as well as perhaps a too minimal difference between the composition of the donor and recipient soil communities may have limited the impact of the soil inocula.

In general, the restoration of plant cover and a number of common (‘matrix’) plant species can be achieved using standard approaches, e.g. reducing site fertility and providing seed material, but creating conditions that allow for coexistence of both locally dominant and rare subordinate species proves much more elusive. Fundamental knowledge on how biodiversity is regulated is needed to restore diverse plant communities including the rare species. Testing plant-soil feedback provides a way to directly study the net consequences of the myriad interactions between plants and soil biota for plant performance and community composition. However, while both plants and soil communities are strongly heterogeneous in space and time, spatiotemporally explicit tests of plant-soil feedback are rare.

In a greenhouse experiment I studied how spatial heterogeneity in plant-soil feedbacks influence plant communities. I found that when multiple species conditioned the soil, plant performance was reduced compared to mono-specific soil conditioning. This reduction in competitive ability led to a higher plant diversity in the experimental communities. The plant responses were not related to differences in abiotic conditions, but soil conditioning induced clear changes in fungal community composition. Recent meta-analyses and experiments have shown that spatial heterogeneity in abiotic conditions only promotes plant diversity when the grain of the heterogeneity is larger than the size of individual plants. When it is smaller, heterogeneity simply selects for those species that have the highest root plasticity and this leads to lower plant diversity. Together, these results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in abiotic conditions only promotes plant beta diversity, while interaction with the soil community, primarily soil-borne antagonists, maintains plant alpha diversity.

Finally, I used repeated soil conditioning by conspecific and heterospecific species to show that soil feedbacks may carry over across soil conditioning periods. In contrast to what is commonly assumed my data show that heterospecific soil-conditioning can result in equally negative PSF as repeated conspecific soil-conditioning and repeated conspecific soil-conditioning does not always lead to stronger negative feedback. Instead, the particular sequence of plant species that successively condition the soil strongly determines the sign and magnitude of PSF. These results highlight the need to incorporate sequential soil-conditioning in models of plant communities and effective crop-rotations.

In conclusion, plant-soil interactions are a key aspect in the natural dynamics of plant communities and can be used to improve restoration of semi-natural ecosystems. Abiotic conditions and dispersal ability determine which species may occur in a given site. However, at small spatial scales plant-soil feedbacks and particularly interactions with soil borne antagonists can enhance plant species diversity. Manipulation of the soil community, through inoculation of soil from well-developed donor sites can speed up natural succession and even steer its direction in the field. However, soil inoculation success will not be universal and depends on the match in abiotic conditions of donor and recipient sites, as well as the community composition of the inoculum and the resident communities. Future studies are needed to test the success of introducing soil communities across environmental gradients.

Tussen idealisme en wetenschap : van dood land naar levende natuur
Berendse, Frank - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575400 - 24
natuur - natuurbescherming - natuurbeheer - biodiversiteit - plantengemeenschappen - soortenrijkdom - wetenschap - nature - nature conservation - nature management - biodiversity - plant communities - species richness - science
Rede bij het afscheid als hoogleraar in het Natuurbeheer en de Plantenecologie aan Wageningen University op 31 maart 2016
Milieufactoren en beschikbaarheid nectar en stuifmeel in graslanden
Ozinga, W.A. ; Geerts, R.H.E.M. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2016
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 33 (2016)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 45 - 47.
functionele biodiversiteit - graslanden - milieufactoren - nectar - stuifmeel - ecosysteemdiensten - bloemen - plantengemeenschappen - functional biodiversity - grasslands - environmental factors - pollen - ecosystem services - flowers - plant communities
Plantengemeenschappen spelen bij veel ecosysteemfuncties en -diensten een cruciale rol. De bijdrage van plantensoorten hangt af van functionele eigenschappen als het aanbod van nectar en stuifmeel in bloemen. Lokale plantengemeenschappen verschillen sterk in het spectrum aan eigenschappen van de soorten en inzicht in deze variatie kan helpen bij duurzaam beheer en gebruik van deze functionele diversiteit. Stilgestaan wordt bij factoren die de variatie in het aanbod van nectar en stuifmeel in graslanden beïnvloeden.
Veldgids Rompgemeenschappen
Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Weeda, E.J. ; Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Haveman, R. ; Schipper, P. ; Bal, D. - \ 2015
KNNV uitgeverij - ISBN 9789050115162 - 284 p.
plantengemeenschappen - habitats - biotopen - vegetatietypen - nederland - plant communities - biotopes - vegetation types - netherlands
Plantengemeenschappen zijn groepen van samen voorkomende plantensoorten typerend voor de grote verscheidenheid aan biotopen, zoals moeras, grasland, akker en bos. Plantengemeenschappen zeggen veel over waterhuishouding, bodem, klimaat en landgebruik.Door intensivering zijn goed ontwikkelde plantengemeenschappen echter vrij zeldzaam geworden en verarmd. Dit zijn zogenaamde afgeleide gemeenschappen: de romp- en derivaatgemeenschappen. Ook daarvan is classificatie en identificatie van groot belang.Deze gids geeft een compleet overzicht:•inleiding over romp- en derivaatgemeenschappen•beschrijft 260 Nederlandse romp- en derivaatgemeenschappen, ingedeeld naar biotoop (open water en moerassen; graslanden en heiden; kust en binnenlandse pioniermilieus; ruigten, bossen en struwelen)•helder overzicht van de overkoepelende vegetatieklassen•per gemeenschap een beschrijving van ecologie en voorkomen in Nederland, plus een tabel met soortensamenstelling•met talloze fraaie kleurenfoto’sDit nieuwe standaardwerk vormt een logisch tweeluik met de Veldgids Plantengemeenschappen van Nederland (deel1). Samen zijn ze een handig hulpmiddel voor studenten, ecologen, beheerders en plantenliefhebbers.Meer informatie over monitoring en planten tellen >>
Legacies of Amazonian dark earths on forest composition, structure and dynamics
Quintero Vallejo, E.M. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; Lourens Poorter, co-promotor(en): Marielos Pena Claros; T. Toledo. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574267 - 168
bossen - bosgronden - bosdynamiek - bodemvruchtbaarheid - botanische samenstelling - soortensamenstelling - plantengemeenschappen - amazonia - bolivia - forests - forest soils - forest dynamics - soil fertility - botanical composition - species composition - plant communities

Amazonian forest is seen as the archetype of pristine forests, untouched by humans, but this romantic view is far from reality. In recent years, there is increasing evidence of long and extensive landscape modification by humans. Processes of permanent inhabitation, expansion and retreat of human populations have not always been obvious in those ecosystems, leaving sometimes weak and overlooked imprints in the landscape. An example of one of these inconspicuous alterations are the modifications in the soil known as Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or ‘terra preta’ (black earth in Portuguese), which are the product of the accumulation of residuals from permanent or semi-permanent human inhabitation. They are named after the black color of the soils, which is a consequence of the accumulation of charcoal pieces and organic matter in the soil. These soils also contain higher levels of phosphorous, calcium (mainly originated from bone residuals), and nitrogen that increase fertility of the naturally poor soils, thus favouring agricultural practices. Amazonian Dark Earths are distributed in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru, and it is estimated that they could occupy 3% of the area of the Amazon basin.

With the decrease in human population in the Americas after the encounter with European colonists, sites where ADE had been formed were abandoned and the vegetation recovered. So far, the effects of ADE on old growth forest had not been widely examined and we are just starting to understand the consequences of past human inhabitation on forest composition and structure. In my thesis, I evaluated the effects of ADE on the forest that has re-grown after abandonment by indigenous people in the La Chonta forest, situated at the southern edge of the Amazon basin, in Bolivia. First, I assessed the magnitude of the changes in the soil as a consequence of human occupation. Then, I studied how soil changes affected plant species composition in the forest understory, forest structure and forest dynamics, and finally I determined how seedlings of tree species respond to anthropogenic changes in soil properties.

Detailed information on soil characteristics and its heterogeneity in the landscape is needed to evaluate the effects of soil on the vegetation. Soil heterogeneity in some sites in the Amazon basin can be increased by the presence of ADE. Therefore, I did detailed soil surveys that allowed me to understand the relationship between past human occupation and alteration in the concentration of soil nutrients. I found that natural soils in the southern Amazonian forest are more fertile than their Central and Eastern Amazon counterparts. Past human presence in the area resulted in soil enrichment, due to increases in the concentration of phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and increases in soil pH. Thus, with this information I could test specific hypothesis about the effects of soil fertility on the vegetation that occurs in these sites.

In the Amazonian forest in general, soil characteristics influences the composition of understory angiosperm herbs, ferns and palm species. Thus, increases in soil fertility in ADE could affect the distribution of understory angiosperm herbs, ferns and palm species. I evaluated the effect of ADE on composition, richness and abundance of understory species (ferns, angiosperm herbs, and palms). I correlated soil variables associated with ADE, such as Ca, P, and soil pH, with species composition, richness and abundance. I found that the presence of ADE created a gradient in soil nutrients and pH, which changed the composition of understory species, especially of ferns and palms. Additionally, the higher nutrient concentration and the more neutral pH on ADE soils were associated with a decrease in the richness of fern species. I therefore conclude that the current composition of the understory community in La Chonta is a reflection of past human modification of the soil.

Soil heterogeneity drives forest structure and forest dynamics across the Amazon region, but at a local scale the role of soils on forest dynamics is not well understood. The study of Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) opens an opportunity to test how increases in soil fertility could affect forest structure and dynamics at local scales. I evaluated the effect of ADE on forest attributes, such standing basal area, tree liana infestation and successional composition, defined by the relative presence of pioneers, to shade tolerant species in the forest. I also evaluated the effect of ADE on individual components of forest dynamics: basal area growth, recruitment, and mortality. Surprisingly, I found that these fertile ADE affected only few forest attributes and components of forest dynamics. Soil pH was one of the edaphic variables that significantly explained forest structure and dynamics. A higher soil pH increased recruitment of intermediate-sized trees (with stem diameter between 20 and 40 cm) and decreased mortality of large trees (stem diameter > 40 cm). The most important effect of pH, however, was on initial basal area and successional composition, which directly affected growth in basal area of intermediate-sized trees.

Increases in soil nutrients can drive plant responses promoting higher growth rates and lower mortality. Plants respond to soil nutrient availability through a suite of traits, by adjusting their biomass allocation patterns, morphology, tissue chemistry and physiology, which allow them successful establishment and regeneration. The higher amount of nutrients found on ADE compared to natural soils could improve the growth of tropical tree species. I studied the effect of ADE on seedling growth, morphology and physiology in a greenhouse experiment with seedlings of 17 tree species from La Chonta. I found that seedlings did not invest more in roots in non-ADE (to take up scarce soil resources) but they invested in leaves and leaf area in ADE (to enhance light capture), although this did not lead to faster growth rate. Tree species responded differently to an increase in soil Ca concentration, which was 2.4 times higher in ADE than in non-ADE soils. Some species seemed to suffer from Ca toxicity as indicated by higher seedling mortality on ADE; others suffered from nutrient imbalance; whereas other species increased their leaf Ca, P and N concentrations in ADE. Only for this latter group of nutrient accumulators, there was a positive relationship between leaf Ca concentration and the growth rates of seedlings. Contrary to expectations, ADE did not lead to increased seedling growth. The ability of plants to colonize patches of ADE might depend on plant responses to increased soil Ca and their capacity to regulate internal tissue calcium to balance nutrition.

In summary, in this southern Amazon forest the increased soil nutrient concentrations are a legacy of the humans that inhabited the area. This nutrient addition caused changes in understory species composition and decreased fern species richness and had modest effects on forest structure and dynamics. Increases in nutrients, specifically Ca, can cause positive and negative responses of tree species, resulting in potentially long term effects on the tree species composition of the forest.

Patterns of exotic plant species in the Netherlands: a macroecological perspective
Speek, T.A.A. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten, co-promotor(en): Bert Lotz. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572898 - 158
geïntroduceerde soorten - vegetatie - plantengeografie - invasieve soorten - plantengemeenschappen - dominantie - nederland - introduced species - vegetation - phytogeography - invasive species - plant communities - dominance - netherlands
In dit proefschrift heb is onderzocht wat mogelijkheden zijn om het invasief potentieel van geïntroduceerde plantensoorten en de invasibiliteit van plantengemeenschappen in Nederland te voorspellen. Soorten zijn gebruikt die hier al geïntroduceerd zijn, omdat van deze hun invasief succes bekend is. Om hun invasiviteit te kwantificeren is informatie gebruikt over de regionale en lokale verspreiding. De unieke beschikbaarheid van deze datasets voor plantensoorten in Nederland bieden nieuwe kansen, die mogelijk helpen de voorspelbaarheid van invasiviteit te verhogen, uit te leggen hoe invasiviteit van een soort kan veranderen in de tijd en hoe de samenstelling van de plantengemeenschap kan bepalen welke geïntroduceerde soorten zich kunnen vestigen.
Vegetatie en opslibbing in de Peazemerlannen en het referentiegebied west - Groningen : Evaluatie 2007 - 2012
Duin, W.E. van; Dijkema, K.S. ; Leeuwen, P.W. van; Sonneveld, C. - \ 2013
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C082/13) - 59
kweldergronden - bodemdaling - vegetatiebeheer - polders - plantengemeenschappen - groningen - salt marsh soils - subsidence - vegetation management - plant communities
Deze rapportage beschrijft de monitoring in het kader van de bodemdaling onder de kwelder de Peazemerlannen. Er wordt een overzicht gegeven van de activiteiten en meetresultaten in de kwelder en zomerpolder van de Peazemerlannen en het referentiegebied in de kwelderwerken in West-Groningen van de jaren 2007 t/m 2012. De meeste gegevens worden weergegeven vanaf 2007, het startjaar van de gaswinning. Oudere data worden, waar nuttig, ook weergegeven of er wordt verwezen naar eerdere rapporten.
Functies van stedelijk groen : Goede plantcombinaties
Hoffman, M.H.A. - \ 2013
public green areas - plant communities - management of urban green areas - urban areas - microclimate
Uitbreiding en herstel van Zuid-Limburgse hellingschraallanden. Eindrapportage 2e fase O + BN onderzoek
Noordwijk, C.G.E. ; Weijters, M.J. ; Smits, N.A.C. ; Bobbink, R. ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Verbaarschot, E. ; Versluijs, R. ; Kuper, J. ; Floor-Zwart, W. ; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Remke, E. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2013
Driebergen : Bosschap (2013/OBN177-HE ) - 167
graslanden - plantengemeenschappen - herstel - natuurgebieden - herstelbeheer - natura 2000 - zuid-limburg - grasslands - plant communities - rehabilitation - natural areas - restoration management
In het kader van Natura 2000 worden in Europees perspectief zeldzame soorten en zeldzame vegetatietypen in Nederland beschermd. In dit rapport staan de Zuid-Limburgse kalkgraslanden (H6210) en heischrale graslanden (H6230) centraal. Bijna alle nog bestaande hellingschraallanden in Nederland liggen binnen de als Natura2000 aangewezen gebieden. Beide habitattypen zijn prioritair en de opgave in deze gebieden bestaat uit uitbreiding van het oppervlak en verbetering van de kwaliteit. Uit de 1e fase van het O+BN onderzoek aan de Zuid-Limburgse hellingschraallanden is gebleken dat veel karakteristieke planten- en diersoorten binnen de huidige natuurreservaten nog steeds achteruitgaan. Een belangrijke oorzaak hiervoor is de verhoogde beschikbaarheid van stikstof.
Vogelpootjes in Solleveld
Toetenel, H. ; Sikkes, R. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2013
Holland's Duinen 61 (2013). - ISSN 1389-7373 - p. 24 - 31.
plantengemeenschappen - natuurgebieden - begrazing - zuid-holland - plant communities - natural areas - grazing
In 2012 hebben de eerste twee auteurs een planteninventarisatie uitgevoerd in Solleveld in het kader van onderzoek door Dunea naar de effecten van begrazing in Solleveld. Eerdere inventarisaties vonden plaats in 1993, 1998 en 2005 (Vertegaal 1993, Hagen 1998 en Toetenel 2009). Tijdens de inventarisatie in 2012 werd op een aantal plekken Klein vogelpootje (Ornithopus perpusillus) aangetroffen, één van de soorten waarvan het voorkomen volledig in kaart gebracht is met behulp van GPS coördinaten.
Geboeid door het verleden: de Bocht van Barkman
Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Ozinga, W.A. - \ 2013
Stratiotes 2013 (2013)44. - ISSN 0928-2297 - p. 13 - 18.
plantengemeenschappen - vegetatietypen - historische ecologie - infrastructuur - constructie - structurele aanpassing - twente - plant communities - vegetation types - historical ecology - infrastructure - construction - structural adjustment
Geboeid door het verleden is de titel van een onlangs verschenen boek in de reeks 'Vegetatiekundige Monografieën', dat de historische ecologie tot onderwerp heeft. Onder deze titel willen we in Stratiotes op gezette tijden ruimte bieden aan min of meer vergeten of minder bekende maar interessante onderwerpen uit het rijke verleden van het vegetatieonderzoek in ons land. In deze bijdrage aandacht voor een gewijzigde tracé bij de aanleg van de snelweg A1. In de zeventiger jaren voerde prof. Barkman met succes actie tegen de aanvankelijk geplande route, dwars door een natuurreservaat met opvallende jenerbesstruwelen
Gevolgen van klimaatverandering voor verschillende plantengemeenschappen
Janssen, J.A.M. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Haveman, R. ; Smits, N.A.C. - \ 2013
Stratiotes 2013 (2013)44. - ISSN 0928-2297 - p. 19 - 30.
plantengemeenschappen - vegetatietypen - bouwland - graslanden - heidegebieden - bossen - klimaatverandering - plant communities - vegetation types - arable land - grasslands - heathlands - forests - climatic change
In deze studie is bekeken welke veranderingen zijn opgetreden in plantengemeenschappen. De gegevens uit de Landelijke Vegetatie Databank (LVD) zijn gebruikt om trends in de soortensamenstelling van bepaalde plantengemeenschappen op te sporen. Vervolgens zijn deze trends gerelateerd aan veranderingen in de temperatuur. Hierdoor krijgen we inzicht in de kwetsbaarheid van de onderzochte plantengemeenschappen (en desbetreffende ecosystemen) voor klimaatverandering. De LVD bestaat momenteel uit meer dan 630.000 gedigitaliseerde vegetatieopnamen, gemaakt in de periode 1930-2012. De verandering in de soortensamenstelling van een aantal plantengemeenschappen is geanalyseerd voor de periode 1930-2010
Pesticiden en biodiversiteit in het Europese landbouwbeleid
Berendse, F. ; Geiger, F. - \ 2013
Entomologische Berichten 73 (2013)4. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 132 - 135.
intensieve landbouw - biodiversiteit - pesticiden - broedvogels - akkerranden - landschap - plantengemeenschappen - landschapsecologie - landbouwgrond - intensive farming - biodiversity - pesticides - breeding birds - field margins - landscape - plant communities - landscape ecology - agricultural land
In de laatste 50 jaar is de biodiversiteit op landbouwgronden in Europa snel achteruit gegaan. Twaalf van de vijftien vogelsoorten die karakteristiek zijn voor het agrarische landschap van Midden-Nederland zijn in de periode 1973-2002 met meer dan 50% achteruit gegaan, terwijl de bijvoorbeeld de broedvogels van bossen in aantal toenamen. Een belangrijke vraag is welke veranderingen in het landschap verantwoordelijk zijn voor deze dramatische achteruitgang in biodiversiteit. Intensivering van de landbouw heeft een groot aantal verschillende aspecten, zoals het verlies van landschapelementen, de vergroting van akkers en een toegenomen gebruik van meststoffen en pesticiden. Er is maar weinig bekend over de afzonderlijke bijdrage van elk van deze variabelen aan de grootschalige negatieve effecten op de biodiversiteit. In een studie in acht Europese landen vonden wij dat van dertien gemeten componenten van intensivering, fungiciden en insecticiden de meest consistente negatieve effecten hadden. De negatieve effecten van pesticiden op de biodiversiteit spelen nog steeds een doorslaggevende rol, ondanks het feit dat er in Europa al tientallen jaren een beleid gevoerd wordt dat gericht is op een aanzienlijke reductie van de toepassing van bestrijdingsmiddelen op landbouwgrond.
Trends van zeldzame plantensoorten voorspeld
Knegt, B. de; Greft-van Rossum, J.G.M. van der; Hennekens, S.M. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 341) - 32
plantengemeenschappen - flora - soortendiversiteit - voorspellen - meetnetten - modellen - databanken - natura 2000 - zuid-holland - plant communities - species diversity - forecasting - monitoring networks - models - databases
Dit werkdocument beschrijft een nieuw ontwikkelde methode om aan de hand van vegetatiekundige karakteristieken van vegetatieopnamen de frequentie van zeldzame plantensoorten te voorspellen. De trefkans van zeldzame plantensoorten, zoals doelsoorten, Rode Lijstsoorten of typische Natura 2000-soorten, is laag in het Landelijk Meetnet Flora (LMF). Daardoor is het niet mogelijk om direct vanuit de waarnemingen statistisch betrouwbare trends te bepalen. Het blijkt echter mogelijk om de trefkans van zeldzame soorten bij te schatten aan de hand van het door het computerprogramma ASSOCIA bepaalde vegetatietype en de incompleetheid van de vegetatieopname. Deze nieuwe bijschattingsmethode maakt het mogelijk om jaarlijkse trends van zeldzame plantensoorten te berekenen. Tevens kan de significantie van de trend worden berekend. De methode is geoperationaliseerd en als module ingebouwd in het informatiesysteem SynBioSys. De uitkomsten van de voorspelde frequenties van individuele plantensoorten is gevalideerd op het landelijke niveau per natuurtype voor de soortselectie van planten van de Natuurwaarde 2.0 en voor plantensoorten in de provincie Zuid-Holland. Er blijkt een hoge correlatie te zijn tussen de voorspelde kans op voorkomen en het daadwerkelijk aantreffen van zeldzame soorten
Linking land-use intensification, plant communities, and ecosystem processes in lowland Bolivia
Carreno Rocabado, I.G. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers, co-promotor(en): Lourens Poorter; Marielos Pena Claros. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735331 - 163
landgebruik - intensivering - plantengemeenschappen - ecosystemen - laaglandgebieden - biodiversiteit - tropen - soortendiversiteit - strooisel - decompositie - ecologie - bolivia - land use - intensification - plant communities - ecosystems - lowland areas - biodiversity - tropics - species diversity - litter (plant) - decomposition - ecology

Land-use intensification (LUI) is one of the main global drivers of biodiversity loss with negative impact on ecosystem processes and the services that societies derive from the ecosystems. The effect of LUI on ecosystem processes can be direct through changes in environmental conditions and indirect through changes in plant community. In this dissertation I explored the mechanisms through which land-use intensification affects plant community assembly and ecosystem processes in the Bolivian lowland tropics. Specifically I evaluated: 1) how plant communities respond to LUI via plant response traits, 2) the effects of plant communities on decomposition via their effect traits, and 3) the relative importance of direct and indirect pathways in explaining LUI effects on ecosystem processes.

I used two gradients of LUI, a long gradient, including five common and contrasting land use types (mature forest, logged forest, secondary forest, agricultural land, and pastureland), and a short gradient of disturbance intensity represented by four experimental treatments in managed forest (unlogged forest, and forest subject to one of three levels of logging intensity and application of silvicultural treatments). Plant community response and effect were evaluated based on species diversity and functional properties. I measured for the most dominant species 12 functional traits and 14 litter traits.

Both gradients of LUI affected functional properties of the plant communities. An increase in LUI shifted plant communities from species characterized by slow growth and slow returns on resource investment (conservative species), toward species characterized by fast growth and fast returns on resources investment (acquisitive species). However, communities with an intermediate position along the LUI gradient (i.e., secondary forests) showed dominance of conservative species mainly due to land use management (abundance of palm species due to frequent burning). Along the short gradient of LUI demographic processes mediated the changes plant communities. With and increase in disturbance caused by logging and silvicultural treatments, there was an increased recruitment of individuals with more acquisitive trait values. Moreover, the response of functional diversity differed between both LUI gradients. Whereas functional diversity decreased along the long LUI gradient, it did not change along the short LUI gradient. Communities with an intermediate position along the long LUI gradient showed higher functional diversity than communities at the extremes of the gradient. Whereas both environmental and management filters drove changes in plant communities along a long LUI gradient, changes along a short LUI gradient were mainly driven by environmental filters.

LUI affected litter decomposition through changes in environmental conditions and through changes in plant communities. With an increase in LUI decompositionpotential (measured as mass loss of standard litter incubated in all land use types) decreased. Since soil properties only weakly affected decomposition, other factors were probably the main drivers of the direct effects of LUI on decomposition potential. With increasing LUI the litter decomposability increased due to changes in litter quality produced by plant communities; litter from mature- and logged forest had low decomposability, litter from secondary forest had an intermediate decomposability, and litter from agricultural land and pastureland had high decomposability. Functional traits, such as leaf N concentration, specific leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content, were good and positive predictors of decomposition rate. Although experimentally litter quality explained more variation in decomposition rate across the long LUI gradient (48%) than environmental site characteristics (17%), the actual decomposition rate (in-situ decomposition of litter community into its own land use type) was site-dependent, and determined by both drivers that partlycompensated each other. Thus, litter with high decomposability (litter from pastureland) incubated in the land use type with low decomposition potential (pastureland plot) had generally a similar decomposition rate as litter with low decomposability (litter from mature forest) incubated in the land use type with high decomposition potential (mature forest plot).

Tropical ecosystems are not only very diverse in species, they are also diverse in their responses to human disturbance. I concluded that LUI has important effects on plant community properties and ecosystem processes. These effects, however, contrast with some predictions of current ecological theory. High intensification of land use does not necessarily lead to low plant functional diversity, and less favourable environmental conditions for decomposition do not necessarily lead to low decomposition rates. Instead, the multiple factors related with management decisions at local scales cause a large heterogeneity of ecosystem responses. Consequently, depending on the management decisions taken, the negative effect of LUI could be mitigated.

Wegwijs in de natuur : achtergronden, illustraties en toepassingen van het informatiesysteem SynBioSys
Bongers, M.G.H. ; Graaf, M.C.C. de; Hennekens, S.M. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Loon, H.A.M.M. van; Ozinga, W.A. ; Rooijen, N.M. van; Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2013
[Wageningen] : Alterra [etc.] - 110
vegetatietypen - plantengemeenschappen - databanken - hoger onderwijs - toepassing - vegetation types - plant communities - databases - higher education - application
De afgelopen twee jaar is door HBO en MBO onderwijs, in samenwerking met Alterra en werkveld, gewerkt aan het zodanig invullen van SynBioSys dat het bruikbaar is zowel binnen het werkveld als het onderwijs. Als laatste product van het project is tot stand gekomen: Wegwijs in de Natuur: achtergronden, illustratie en toepassingen van het Informatiesysteem SynBioSys.
The Role of Propagule Banks from Drainage Ditches Dominated by Free-Floating or Submerged Plants in Vegetation Restoration
Zuidam, J.P. van; Raaphorst, E.P. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. - \ 2012
Restoration Ecology 20 (2012)3. - ISSN 1061-2971 - p. 416 - 425.
sloten - waterplanten - zoetwaterecologie - plantengemeenschappen - ecologisch herstel - ditches - aquatic plants - freshwater ecology - plant communities - ecological restoration - seed bank - biodiversity - communities - sediments - constraints - macrophytes - germination - emergence - runoff - meadow
Dominance by free-floating plants results in a loss of plant species in many waters. An important source for re-establishment of non-floating aquatic plants can be the propagule bank. This study focuses on whether the propagule bank of free-floating plantdominated ditch sediments can serve as potential source for recovery of a diverse plant community. The first objective was to determine differences in propagule germination from sediments of ditches in the Netherlands that differ in vegetation composition through a seedling-emergence experiment. The second objective was to analyze the effect of sediment disturbance on the number of germinating propagules. The results show that, compared to sediments from ditches with submerged vegetation, sediments from free-floating plantdominated ditches produced significantly lower numbers of individuals and species of submerged and emergent plants, while numbers of individuals and species of free-floating plants were higher. These results suggest that sediments from free-floating plantdominated ditches have lower potential to recover a diverse plant community probably resulting from positive feedback mechanisms caused by the vegetation present, maintaining the free-floating plantdominated state. Sediment disturbance strongly favors the germination of free-floating plant propagules, especially from free-floating plantdominated ditch sediments. Ditch maintenance activities such as mowing and dredging will therefore likely favor persistence of the free-floating plantdominated state. To shift from dominance by free-floating plants to a more diverse plant community, alternative maintenance methods should be considered that cause less sediment disturbance together with measures that promote colonization such as temporary drawdown or re-introduction of species.
Plantengemeenschappen met Harlekijn (Anacamptis morio) in Nederland: verleden, heden, toekomst
Goethem, T.W. van; Rooijen, N.M. van; Bruin, C. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2012
Stratiotes 43 (2012). - ISSN 0928-2297 - p. 7 - 21.
orchis morio - vegetatietypen - plantengemeenschappen - vegetation types - plant communities
In dit artikel wordt getracht meer duidelijkheid te verschaffen over de huidige plantensociologische positie van Anacamptis morio in Nederland. Naast een analyse van vegetatieopnamen (voornamelijk afkomstig uit de Landelijke Vegetatie Databank) zijn ook bodemanalyses uitgevoerd. De auteurs gaan in op mogelijk oorzaken voor de geconstateerde verschillen en terugloop in het voorkomen van de Harlekijn in Nederland en schetsen een beeld van de vooruitzichten voor de Harlekijn en het Rhinantho-Orchietum morionis in Nederland.
De ecologie van stroomdalgrasland; in het bijzonder de invloed van zandafzetting. Resultaten eerste onderzoeksfase
Rotthier, S.L.F. ; Sykora, K.V. - \ 2012
Den Haag : Bosschap, Directie Kennis en Innovatie, Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie
plantengemeenschappen - bodem-plant relaties - graslanden - habitats - stroomdalen - geomorfologie - rivierengebied - plant communities - soil plant relationships - grasslands - stream valleys - geomorphology
Droog stroomdalgrasland (oeverwal of rivierduingrasland) is zeer kenmerkend voor het rivierengebied. Oppervlak en kwaliteit zijn echter sterk achteruitgegaan. Droge stroomdalgraslanden kwamen vóór 1960 vrijwel overal langs de grote rivieren voor en zijn daarna uit 83-84% van de kilometerhokken verdwenen. Voor instandhouding van deze waardevolle graslanden is een goed begrip nodig van de standplaatsomstandigheden. Daarom is de ecologische amplitude van de verschillende stroomdal grasland gemeenschappen onderzocht.
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