Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Protein Oxidation in Plant Protein-Based Fibrous Products : Effects of Encapsulated Iron and Process Conditions
Estrada, Patrícia Duque ; Berton-Carabin, Claire C. ; Schlangen, Miek ; Haagsma, Anniek ; Pierucci, Anna Paola T.R. ; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2018
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 66 (2018)42. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 11105 - 11112.
encapsulation - fibrous structures - iron - plant protein - protein oxidation

Plant protein-based fibrous structures have recently attracted attention because of their potential as meat replacer formulations. It is, however, unclear how the process conditions and fortification with micronutrients may affect the chemical stability of such products. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of process conditions and the incorporation of iron (free and encapsulated) on protein oxidation in a soy protein-based fibrous product. First, the physicochemical stability of iron-loaded pea protein particles, used as encapsulation systems, was investigated when exposed to 100 or 140 °C. Second, protein oxidation was measured in the iron-fortified soy protein-based fibrous structures made at 100 or 140 °C. Exposure to high temperatures increased the carbonyl content in pea protein particles. The incorporation of iron (free or encapsulated) did not affect carbonyl content in the fibrous product, but the process conditions for making such products induced the formation of carbonyls to a fairly high extent.

Kansrijke eiwitgewassen : eindrapportage veldproeven 2016
Prins, U. ; Timmer, R.D. - \ 2017
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 10 p.
eiwitproducten - eiwitrijke voedingsmiddelen - veldproeven - lupinen - peulvruchten - glycine (fabaceae) - tuinbonen - rassen (planten) - eiwitgehalte - plantaardig eiwit - protein products - protein foods - field tests - lupins - grain legumes - faba beans - varieties - protein content - plant protein
Kansrijke eiwitgewassen is een project dat in 2016 tot stand is gekomen vanuit de Brancheorganisatie Akkerbouw rond de teelt van peulvruchten voor menselijke consumptie. In dit project wordt aansluiting gezocht bij het reeds lopende project vanuit de Europese Unie, Protein-2-Food dat zich naast de teelt ook richt op de verwerking en vermarkting van nieuwe consumentenproducten op basis van plantaardige eiwitten. In deze eindrapportage wordt verslag gedaan van de uitkomsten van de teeltproeven in 2016. In deze veldproeven is gekeken naar blauwe en witte lupine, veldbonen en soja. De proeven lagen op twee locaties: Klazienaveen (Veenkoloniën) op dalgrond en WPR-Lelystad (Flevopolder) op jonge zeeklei. Vanwege het hoge kalkgehalte van het proefveld in Lelystad zijn hier geen blauwe lupines uitgezaaid. Uitvoering van de proeven werd in Lelystad verzorgd door WPR en in Klazienaveen door het LBI.
Dietary protein, blood pressure and mortality : the value of repeated measurements
Tielemans, S.M.A.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marianne Geleijnse; Daan Kromhout, co-promotor(en): Hendriek Boshuizen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577916 - 169 p.
cardiovascular diseases - blood pressure - dietary protein - mortality - cardiovascular disorders - hypertension - urea - meta-analysis - antihypertensive agents - plant protein - animal protein - hart- en vaatziekten - bloeddruk - voedingseiwit - mortaliteit - hart- en vaatstoornissen - hypertensie - ureum - meta-analyse - antihypertensiva - plantaardig eiwit - dierlijk eiwit

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death worldwide. In 2012, about 17.5 million people died from CVD, accounting for 30% of all deaths. High blood pressure (BP) is a major cardiovascular risk factor, which was responsible for 10.4 million deaths in 2013. Diet and lifestyle play an important role in the etiology of hypertension. Maintenance of a desirable body weight, physical activity, and low intake of alcohol and salt are well-known measures to avoid high BP. Whether dietary protein, or more specifically plant and animal protein, could contribute to maintaining a healthy BP is less clear. The association between BP and CVD mortality has been extensively investigated. BP in prospective studies can be analyzed using different approaches, such as single BP (measured at one moment in time), single BP adjusted for regression dilution, average BP, and trajectories of BP. It is not yet clear which of these approaches is to be preferred for CVD risk prediction.

This thesis is centered on BP as a major cardiovascular risk factor. In the first part (Chapter 2, 3 and 4), the relation of dietary protein intake with BP level and change was examined. In the second part (Chapter 5 and 6), various approaches for analyzing repeated BP measurements were compared in relation to CVD and all‑cause mortality risk. The final chapter discusses the main findings and their implications.

Chapter 2 describes the association of 24-h urinary urea excretion, as a biomarker of total protein intake, with 9-year incidence of hypertension. We analyzed data of ~4000 men and women aged 28–75 years, who participated in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease (PREVEND) study, a prospective cohort study. BP was measured four times during 1997–2009 and participants were followed for hypertension incidence, defined as BP ≥140/90mmHg or use of antihypertensive medication. Urea excretion was assessed in two consecutive 24-h urine collections at baseline and approximately 4 years later, from which total protein intake was estimated. Protein intake based on 24-h urinary urea excretion was not associated with incident hypertension.

Chapter 3 presents findings for long-term total, animal and plant protein intake in relation to 5‑year BP change. Analyses were based on 702 observations of 272 men who participated in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Participants did not use antihypertensive medication and were initially free of CVD. Physical and dietary examinations were performed in 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000. BP was measured twice at each examination and protein intake was assessed using the cross-check dietary history method. The upper tertiles of plant protein intake were associated with a mean 5‑year change in systolic BP of ‑2.9 mmHg (95% CI: ‑5.6, ‑0.2), compared with the bottom tertile. Total and animal protein intake was not associated with BP.

Chapter 4 describes a meta‑analysis of 12 observational studies and 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary protein, including animal and plant protein, in relation to BP. Protein intake in prospective cohort studies was not associated with incident hypertension. For RCTs that used carbohydrate as a control treatment, the pooled BP effect was ‑2.1 mmHg systolic (95% CI: ‑2.9, ‑1.4) for a weighted mean contrast in protein intake of 41 grams per day. There was no differential effect of animal and plant protein on BP.

Chapter 5 describes repeated BP measures and their association with CVD and all‑cause mortality and life years lost in two prospective and nearly extinct cohorts of middle-aged men, the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study (n=261) and the Zutphen Study (n=632). BP was measured annually during 1947–1957 in Minnesota and 1960–1970 in Zutphen. After 10 years of BP measurements, men were followed until death on average 20 years later. Each 25-mmHg increase in average SBP was associated with a 49% to 72% greater CVD mortality risk, 34% to 46% greater all-cause mortality risk and 3 to 4 life years lost. Four systolic BP trajectories were identified, in which mean systolic BP increased by 5 to 49 mmHg in Minnesota and 5 to 20 mmHg in Zutphen between age 50 and 60. In Zutphen, a 2-times greater CVD and all-cause mortality risk and 4 life years lost were observed when comparing trajectories. In Minnesota, associations were twice as strong. BP trajectories were the strongest predictors of CVD mortality and life years lost in Minnesota men, whereas in Zutphen men, the average BP was superior to other measures.

Chapter 6 presents findings for average BP and BP trajectories in relation to CVD and all-cause mortality, taking into account antihypertensive medication. A total of 762 participants aged ≥50 years of the Rancho Bernardo Study were examined five times from 1984 to 2002 and monitored for cause‑specific mortality from 2002 to 2013. Each 20‑mmHg increment in average systolic BP was associated with 35% greater CVD mortality and 25% greater all-cause mortality risk. We identified four trajectories for systolic BP for which BP increases ranged from 5 to 12 mmHg between age 60 and 70. In individuals who belonged to the higher trajectories, 2‑3 times greater CVD mortality and 1.5-times greater all-cause mortality risks were observed, compared to those who belonged to the lowest trajectory. Long-term systolic BP trajectories and average systolic BP were both significant predictors of CVD and all-cause mortality. The associations were not modified by antihypertensive medication.

As described in Chapter 7, various approaches were used to study the relation between protein intake and BP. Findings from individual studies and a meta-analysis suggest that dietary protein per se does not affect BP within the range of intake generally consumed in the Netherlands. Replacing carbohydrates by protein, however, has a beneficial effect on BP.

Moreover, this thesis showed that BP trajectories are not superior to average BP in predicting CVD and all-cause mortality. A few repeated BP measurements, e.g. three or four, are likely to be sufficient for obtaining a reliable average BP and had a similar predictive value for mortality compared to BP trajectories. Therefore, average BP can be considered the most practical tool for estimating mortality risk.

Biorefinery of leafy biomass using green tea residue as a model material
Zhang, C. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Sanders, co-promotor(en): Marieke Bruins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576902 - 156 p.
biorefinery - biomass conversion - leaves - biomass - green tea - tea - alkaline pulping - pectins - lignocellulose - environmental impact - processes - plant protein - food - biobased economy - bioraffinage - biomassaconversie - bladeren - biomassa - groene thee - thee - alkalische pulpbereiding - pectinen - milieueffect - processen - plantaardig eiwit - voedsel


With the rapidly growing world population and improving living standards, food demand is increased with a simultaneous desire for less human impact on the environment, such that “Twice the food production at half the ecological footprint” could be the EU goal for 2050. In fact, a boost in food demand is mainly required in developing countries, where the farmlands are limited and/or they are of poor quality. Rather than improving crop-production yield, developing biorefinery technology with unused biomass, such as leaves, in developing countries may be the key to fulfil the food demand.

Four major components, protein, pectin, lignin, and (hemi-) cellulose, account for more than 70% of the materials in leaves in almost all species. Among these components, protein and pectin can be used in food and animal feed, and they are key components for supplementing food production. However, the production and application of leaf products is limited for four reasons: unstable raw materials, complex components, rigid plant cell walls, and underdeveloped leaf logistics and economics. The limitations cause low pectin and protein yields, and low cost-efficiency in current extraction technologies, including mechanical milling, chemical extraction (acid and alkaline), solvent extraction, and ammonia protein extraction. Development of an integrated process for multiple products might be a good option for leaf biorefinery, but the compatibilities of these processes were unknown.

The aim of this study was to develop new processes and applications that optimally utilize all components, particularly protein, of leafy biomass in the feed and/or food industry using green tea residues as a starting material. The method should also be applicable to other leafy biomass. The research started from the development of alkaline protein extraction technology as presented in Chapter 2. We found that in alkaline protein extraction, temperature, NaOH amount, and extraction time are the parameters determining protein yield, while pH and volume of extraction liquid are critical parameters for production cost. After optimization, more than 90% of leaf protein could be extracted at a cost of 102€/ton protein by single step alkaline extraction. The extracted protein nutritional value was comparable to soybean meal and this technique can be adapted to various leafy biomass. Main drawback of this technique is the overuse of alkali, generation of salts, and the destruction of key amino acids, such as lysine, during the extraction. We tried to overcome its drawbacks by developing integrated process with a recycle for chemicals.

Chapter 3, 4, 5, and 6 refer to the integrated biorefinery. For a better design, we investigated how the alkali aided protein extraction (Chapter 3), and proved that alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, polyphenols, and organic acids can be extracted before protein. Protein extraction can then be followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin yield were both linearly correlated to protein yield, which indicated that they are likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. Based on the above findings, an integrated biorefinery that combined protein extraction with a pre-treatment was proposed. In Chapter 4, ethanol, viscozyme, and H2O2 were selected for pre-treatments targeting on the removal of polyphenols and pigments, carbohydrates, and lignin accordingly. Ethanol and viscozyme could extract their targeting components efficiently while H2O2 could bleach GTR with no lignin extracted. The best pre-treatment was the combination of viscozyme and 50% ethanol extraction, which not only reduced the use of alkali by 50%, but also improved protein content and its nutritional value. As pectin can be applied for food or chemicals, enzyme and PBS buffer were investigated for pectin extraction (Chapter 5). Both enzyme and PBS buffer extraction could not only extract high yield HG pectin (predominated by galacturonic acid) with no protein extraction, but also reduced alkali usage in subsequent protein extraction. Pectin obtained using PBS buffer could be present in its native form, which can be precipitated by 40% ethanol. Buffer is suggested to extract pectins when pectins are to be used in food. Otherwise, hydrolyzed pectin that mainly contains galacturonic acid, can be converted to other useful chemicals. For this the enzymatic methods, such as using Viscozyme® L, are recommended.

Alkali usage was further optimized. It was found that by using potassium hydroxide, the protein extraction efficiency was similar to that using sodium hydroxide. The waste water, mainly containing potassium salts, can then be used as fertilizer. This technique is highly depending on the location of factories, which should be built close to the field. Alternatively, calcium hydroxide can be used. As calcium salts can be precipitated by CO2 and calcium hydroxide can be regenerated through burning of the precipitate, this scheme is sustainable and adaptable to most situations. However, as calcium also precipitated pectin, ployphenols, and even proteins, the protein yield is relatively low. Although a pre-treatment can improve extraction efficiency of calcium hydroxide, economic results suggested that a pre-treatment is not necessary unless the products obtained by pre-treatment have an attractive market value.

In Chapter 7, we extend our knowledge on leaf biorefinery with some additional experiments and literature. Simplified models of leaf tissues and cell walls were proposed and used to explain the mechanism of alkaline protein extraction. The models were also used to explain other mechanisms for protein extraction; mechanical milling, steam explosion, acid, and enzyme aided extraction. The possible improvements of leaf biorefinery economics were illustrated either by reducing production cost, by e.g. using counter current extraction or ultrafiltration, or by upgrading product value by applying protein and pectin in food. The processes recommended in this thesis show an excellent prospective, in which they are applicable to other leaf biomass and suitable for small-scale production.

Nieuwe eiwitbronnen. Handleiding voor Novel Food dossiers
Spiegel, M. van der; Noordam, M.Y. ; Sluis, A.A. van der - \ 2014
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie (2014)11. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 27 - 28.
eiwitbronnen - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - nieuwe eiwitten - eu regelingen - voedselveiligheid - plantaardig eiwit - protein sources - novel foods - novel proteins - eu regulations - food safety - plant protein
Wageningse onderzoekers hebben een handleiding ontwikkeld voor het samenstellen van een Novel Food dossier voor producenten van nieuwe eiwitten (zoals algen, bietenblad, eendenkroos en insecten). De handleiding geeft inzicht in de eisen die aan een dossier worden gesteld, en ondersteunt hiermee bedrijven die innovatieve eiwitproducten op de markt willen brengen.
Plants as a production platform for high-value proteins
Westerhof, L.B. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jaap Bakker, co-promotor(en): Arjen Schots. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571464 - 191
plantensamenstelling - planten - planteiwitten - plantaardig eiwit - genen - genregulatie - plant composition - plants - plant proteins - plant protein - genes - gene regulation


Current treatments of inflammatory disorders are often based on therapeutic proteins. These proteins, so-called biopharmaceuticals, are isolated from a natural resource or, more often, made using cell based fermentation systems. The most common production platforms are based on the bacterium Escherichia coli, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or mammalian cell lines (mainly Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) and murine myeloma (SP2/0) cells). Each platform has advantages and disadvantages and the protein to be produced largely dictates the choice of platform. Plants could provide a unique alternative production platform, as they combine the advantage of E. coli being economic with the advantages of mammalian cell lines being able to fold complex proteins, assemble heteromultimeric protein complex and, upon glyco-engineering, provide proteins with human type N-glycans. Furthermore, plant production is easily scaled up as the infrastructure is already in place due to our need for food and feed and plants have a limited risk of contamination with human pathogens. Transient transformation of N. benthamiana is a valuable plant production platform, as it is unmatched in terms of speed (matter of weeks).

This thesis describes the production of a variety of proteins and protein complexes in planta that are or may be used as biopharmaceuticals. Since 1982, plants can be genetically manipulated, which has lead to the production of many proteins in a variety of plants. Initially, the plants greatest drawback was limited protein yield. However, significant increases in yield have been achieved in the last two decades, predominantly by increasing transformation efficiency and/or level of transcription. Nowadays several plant expression systems exist that facilitate high protein production levels. Most experience is based on the production of antibodies, mainly of the IgG isotype, as these are often used as biopharmaceuticals. In general, IgG antibodies are produced on a scale of several grams per kilogram fresh weight. However, production levels of antibodies have shown to be variable and production levels of particular proteins, such as cytokines, have lagged behind. Cytokines form a large group of immune-signalling molecules and several cytokines have promising therapeutic potential. Their short in vivo half-life suggests an inherent instability, which is regarded the major production bottleneck.

In chapter 2 we describe the production of interleukin (IL)-10, a cytokine with immunosuppressive properties. We show that in contrast to mouse IL-10, human IL-10 multimerises extensively in planta. Both human and mouse IL-10 form homodimeric protein complexes through a mechanism referred to as 3D domain swapping. Only for human IL-10 3D domain swapping results in extensive multimerisation. By fusing IL-10 to green fluorescent protein (GFP) multimerisation was visualised, demonstrating that human IL-10 forms granules of organelle size. We discovered that for mouse IL-10 granule formation was prevented by N-glycosylation of the N-terminus. Introduction of this N-glycosylation site in human IL-10 partly prevented granule formation. The insertion of a glycine-serine linker between alpha helices D and E of human IL-10, allowing IL-10 to swap its own domains and form a stable monomer. This prevented granule formation completely and boosted protein yield 30-fold. However, the now comparable yields of human and mouse IL-10 were still low when compared to for instance IgG.

In the next two chapters we shifted the focus to the production of antibodies. Thus far the IgA isotype received little attention as candidate biopharmaceutical. However, the unique features of IgA, such as the ability to recruit neutrophils and suppress the inflammatory responses mediated by IgG and IgE, make it a promising antibody isotype for several therapeutic applications. Therefore, we compared the plant-based expression of IgA to IgG (Chapter 3). The variable regions of three antibodies commonly used in the clinic to treat inflammatory disorders (Infliximab, Adalimumab and Ustekinumab) were grafted on either an IgG1κ or IgA1κ backbone. Surprisingly, we achieved comparable high expression levels for all antibodies. The large variation in antibody yield found in literature is therefore likely due to differences in expression systems and experimental conditions, but not to the antibody idiotype used.

Evaluation of the secretion efficiency and N-glycosylation profiles revealed compelling differences between IgG and IgA antibodies when expressed in planta. Compared to IgG, IgA was poorly secreted. Poor secretion is most likely due to vacuolar targeting of IgA, as it was previously demonstrated that murine IgA contained a cryptic vacuolar targeting signal in the tailpiece. IgA also carried different N-glycans compared to IgG, which were never found to be a main fraction of a plant-produced protein. The predominant N-glycan on IgA lacked both the typical plant core α1,3-fucose and one terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). The core α1,3-fucose is most likely not added due to low accessibility of the core of the N-glycans. The lack of one GlcNAc may be due to inefficient addition of this sugar residue or (partial) β-hexosaminidase activity that may occur in both the vacuole and the apoplast. Whether the vacuolar targeting plays a role in the lack of the GlcNAc and what protein intrinsic properties influence partial GlcNAc addition or removal is unclear. We also showed that the N-glycosylation site in the IgA tailpiece does not always receive a N-glycan, which may be significant for secretory IgA formation as described in chapter 4.

In chapter 4 we describe the expression of this large heteromultimeric protein complex. Secretory IgA consists of two IgA complexes that are connected via the joining chain and associate with a part of the polymeric-Ig-receptor (called the secretory component). The challenge for sIgA expression is that assembly of four polypeptides (the alpha heavy chain, the light chain, the joining chain and the secretory component) in a 4:4:1:1 ratio is required. Previous studies on stable and transient expression of sIgA demonstrated that sIgA formation in plants is possible. However, sIgA was always accompanied by a large proportion of monomeric IgA as well as other assembly intermediates. The presence of assembly intermediates may be caused be unequal expression and/or stability of the individual components. However, we demonstrated that not the expression strategy, but protein complex assembly through impaired incorporation of the joining chain was the limiting step for sIgA production. Because joining chain incorporation depends on N-glycosylation of the IgA tailpiece we hypothesise that the partial N-glycosylation of the IgA tailpiece is the cause of inefficient joining chain incorporation. The efficiency of N-glycosylation may be improved by mutation of the glycosylation site N-X-S to an N-X-T site, as the latter glycosylation motif was shown to be more often occupied in a large-scale glycosylation site analysis.

Successful engineering of the plant glycosylation pathway to provide biopharmaceuticals with human N-glycan types has been achieved. Glyco-engineering also provides the opportunity to generate potentially interesting N-glycan types with regard to immunogenicity for vaccination purposes or protein trafficking for in vivo targeting of biopharmaceuticals. In chapter 5 we describe the expression of the Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen omega-1, an immunomodulatory protein with therapeutic potential. Its biological activity depends on its RNAse activity and its N-glycans that enable internalisation by human dendritic cells. Omega-1 cannot be isolated from natural resources in sufficient quantities to study its in vivo biology i.e. which N-glycan types facilitate full activity of omega-1. Therefore, we set up the plant-based production of this protein. S. mansoni-derived omega-1 predominantly carries diantennary N-glycans with a Lewis X motif on one or both antennae. Lewis X consists of a β1,4-linked galactose and α1,3-linked fucose residue attached to a terminal GlcNAc. This attachment is performed by β1,4-galactosyltransferase and α1,3-fucosyltransferase IXa that naturally do not occur in plants. Co-expression of these two glycosyltransferases with omega-1 resulted in a N-glycan profile comparable to S. mansoni-derived omega-1. However, it was necessary to control the expression of the β1,4-galactosyltransferase to contain this enzyme in the trans-Golgi compartment. Overexpression most likely leads to overflow of β1,4-galactosyltransferase to the medial-Golgi and galactosylation at this stage disturbs the activity of other glycosyltransferases resulting in hybrid N-glycan types.

We also observed that more than 90% of omega-1 was secreted to the apoplast, which facilitated efficient purification. This demonstrated that plants, as previously suggested, are not poor protein secretors. However, the underlying protein properties controlling secretion efficiency are currently unknown. Both omega-1 and IgG are very efficiently secreted under natural circumstances. Yet, despite the fact that we used the same signal peptide to facilitate secretion of IgG and omega-1, IgG was only secreted from plant cells to a maximum of 28%. More knowledge on protein secretion efficiency in plants may overcome cumbersome purification, currently the greatest bottleneck in the downstream processing of plant produced proteins.

Finally in chapter 6, we shifted focus from the expression of a particular protein to the effect of codon use on protein yield. We designed a codon optimisation strategy that, unlike other strategies, turned out to be surprisingly robust. This strategy is based on a general codon bias found in plants. Because this codon bias could be found among plant species, including monocots and dicots, and resulted in an increase in mRNA stability and translatability, we suspected that this codon bias arises from a selection pressure on the mRNA structure. We extended this general codon bias to representative species of other kingdoms of life and demonstrate that there is a selection pressure increasing mRNA stability and translatability (more protein per mRNA molecule). Stability was the result of an increase in the number of nucleotide bonds. However, there is a trade off between mRNA stability and translatability, and the nucleotide bonds in an mRNA should be well balanced over the entire molecule, making it ‘airy’, to ensure efficient translation.

Altogether we conclude that transformation efficiency and level of transcription are no longer limiting factors for protein yield upon plant-based expression. However, an increase in translation initiation and translation rate dictated by codon use may still provide an increase in protein production. Furthermore, we show that many proteins demonstrated specific production bottlenecks. The yield of human IL-10 was hampered by its extensive multimerisation, sIgA assembly is most likely limited by inefficient N-glycosylation of the tailpiece of IgA, both IgG and IgA are inefficiently secreted compared to omega-1 and IgA displayed an aberrant N-glycosylation profile. Therefore, more knowledge on how protein intrinsic properties influence protein yield and/or quality of heterologous produced proteins in plants should now be generated. Transient expression in N. benthamiana is an ideal tool to study these protein intrinsic properties that limit protein yield in heterologous expression.

Voedselveiligheid van nieuwe eiwitten
Spiegel, M. van der; Noordam, M.Y. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2013
Voeding Nu 3/4 (2013). - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 14 - 15.
vleesvervangers - voedselveiligheid - eiwitbronnen - nieuwe eiwitten - plantaardig eiwit - voedselproductie - meat alternates - food safety - protein sources - novel proteins - plant protein - food production
De consumptie van dierlijke eiwitten is sterk toegenomen door een stijgende wereldbevolking en opgekomen economieën als China en India. Dit heeft grote gevolgen voor de voedselvoorziening en het milieu. Om land- en energieverbruik terug te dringen moet een eiwittransitie plaatsvinden waarbij minder vlees wordt gegeten, en vlees wordt vervangen door alternatieve eiwitbronnen. Deze alternatieven moeten echter wel veilig zijn voor consumenten.
Biobased economy: de potentie van eiwitten voor technische toepassingen
Mulder, W.J. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Bruins, M.E. ; Scott, E.L. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1311) - 52
eiwitten - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - eiwitbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - plantaardig eiwit - sojaeiwit - melkeiwit - proteins - biobased chemistry - protein sources - resource utilization - natural resource economics - natural resources - plant protein - soya protein - milk protein
Eiwitten zijn, behalve essentiële bouwstoffen voor mens en dier, tevens bruikbaar voor toepassingen in bijvoorbeeld shampoos, bioplastics, coatings of lijmen. In deze studie is een inventarisatie gemaakt van zowel de huidige beschikbare eiwitbronnen als de bronnen waar in de toekomst veel van verwacht wordt. Mits er voldoende efficiënt met grondstoffen wordt omgesprongen, kunnen voor zowel food als non-food toepassingen wereldwijd voldoende eiwitten worden geproduceerd. Het is wel belangrijk dat de eiwitten die door bioraffinage uit grondstoffen worden gehaald, hun unieke eigenschappen behouden.
New Alternative Protein sources; their potential contribution
Krimpen, Marinus van - \ 2012
protein sources - novel proteins - plant protein - insects as food - leaf protein - animal nutrition
Optimaal sluiten van mineralenkringlopen : een mediterraan dieet met meer plantaardig eiwit
Cormont, A. ; Janssen, S.J.C. - \ 2012
plantaardig eiwit - eetpatronen - voedselconsumptie - scenario-analyse - berekening - dierlijke productie - consumptiepatronen - plant protein - eating patterns - food consumption - scenario analysis - calculation - animal production - consumption patterns
In opdracht van Milieudefensie is door Alterra uitgezocht in hoeverre het mogelijk is om in een regio in Europa een optimale balans te vinden voor de teelt van veevoer- en voedingsgewassen, het aantal productiedieren en voedings- en voederdiëten. In deze factsheet wordt de uitwerking van de balansen voor een rekenscenario beschreven waarbij de eiwitten in het humane consumptiepatroon voor 54% afkomstig zijn uit dierlijke producten – net zoveel als in het huidige consumptiepatroon van de inwoners van de Europese mediterrane landen.
Veldboon- Fithio Faba / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
tuinbonen - vicia faba - voedergewassen - voedselgewassen - eiwitbronnen - droge bonen - gewassen - akkerbouw - plantaardig eiwit - faba beans - fodder crops - food crops - protein sources - dry beans - crops - arable farming - plant protein
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas veldboon. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Gele Erwt- Pisum Sativum / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
erwten - pisum sativum - droge bonen - voedselgewassen - voedergewassen - eiwitbronnen - gewassen - akkerbouw - plantaardig eiwit - peas - dry beans - food crops - fodder crops - protein sources - crops - arable farming - plant protein
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas gele erwt. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Blauwe lupine- Lupinus Angustifolius / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
lupinus angustifolius - lupinen - voedselgewassen - voedergewassen - eiwitbronnen - gewassen - akkerbouw - plantaardig eiwit - humane voeding - lupins - food crops - fodder crops - protein sources - crops - arable farming - plant protein - human feeding
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas Blauwe lupine. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Soja- Glysine Max / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
glycine max - sojabonen - voedselgewassen - voedergrassen - olieleverende planten - eiwitbronnen - gewassen - akkerbouw - biobased economy - plantaardig eiwit - soyabeans - food crops - fodder grasses - oil plants - protein sources - crops - arable farming - plant protein
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas soja. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Amaranth : Amaranthus / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
amaranthus - voedergewassen - brandstofgewassen - gewassen - akkerbouw - biobased economy - voedselgewassen - plantaardig eiwit - fodder crops - fuel crops - crops - arable farming - food crops - plant protein
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas Amaranth. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Non-food applications of Jatropha protein
Lestari, D. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Sanders, co-promotor(en): E. Ratnaningsih. - [s.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731296 - 137
jatropha - plantaardig eiwit - non-food producten - voer - bioplastics - biobased economy - brandstofgewassen - plant protein - non-food products - feeds - fuel crops
The aim of this thesis is to explore how to gain more value per hectare Jatropha curcas by utilizing Jatropha protein for various applications. Specifically, this research investigated the extractability and functional properties of Jatropha protein for non-food/technical applications. Jatropha press cake and leaves are the potential sources of protein. Jatropha proteins can be extracted from Jatropha seed press cake or leaves, with or without detoxification to remove the toxic phorbol esters. After detoxification, Jatropha proteins are potential components for animal feed. While without detoxification, Jatropha protein applications will be limited to technical applications such as bioplastics, surfactants, adhesives, or coatings.
LEI-onderzoekers reageren op interview minister Verburg: niet hekelen, maar heilige overtuiging
Dagevos, H. ; Kernebeek, H.R.J. van; Bakker, E. de - \ 2010
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 43 (2010)5. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 24 - 24.
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselconsumptie - vlees - voedingsgewoonten - voedingsvoorkeuren - gedragsveranderingen - plantaardig eiwit - vleesvervangers - sustainability - food consumption - meat - feeding habits - feeding preferences - behavioural changes - plant protein - meat alternates
In de VMT 1/2 van 2010 stond een interview met Landbouwminister Gerda Verburg waarin zij de invloed van het eten van minder vlees op duurzaamheid bestempelt als symboolpolitiek. Een opmerkelijke uitspraak waarop door LEI-onderzoekers wordt gereageerd
Technologie en grondstoffen voor vleesvervangers en hoogwaardige eiwitten
Stegeman, D. ; Janssen, A.M. ; Helsper, J.P.F.G. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Kernebeek, H.R.J. van - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1179) - 61
vleesvervangers - plantaardig eiwit - planteiwitten - meat alternates - plant protein - plant proteins
In deze studie is een inventarisatie gemaakt van mogelijke grondstoffen en technologieën voor de productie van duurzame eiwitproducten voor humane voeding; eiwitproducten die ter vervanging van minder duurzame vleesproducten geconsumeerd kunnen worden. De studie is uitgevoerd in opdracht van het Ministerie van LNV, programma duurzame voedselsystemen.
Technologie voor vleesalternatief
Knol, J.J. - \ 2010
Kennis Online 7 (2010)sept. - p. 8 - 8.
vleesvervangers - plantaardig eiwit - planteiwitten - voedseltechnologie - peulvruchten - kunstvlees - nieuwe producten - innovaties - meat alternates - plant protein - plant proteins - food technology - grain legumes - meat analogues - new products - innovations
In Nederland is binnenkort een nieuwe generatie vleesvervangers te verkrijgen. Dankzij de nieuwe technologie die het Wageningse Food and Biobased Research (FBR) samen met het innovatiebedrijf TOP ontwikkelde. Het nieuwe kunstvlees zal niet direct in ieders pan liggen, verwacht projectleider Jeroen Knol van FBR. Maar er valt niet aan te ontkomen.
Eendekroos nu ook voor de koe
Holshof, G. - \ 2008
V-focus 5 (2008)3. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 30 - 33.
rundveehouderij - rundveevoeding - krachtvoeding - lemna - lemnaceae - plantaardig eiwit - vervangmiddelen - waterplanten - cattle husbandry - cattle feeding - force feeding - plant protein - substitutes - aquatic plants
Eendenkroos is geschikt als eiwitgrondstof voor krachtvoer en is bij de productie van mengvoer goed uitwisselbaar met gangbare grondstoffen als soja. Voor de veehouderij zijn vanwege de hoge prijzen alternatieve eiwitbronnen welkom; daarbij staat het gebruik van soja maatschappelijk ter discussie. In een pilot is kroos verwerkt tot 3 verschillende krachtvoerproducten. Oogsten van Spakenburg en Stolwijk zijn bemonsterd op zware metalen en voederwaarden. De eerste resultaten wijzen op een perspectiefvolle nieuwe grondstof voor veevoeders
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