Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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A clash of plants : Vegetation succession and its interaction with permafrost dynamics in the Arctic lowland tundra
Li, Bingxi - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse, co-promotor(en): Monique Heijmans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436168 - 100
ecological succession - ecology - plant succession - vegetation - tundra - permafrost - lowland areas - arctic regions - siberia - ecologische successie - ecologie - plantensuccessie - vegetatie - toendra - laaglandgebieden - arctische gebieden - siberië

Arctic ecosystems have been affected by severe climate change during the last decades. The increase in temperature in the Arctic has been almost double of the global rate of warming since the beginning of the 20th century. Like other ecosystems in the high latitude region, Arctic tundra appears to be extremely sensitive to the continuous warming of the past decades, which has led to dramatic vegetation changes such as rapid shrub expansion. While researchers are keen to talk about the shrubification of the Arctic tundra, there has been rather little attention for alternative vegetation shifts, such as those related to local permafrost collapse in lowland tundra. The general vegetation succession route of the ice-rich lowland tundra ecosystem is yet largely unknown. Therefore, we choose a typical Arctic lowland site (Kytalyk natural reserve) in the Northeastern Siberia to explore how vegetation is changing in this ecosystem, and how changes in the abiotic environment and vegetation succession interact.

On the basis of field observations I assumed that the plant species composition of each vegetation patch at the study site changes continuously following cycles over time. To test this assumption, two multiple-year field experiments (Chapter 2 and Chapter 3) were carried out. In addition, we applied dendrochronological techniques (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5) and molecular tools (Chapter 4). On the basis of the results of these studies, I depicted a complete vegetation succession loop in the Arctic lowland tundra, which is closely related to the dynamics of the permafrost. In this vegetation succession loop, four stages with distinctive vegetation types have been identified.

The Betula nana L. shrubs mainly dominate the well-drained elevated areas. In a field experiment, removal of B. nana shrubs resulted in abrupt permafrost degradation, rapid soil moisture increase and invasion of the grass species Arctagrostis latifolia (R. Br.) Griseb. After a short time period, when small ponds or drainages had developed, this fast-responding grass species is replaced by Eriophorum sedges. In the subsequent stage the Sphagnum mosses invade the sedge vegetation. The new Sphagnum moss carpets not only suppress the growth of Eriophorum sedges, but also create moist but unsaturated substrates that appear to be appropriate for the germination of B. nana seeds. These conditions provide new opportunities for B. nana shrubs to establish.

The reproduction mode of B. nana at the study site has been studied using molecular tools (micro- satellites), as it may explain how existing B. nana patches developed and how shrub vegetation may expand in the future (Chapter 4). The conventional point of view is that sexual reproduction of perennial plants in the Arctic tundra, like B. nana, is rare due to the pressure of the harsh environment. However, the results of our molecular study (Chapter 4) tell a different story. While vegetative reproduction of B. nana is common, sexual reproduction of B. nana is more prevalent. Seed dispersal of B. nana between different patches at the study site is not hampered by the short between-patch distances, but vegetative reproduction of B. nana appeared to be restricted to 1-2 m distances from the parent plants.

The influences of the climate on B. nana shrubs were further investigated using the dendrochronological analyses (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5). The radial growth of B. nana is positively correlated with early summer temperature, while relatively high summer precipitation during the warm years also stimulates the growth of B. nana. Moreover, sufficient summer precipitation facilitates the establishment of B. nana seedlings. Since sexual reproduction is prevalent at the site, it is suggested that the present B. nana shrubs established simultaneously, during periods with suitable climate conditions.

Along with the vegetation succession cycles, permafrost underlying the vegetation experiences clear degradation-recovery cycles. We detected a close interaction between vegetation shifts and permafrost dynamics. While abrupt permafrost degradation drove a quick vegetation shift from the B. nana dominated stage to the water-logged Eriophorum sedge dominate stage, the changes of vegetation cover affect the stability of the permafrost as well. The removal of B. nana shrub cover triggered rapid permafrost degradation (Chapter 2), while the development of Sphagnum moss carpets, which have a high isolation capacity, reduced permafrost temperature, facilitating permafrost recovery (Chapter 3).

Vegetation composition in the Arctic tundra not only influences permafrost stability, but also affects the methane emission of the site. Eriophorum sedges are able to transport methane from deep soil to the air via their aerenchyma tissues, leading to high methane fluxes. In contrast, the Sphagnum mosses significantly suppress the methane emission, since endophytic CH4-oxidizing bacteria are widespread inside the aerobic unsaturated Sphagnum carpets (Chapter 3).

To sum up, our findings provide crucial information to better understand changes in the Arctic tundra ecosystem, helping to obtain better predictions of future vegetation shifts and the associated consequences for greenhouse gas emissions, permafrost stability and the heat balance of the Earth surface.

Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery
Lohbeck, M.W.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; M. Martínez-Ramos, co-promotor(en): Lourens Poorter. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571617 - 223
bosecologie - ecologie - tropische bossen - bossen - plantensuccessie - biodiversiteit - bosbedrijfsvoering - forest ecology - ecology - tropical forests - forests - plant succession - biodiversity - forest management

Electronic abstract of the thesis for the library for the acquisitions department of Wageningen UR library (published as a html file so hyperlinks may be included)

In English, one or 2 pages.

Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

Currently in the tropics, the area of secondary forest exceeds that of mature forest, and the importance of secondary forest will probably continue to increase in the future. Understanding secondary forests’ potential for maintaining biodiversity and critical ecosystem functions is thereby vital. The aim of this study was to mechanistically link tropical forest succession with the recovery of ecosystem functioning after agricultural field abandonment using a trait-based approach. Such an approach makes use of functional traits; components of an organism’s phenotype that are key to assess ecosystem responses to global change drivers, and are at the same time indicators of how organisms drive changes in ecosystem functioning. Trait-based approaches could therefore provide a mechanistic way to scale up from organisms to ecosystems and thereby contribute towards a more predictive biodiversity and ecosystem functioning science. For this study, I made use of secondary forest data from a wet forest region in Chiapas (main study site), that cover the first 3 decades of succession, complemented with data from a dry forest region in Oaxaca, that cover the first 6 decades of succession. Both are tropical regions in Mexico, characterized by high biodiversity levels and rapid forest loss for agricultural expansion.

In this study I found that functional diversity (the range of different functional traits) increases rapidly and functional composition (the weighted average functional trait value) changes directionally with succession (chapter 2 and 3). These reflect changing habitat filters (changing environmental gradients that underlie succession), and also a gradual shift from habitat filtering towards an increasing effect of competitively driven limiting trait similarity (chapter 4 and 5). Such successional changes in community functional properties suggest strong changes in ecosystem functions, however in situ ecosystem function rates were primarily explained by the total amount of biomass present rather than by biodiversity or functional trait properties of secondary forests (chapter 6). Only the more controlled ex situ decomposition rates were additionally significantly influenced by functional diversity and functional composition. When evaluating the identity of species that drive most of the ecosystem functions I found that different functions were largely driven by the same (dominant) species, implying a limited effect of biodiversity for multifunctionality at a given moment in time. This suggests that biodiversity is mainly important for maintaining multifunctional ecosystems across temporal and spatial scales (chapter 7).

Deforestation is a major threat to natural forests and biodiversity, and I recognize that secondary forests are generally a poor substitute of mature forest. Nevertheless, I show that unassisted recovery through natural succession can be rapid, and contribute considerably to maintenance of biodiversity, functional strategies and ecosystem functions. So while protecting the remaining tracts of mature forests is vital, secondary forests are key components of multifunctional human-modified landscapes where synergies between biodiversity, ecosystem functions and human wellbeing can be optimized.

Jacobaea through the eyes of spectroscopy : identifying plant interactions with the (a)biotic environment by chemical variation effects on spectral reflectance patterns
Almeida De Carvalho, S. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten; Andrew Skidmore, co-promotor(en): M. Macel; M. Schlerf. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737502 - 180
senecio jacobaea - senecio erucifolius - pyrrolizidinealkaloïden - voedingsstoffen - spectraalanalyse - spectroscopie - bodemmicrobiologie - metabolieten - chemische analyse - plantensuccessie - pyrrolizidine alkaloids - nutrients - spectral analysis - spectroscopy - soil microbiology - metabolites - chemical analysis - plant succession

Plants interact with a wide array of aboveground and belowground herbivores, pathogens, mutualists, and their natural enemies. These interactions are important drivers of spatio-temporal changes in vegetation, however, they may be difficult to be revealed without extensive sampling.In this thesis I investigated the potential of visible and near-infrared spectral measurements to detect plant chemical changes that may reflect interactions between plants and biotic or abiotic soil factors. First, I examined the relative contribution of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs; these are defence compounds of Senecio-type plants against generalist herbivores) to the spectral reflectance features in the visible and short-wave infrared region. My hypothesis was that PAs can be predicted from specific spectral features of aboveground plant tissues. Since PA profiles and their relation to spectral features could be species specific I compared three different species, Jacobaea vulgaris, J. erucifolia and S. inaequidens subjected to nutrient and water treatments to stimulate plant chemical variation. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were predicted best by spectral reflectance features in the case of Jacobaea vulgaris. I related the better results obtained with J. vulgaris to the existence of the correlation between PAs and nitrogen and the presence of the epoxide chemical structure in J. vulgaris.

I also examined if different soil microbial communities influenced plant shoot spectral reflectance. I grew the same three plant species as before in sterilized soil and living soil collected from fields with J. vulgaris. I expected that soil biota would change shoot defence content and hyperspectral reflectance in plant species-specific ways. Indeed, the exposure to different soils caused plant chemical profiles to change and both chemical and spectral patterns discriminated plants according to the soil biotic conditions.

I studied how primary and secondary plant metabolites varied during the growing season and vegetation successional stages. I used a well-studied chronosequence of abandoned arable fields and analysed the chemistry of both leaves and flowers of Jacobaea vulgaris throughout the seasons in fields of different successional status. My general hypothesis was that seasonal allocation of nutrients and defence metabolites to reproductive organs fitted the optimal defence theory, but that pattern was dependent on the successional stage of the vegetation. I found an interaction between season and succession stage, as plants from longer abandoned fields generally had flowers and leaves with higher N-oxides, especially in late Summer. Independent of the succession stage there was a seasonal allocation of nutrients and defence metabolites to flowers. Analyses of spectral reflectance of the field plants showed thatdefence compounds could be estimated more reliably in flowers, while in leaves primary compounds could be predicted best. Succession classes were successfully discriminated by the spectral patterns of flowers. Both chemical and spectral findings suggested that flowers are more sensitive to field ageing processes than leaves.

Conclusions

The estimation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by spectral reflectance features was better in Jacobaea vulgaris than in Senecio inaequidens or Jacobaea erucifolia (chapter 2). Differences in soil communities affect plant leaves’ chemistry and spectral reflectance patterns (chapter 3). Jacobaea vulgarisplants from recent and longer-abandoned fields showed the largest differences in chemical concentration, composition of defence compounds, and spectral reflectance patterns. Flowers were more discriminatory than leaves (chapters 4 and 5). There is a potential to detect plant-biotic interactions by analyzing spectral reflectance patterns (this thesis).
Soil organic carbon stocks and changes upon forest regeneration in East Kalimantan- Indonesia
Yassir, I. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pavel Kabat, co-promotor(en): Peter Buurman; Bram van Putten. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789064645761 - 175
natuurlijke verjonging - tropische bossen - imperata cylindrica - secundaire bossen - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - organisch bodemmateriaal - bodemeigenschappen - vegetatie - plantensuccessie - kalimantan - indonesië - natural regeneration - tropical forests - secondary forests - soil carbon sequestration - soil organic matter - soil properties - vegetation - ecological succession - indonesia

Imperata grassland is a common vegetation type in Kalimantan (Indonesia), and other parts of South-East Asia. It indicates a high degree of degradation of the vegetation, and mostly occurs after slashing and burning of primary forest. Through secondary succession Imperata grassland is converted into new secondary forest and much of the original biodiversity is restored. The overall objective of the thesis was to study the regeneration of Imperata grasslands in East Kalimantan, and to measure the effects of regeneration on soil properties, with emphasis on the organic fraction. The research strategy was to compare plots of different regeneration stages, characterized by the period elapsed since the vegetation was last burned.
Results show that during regeneration of Imperata grasslands, both vegetation composition and soil properties change, including chemistry of soil organic matter. Soil carbon stocks are higher under Imperata grasslands than under primary forest, and increase further upon natural regeneration of grassland to secondary forest. Highest carbon stocks are found in the later regeneration phases. Lower carbon stocks under primary forests are due to extremely low fertility, combined with shallow soils and low root mass in the topsoil. Root density as observed in the field is much higher under the grass vegetation. Results show as well that soil organic matter decomposition is most advanced under forest, as indicated by lower amounts of plant derived compounds and higher contribution of microbial matter. The results indicate that decomposition efficiency is related to soil organic matter chemistry, but more to abundance of N-compounds than to that of potentially recalcitrant compounds.
In our case study, soil texture appears an important factor in the vegetation succession. On sandy soils, there is a strong increase with time of Pteridium aquilinum L., while the number of other species is lower. This slows down the development towards secondary forest. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of environmental factors and vegetation show that pH, bulk density, sand and clay are the factors related to the distribution of species. The rapid secondary succession indicates that Imperata grasslands are not a final and stable stage of land degradation, but that frequent fires are necessary to maintain Imperata grasslands. If protected from fire and other intrusions such as shifting cultivation, Imperata grassland will readily develop into secondary forest. Imperata grasslands seem to be permanent because of human interference, especially through burning, and because so far few attempts have been made to sustainable rehabilitation.

Community perspectives of individual plant-soil interactions
Voorde, T.F.J. van de - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten, co-promotor(en): T.M. Bezemer. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858560 - 175
senecio jacobaea - bodem-plant relaties - landbouwgronden - plantensuccessie - plantengemeenschappen - populatiedynamica - bodemflora - natuurbeheer - soil plant relationships - agricultural soils - plant succession - plant communities - population dynamics - soil flora - nature management
Het doel van dit onderzoek was 1. het begrijpen van het belang van plant-bodeminteracties voor de populatiedynamiek van een vroege successie-soort gedurende secundaire successie in oude landbouwgronden; 2. Daarnaast bestudering van samenstelling van de plantengemeenschap in relatie tot bodemsymbionten in de plantengemeenschap. Voor dit onderzoek is de plantensoort Jakobskruiskruid, Jacobaea vulgaris ssp. vulgaris gebruikt, omdat deze plant een groot effect kan hebben op vroege-successie plantengemeenschappen in Nederland.
Effectgerichte maatregelen voor het herstel en beheer van stuifzanden
Nijssen, M. ; Riksen, M.J.P.M. ; Sparrius, L. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Burg, A. van der; Dobben, H.F. van; Jungerius, P. ; Ketner-Oostra, R. ; Kooiman, A. ; Kuiters, L. ; Swaay, C. van; Turnhout, C. van; Waal, R. de - \ 2011
Den Haag : Ministerie van EL&I, directie IFZ/bedrijfsuitgeverij (Rapport DKI nr. 2011/OBN144-DZ) - 293
eolisch zand - ecologisch herstel - natuurbeheer - fauna - vegetatie - plantensuccessie - nederland - herstelbeheer - natura 2000 - aeolian sands - ecological restoration - nature management - vegetation - plant succession - netherlands - restoration management
Onderzoek naar het functioneren van stuifzanden onder gewijzigde abiotische condities en naar beheer en herstel van klein- en grootschalige stuifzandlandschappen. Waarin bijdragen: Bosschap, Stichting Bargerveen, Radboud Universiteit, Universiteit Amsterdam, SOVON, Vlinderstichting, Alterra en Stichting Geomofologie en Landschap. Het is een vervolg op Preadvies stuifzanden (Bakker, 2003).
Inland drift sand landscapes
Fanta, J. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2010
Zeist : KNNV Publishing - ISBN 9789050113502 - 384
zand - zandgronden - landschapsecologie - kringlopen - bodembiologie - plantensuccessie - fauna - vegetatie - bossen - nederland - natuurbescherming - veluwe - natura 2000 - sand - sandy soils - landscape ecology - cycling - soil biology - plant succession - vegetation - forests - netherlands - nature conservation
Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these different views on drift sand landscapes through time: The processes, origin, conservation and at present even restoration of this very special but harsh biotope. Next to the relationship with man, ecology is highlighted starting from restraint to restoration. Characteristic fields of lichens with sparse grasses and heather form the biotope of a range of special animal and plant species, as well as rare mushrooms. Their commonality is that all of these species can cope with the extreme conditions in the drift sands, and are able to survive.Gradients from bare sand to forest stands shape the habitat for a specific biodiversity. In the final chapter of the book, it is explained how these extraordinary landscapes with their characteristic biodiversity may be managed to bequeath for future generations the enjoyment of a once breath-taking threat.
The dynamics of cork oak systems in Portugal: the role of ecological and land use factors
Acácio, V.C. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren; F. Castro Rego, co-promotor(en): Milena Holmgren Urba. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855040 - 208
quercus suber - landgebruik - agroforestry - natuurbranden - degradatie - landdegradatie - verandering - bossen - struiken - middellandse-zeegebied - bosecologie - kurk - quercus - portugal - plantensuccessie - herbegroeiing - mediterrane ecosystemen - land use - wildfires - degradation - land degradation - change - forests - shrubs - mediterranean region - forest ecology - cork - plant succession - revegetation - mediterranean ecosystems
Vegetation degradation and desertification occur in many semiarid ecosystems worldwide, particularly in the Western Mediterranean Basin. A peculiar semiarid Mediterranean land use system dominates the landscape of southern Portugal where cork oak (Quercus suber) is the main tree species. This system is the result of both ecological and land use dynamics that shaped the landscape for centuries and created a fine-grained mosaic landscape, which includes four main types of vegetation patches: cork oak woodlands (higher tree density), cork oak montados (lower tree density), shrublands and grasslands. Each patch can be conceived as a vegetation state that is reached and maintained in different ways. Transitions between states are triggered often by a combination of human management and climatic circumstances. I hypothesize that cork oak woodlands and shrublands in southern Portugal represent alternative stable states, which change slowly or not at all in the absence of human intervention. Failures in natural regeneration of cork oak trees triggered by grazing pressure and human overexploitation can be the cause of a shift to the alternative stable state of shrublands, especially in very dry conditions. Stable and expanding shrublands may therefore be a sign of land desertification in southern Portugal, representing an irreversible transition. This PhD proposal aims to evaluate if cork oak woodlands and shrublands represent alternative stable states in southern Portugal and what are the ecological and land use mechanisms underlying their resilience and persistence. Overall methodology The study area is located at Serra do Caldeirão, Algarve, southern Portugal. The persistence and dynamics of cork oak woodlands and shrublands, transition probabilities between vegetation states, and correlation between transitions and environmental variables will be analyzed through the observation of aerial photos between 1958 and 2002 for the study area with the help of a GIS (Geographical Information System). Markov matrix analysis and multivariate analysis will be used. Limitations for seedling establishment will be analysed through an experimental design carried out in different vegetation states. Finally, human management, motivations for land use decisions, behaviour towards the cork oak system, and sociological characterization of landowners will be investigated through landowner interviews.
Monitoring en beheer van de kwelderwerken in Friesland en Groningen 1960-2007 : rapport in het kader van het WOT programma Informatievoorziening Natuur i.o. (WOT IN)
Dijkema, K.S. ; Duin, W.E. van; Nicolai, A. ; Frankes, J. ; Jongerius, H. ; Keegstra, H. ; Swierstra, J. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1857) - 90
kweldergronden - kustgebieden - monitoring - vegetatie - biodiversiteit - plantensuccessie - natuurgebieden - ecologische successie - natuurbeheer - groningen - friesland - salt marsh soils - coastal areas - vegetation - biodiversity - plant succession - natural areas - ecological succession - nature management
In de Waddenzee liggen langs de noordkust van het vasteland van Groningen en Friesland 6000 ha voormalige landaanwinningswerken. Door middel van sturing van de natuurlijke processen zijn daarin halfnatuurlijke kwelders gevormd. De kwelders zijn door middel van rijshoutdammen en begreppeling gecreëerd en de kweldervegetatie heeft zich natuurlijk gevestigd. De landaanwinningswerken zijn in 1991 omgedoopt tot "kwelderwerken". Zonder de vroegere “werken” zouden de vastelandkwelders er nu niet zijn en zonder “werken” nu zouden deze kwelders weer verdwijnen. Vanaf 1960-2007 is door het RWS Waterdistrict Waddenzee en IMARES Texel de ontwikkeling van de kwelders gemonitord. 25 meetvakken geven een jaarlijkse feedback naar het kwelderbeheer, dat volgens het “hand aan de kraan” principe met de stakeholders wordt doorgesproken in de Stuurgroep Kwelderwerken. Op grond daarvan zijn de kwelderwerken verder aangepast aan de natuurlijke processen. Beperken van de bezinkvelden tot waar ze echt nodig zijn en vakverkleining van de pionierzone tussen GHW-60 cm en GHW zijn de sleutel. De pionierzone beschermt de kwelder. Dit nieuwste monitoringrapport gaat ook over de kustbescherming die de kwelderwerken boden tegen de Allerheiligenvloed van 2006
Tropical dry forest recovery : processes and causes of change
Lebrija Trejos, E.E. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; J.A. Meave del Castillo, co-promotor(en): Lourens Poorter; A.E. Perez-Garcia. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853220 - 189
tropische bossen - terugwinning - plantensuccessie - dendrochronologie - bosecologie - mexico - tropical forests - recovery - plant succession - dendrochronology - forest ecology
Seasonally dry areas are one of the preferred zones for human inhabitance in the tropics. Large forest areas are converted to other land uses and many are covered by secondary forests that grow naturally after cessation of disturbance. Surprisingly, secondary succession in these strongly seasonal and drought-stressed areas has been largely neglected.
This study combines the classical chronosequence approach complemented with dendrochronological techniques and the direct study of successional changes over time. This allowed to determine distinct pathways of vegetation change and to elicit what makes a specific group of species to be present, dominate, and disappear from a certain space and moment throughout succession.
Coupled changes in forest composition, structure, and environmental conditions notably determined community assembly and patterns of species replacement. Temperature and species functional traits are revealed as key factors of successional change. These results significantly contribute to develop an appropriate theory for successional mechanisms in tropical dry forest.

WODAN: de invloed van verspreidings- en vestigingsmogelijkheden op het ontstaan van biodiversiteit
Groot, G.A. de; Erkens, R.H.J. - \ 2008
Gorteria 33 (2008)2. - ISSN 0017-2294 - p. 59 - 60.
biodiversiteit - plantensuccessie - ecologie - ecosystemen - bosecologie - flevoland - biodiversity - plant succession - ecology - ecosystems - forest ecology
Biodiversiteit is een belangrijk beleidsthema bij het beheer van natuurgebieden in Nederland en daarbuiten. Wat de exacte mechanismen zijn die ten grondslag liggen aan het ontstaan van diversiteit in ecosystemen, is echter nog steeds het onderwerp van hevige discussie. Universiteit Utrecht is een onderzoek gestart onder de naam WODAN (windows of opportunity and dispersal affect number of species) dat zich richt op het beter begrijpen van de vele ecologische processen die samenhangen met de verspreiding en vestiging. De bossen in de IJsselmeerpolders vormen bij uitstek een geschikte locatie om het ontstaan van biodiversiteit te onderzoeken. Daarnaast is de binnenkomst en uitbreiding van nieuwe plantensoorten in de polders goed gedocumenteerd
Bosontwikkeling na het stopzetten van houtoogst : een analyse van de bosstructuur in bosreservaten
Verkaik, E. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1760) - 58
bossen - bosecologie - natuurreservaten - monitoring - plantensuccessie - beschermde bossen - bomen - nederland - bosstructuur - ecologische successie - forests - forest ecology - nature reserves - plant succession - reserved forests - trees - netherlands - forest structure - ecological succession
Vanaf 1983 zijn in Nederland zestig bosreservaten aangewezen in het kader van het Programma Bosreservaten. Binnen deze bosreservaten worden in zogenaamde steekproefcirkels gegevens over de bosstructuur verzameld. Het onderzoek dat hier wordt beschreven had als doel om overkoepelende processen en patronen in de bosstructuur van alle bosreservaten te ontdekken. Daarbij wordt in het rapport een vergelijking gemaakt tussen de bosontwikkeling in de bosreservaten en de bosontwikkeling in bos buiten de reservaten. De boompopulatie van het bos in de reservaten blijkt te verschuiven waarbij dikke (oudere) bomen algemener worden en dunne (jonge) bomen in aantallen afnemen. Het bos in de reservaten lijkt verder dichter te worden, waardoor zowel de stamvorm als de kroonvorm van bomen lijken te veranderen.
Plants on the move: plant-soil interactions in poleward shifting plant species
Grunsven, R.H.A. van - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse; Wim van der Putten, co-promotor(en): Elmar Veenendaal. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852513 - 140
planten - plantenecologie - plantensuccessie - invasies - soorten - bodem - interacties - rizosfeer - bodemflora - bodemfauna - klimaatverandering - bodem-plant relaties - plants - plant ecology - plant succession - invasions - species - soil - interactions - rhizosphere - soil flora - soil fauna - climatic change - soil plant relationships
As a result of recent global climate change, areas that have previously been climatically unsuitable for species have now become suitable new habitats. Many plant-species are expanding their range polewards, colonizing these newly available areas. If these species are able to expand their range faster than their natural enemies they can become released from these limiting factors. A similar mechanism has been reported for invasive plant species, introduced into foreign continent, which are often found to be released from natural enemies.
An example of an invasive plant species that is introduced into a foreing contintinent is Carpobrotus edulis. This species was found to be negatively affected by the soil community collected in the native range, while the soil communities from the invaded range did not have an effect on plant performance compared to a sterilized control. I hypothesized that a similar reduction of the negative effects of the soil community can occur when plant species shift their range. This hypothesis was tested in a greenhouse experiment. I compared plant-soil feedbacks of three plant species that have recently expanded their range into The Netherlands, with three related native species. The non-native species experienced a significantly less negative effect of plant-soil feedback than the native plant species.
Concurrently with these range shifts local climate is changing and this might affect plant-soil feedback as well. In order to test this plant-soil feedbacks of six range expanding and six related native species were compared at two temperatures, 20°C and 25°C daytime temperature. While again native species showed a more negative plant-soil feedback than the non-native species, temperature did not affect the strength or direction of plant-soil feedback.
Besides pair wise comparisons between native and non-native species in the invaded range, comparisons between the native and non-native range of a range expanding plant can be used to test for effects of range shifts on plant-soil interactions. Rhizosphere soil was collected from populations of Tragopogon dubius in both the native and the recently colonized range. The soil communities from the native range had a more negative effect on plant performance than the soil communities from the invaded range as compared to sterilized controls. T. pratensis, which is native to the entire studied range, did not show this pattern.
As plant-soil interactions are the net effect of many positive and negative factors the less negative effect of plant-soil feedback can be either a result of more positive or less negative effects of the soil community. One of the mutualistic groups of organisms, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to be a major factor contributing to ecosystem functioning and to the maintenance of plant biodiversity and the most important soil-borne mutualists for many plants. I therefore focus on this group of soil organisms. I compared the association of T.dubius with AMF in the new part of its range with T. pratensis native to this area. Three measures for plant-fungal affinity were compared between these two plant species; the density of AMF propagules able to colonize the plant, the percentage of root length colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza, and the composition of the resulting AMF community in the roots. This was done for four replicate soil inocula from different sites in The Netherlands. The two plant species did not differ in any of the tested factors. As there are no differences in the association with the most important mutualist the observed differences in plant-soil interaction are likely an effect of release from negative components in the soil community, e.g. soil pathogens, but further studies are needed to test this.
Alterations in biotic interactions, through climate change and range shifts, such as a release of soil-borne natural enemies, can have significant effects on the performance of plants. Predictions of future ranges and impact of range expanding plant species on invaded ecosystems can therefore not be accurately made without a thorough understanding of its biotic interactions and the way these interactions are changed by the range shifts.

Technical documentation for SUMO2 v. 3.2.1
Wamelink, G.W.W. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 108) - 60
modellen - plantensuccessie - vegetatie - vegetatietypen - biomassa - models - plant succession - vegetation - vegetation types - biomass
SUMO2 simulates the vegetation succession and biomass increment for several vegetation types on the basis of five competing functional types (grasses and herbs, dwarf shrubs, shrubs and two tree species) and three organs (roots, wood, leaves). The functional types compete for light, nitrogen and phosphorus. The biomass increment is influenced depended on the functional type by moisture availability temperature and management including grazing
De spontane ontwikkeling van een jong bos op zeeklei (bosreservaat Hollandse Hout, Oostelijk Flevoland) : een analyse voorafgaand aan de aantakking van de Hollandse Hout op de Oostvaardersplassen
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Verkaik, E. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1615) - 49
bossen - natuurlijke verjonging - verjonging - vegetatie - bosecologie - begrazing - plantensuccessie - zware kleigronden - zuidelijk flevoland - forests - natural regeneration - regeneration - vegetation - forest ecology - grazing - plant succession - clay soils
De spontane ontwikkeling in bosstructuur en vegetatie van bosreservaat Hollandse Hout bij Lelystad tussen 1995 en 2007 wordt besproken in het licht van de verwachte aantakking van de Hollandse Hout op de Oostvaardersplassen. De belangrijkste boomsoorten zijn es, esdoorn, eik en populier waarvan verjonging en sterfte zijn bepaald. De verjonging van es in relatie tot lichtbeschikbaarheid en het optreden van brandnetels en slakken wordt apart behandeld. De ontwikkeling van de bosflora wordt vergeleken met die in andere kleibossen in de polder en blijkt afhankelijk van paden en een heterogene bosstructuur. Tot slot worden prognoses voor de bosontwikkeling bij hoge graasdruk besproken, zoals verwacht na aantakking
Monitoring van kwelders in de Waddenzee : rapport in het kader van het WOT programma Informatievoorziening Natuur i.o. (WOT IN)
Dijkema, K.S. ; Duin, W.E. van; Dijkman, E.M. ; Leeuwen, P.W. van - \ 2007
Wageningen : Alterra (WOT IN serie nr. 5) - 63
kustgebieden - monitoring - biodiversiteit - plantensuccessie - natuurbescherming - vegetatie - planten - bodemdaling - nederland - kweldergronden - natura 2000 - zeespiegelschommelingen - waddenzee - coastal areas - biodiversity - plant succession - nature conservation - vegetation - plants - subsidence - netherlands - salt marsh soils - sea level fluctuations - wadden sea
Zowel in nationaal als in trilateraal verband geldt als één van de ecologische doelen voor de Waddenzee een zo groot en natuurlijk mogelijk areaal aan kwelders. Actief ingrijpen om bestaande kwelders in stand te houden dient op een zo natuurlijk mogelijke wijze te geschieden. In de kwelderwerken en zomerpolders langs het vasteland van de Waddenzee is een omslag in beheer ingezet naar duurzamer en minder kunstmatig. Lange termijn monitoring begeleidt deze verandering en dient ook om te zien of de meer natuurlijke wijze van beheer zich verdraagt met de effecten van zeespiegelstijging. De resultaten worden jaarlijks op www.waddenzee.nl gepubliceerd en dienen als input voor vijfjaarlijkse Quality Status Reports in het kader van de drielanden samenwerking in de Wadddenzee. De Waddenzee is het belangrijkste gebied voor éénjarige pioniervegetaties van Zeekraal. Deze pionierzone is de overgang van wadplaten naar kwelder en beschermt de hoger gelegen kwelderzones. Door opslibbing worden kwelders hoger, waarbij de vegetatie door successie verandert. De vegetatie ontwikkelt zich tijdens dat proces tot een eindstadium of climaxbegroeiing. De biodiversiteit neemt sterk af als een kwelder in zijn eindfase komt door veroudering met als eindstadium een soortenarme vegetatie van Zeekweek. Begreppeling versnelt de veroudering van de kwelderzone. Beweiding stelt de ontwikkeling van een climaxvegetatie uit. De ideale natuurlijke situatie zou cyclische successie zijn, hierbij zijn aangroei en afslag van kwelders in evenwicht. De kwaliteit van kwelders kan worden verbeterd door de variatie aan hoogtezones, geomorfologische vormen (groene stranden, slufters, zandige kwelders, kleiige kwelders) en beheervormen (beweide en onbeweide kwelders) te behouden of te herstellen
Veiligheid en beheer van natuurgebieden in 'Ruimte voor de Rivier'
Makaske, B. ; Maas, G.J. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1624) - 36
rivieren - inundatie - waterbeheer - waterbouwkunde - hoogwaterbeheersing - natuurbescherming - geologische sedimentatie - oevervegetatie - vegetatie - plantensuccessie - kosten - economische analyse - natuurtechniek - uiterwaarden - rivers - flooding - water management - hydraulic engineering - flood control - nature conservation - geological sedimentation - riparian vegetation - vegetation - plant succession - costs - economic analysis - ecological engineering - river forelands
Om de veiligheid tegen overstromingen in het rivierengebied te waarborgen is een goede doorstroomcapaciteit van het winterbed van belang. Maatregelen, zoals uiterwaardverlaging en het graven van een nevengeul, kunnen de doorstroomcapaciteit verbeteren. In deze studie is, middels een scenariostudie, de hydraulische effectiviteit van deze maatregelen op de lange termijn verkend bij verschillende natuurbeheersvormen, waarbij natuurlijke processen die de ontwikkeling van de doorstroomcapaciteit beïnvloeden, sedimentatie en vegetatiesuccessie, in de analyse zijn betrokken. Ook de ontwikkeling van natuurbeheerskosten op de lange termijn is doorgerekend. De resultaten laten zien met welke combinatie van maatregelen en beheer veiligheid en natuur op kosteneffectieve en duurzame wijze samen kunnen gaan in de bestudeerde (fictieve) situatie.
The colonisation of a former sea-floor by ferns
Bremer, P. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047780 - 168
varens - bosgebieden - plantenecologie - plantensuccessie - plantenkolonisatie - habitats - nederland - flevoland - ferns - woodlands - plant ecology - plant succession - plant colonization - netherlands
Het gaat goed met de varens in de Nederlandse bossen. Zeventig procent van de soorten neemt toe in aantal. De groei is voor een belangrijke deel te danken aan nieuwe leefgebieden in de bossen van Flevoland, waar zich binnen enkele decennia `hotspots` voor varens ontwikkelden. Dat is op wereldschaal niet eerder vertoond. Tot die bevinding komt, na dertig jaar onderzoek, Piet Bremer in zijn proefschrift
Dynamics of secondary forests
Breugel, M. van - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers, co-promotor(en): M. Ramos. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046936 - 240
secundaire bossen - bossen - plantensuccessie - populatiedynamica - bosecologie - vegetatie - landbouwgronden - verlaten grond - tropen - mexico - secondary forests - forests - plant succession - population dynamics - forest ecology - vegetation - agricultural soils - abandoned land - tropics
The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and conditions that affect the course of succession (shortly reviewed in chapter 1). Successional dynamics, however, are inferred rather than directly monitored in such studies; i.e. direction and rates of change of community structure and composition are deduced indirectly on the assumption that similar successional processes take place in any one stand. Only very few studies followed successional dynamics through repeated measurements in permanent sample plots, hence our current understanding of the variation in successional dynamics across secondary forest stands, the underlying processes of growth, mortality and recruitment, and the processes and mechanism that steer them, is still poor.

This thesis presents data from one of the very few studies on secondary tropical forest succession in multiple permanent sample plots. The focus of this work is on the first years of secondary forest succession, and on the role of competition on the level of individuals, populations and communities. The main aims of this work were: 1) To evaluate the dynamics of young secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields in terms of rates and direction of community changes, how these dynamics vary across sites and how they change with time since abandonment; 2) To evaluate the dynamics of young secondary forests in terms of growth, mortality and recruitment, and how community changes are related to these processes; and 3) To examine the degree to which competition for light can account for variation in growth and mortality of saplings within a population and for variation in population dynamics across distinct sites.

The study was carried out in three villages in theMarquésdeComillas(MdC) region, part of theSelvaLacandonain easternChiapas,Mexico. The climate of theMdCregion is humid tropical, with an average annual temperature of 24 ºC, mean annual rainfall of ~3000 mm and a short dry period in February-April. The original vegetation consists mainly of tropical evergreen and semi-deciduous forests. Colonization of the region started in the late 1960s, and since then a large part of the landscape has been converted to a mosaic of temporary and permanent grazing pastures, cultivated land, young secondary forest and old-growth remnants. The prevailing land use types in the three villages are slash-and-burn shifting cultivation practices (mainly maize) with short fallow periods and semi-permanent cattle ranging.

Data for this study were collected in secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields and pastures with time since abandonment (age) ranging from 0.5 to 18 years. A first dataset consisted of a chronosequence of 72 stands, widely distributed over an area of roughly 60 km2 and encompassing differentgeomorphologicalunits (low hills vs. alluvial planes) and former land-use types (abandoned agricultural fields vs. pastures). In each stand, three 2 x 25 m transects were randomly located in which all woody stems with diameter at 1.3-m above ground (dbh) ≥ 1 cm identified to lowest possibletaxonand their dbh and height were measured. A second dataset consists of permanent sample plots in twelve secondary forests with similar former land-use (maize fields) and geomorphology (low hills with sandy acidic and unfertile soils). Initial stand age ranged from 1-17 y. In each stand a 10 x 50-m permanent sample plot is established, and all trees with height ≥ 1.5-m are recorded, and tagged. Location of each tree was determined using a 1 x 1-m grid system. Every year dead trees and new recruits are recorded and dbh and height of all living trees is (re-)measured. The first dataset is used in chapter 2, and in chapters 3-7 data are used from the first three years of permanent plot study.

Chapter 2 demonstrates that patterns of species diversity, frequency and dominance are highly variable across secondary forests of an agricultural landscape, even when they are of similar age. Diversity varied widely between the plots, which could only partly be explained by differences in time since abandonment and geomorphology while the influence of former land use was even more ambiguous. Species richness changed with age, but dominance levels remained similar over the first 18 year of succession. Similarly, species richness, but not dominance, differed between secondary forests on low hills and alluvial plains. Across-stand frequency and abundance patterns varied strongly among tree species, and most among pioneer species. Despite the high species richness (almost 200 species identified across all plots), only a very small sub-set of the regional species pool dominated secondary forests in terms of frequency of occurrence and abundance, all of them pioneer species. Most pioneer species, however, and nearly all shade tolerant species, occurred in less than 15% of the plots and always in low densities. Only two species (Cecropia peltata and Trichospermum mexicanum) occurred in ≥ 50% of the plots and they were also the only species that were relatively dominant (> 10 stems / > 10% of stand basal area) in ≥ 20% of the plots. Other species were dominant (> 10% basal area) in the plots were they occurred, but never abundant (e.g.Ochromapyramidale); frequent but never abundant (e.g.Vernoniapatens); or locally abundant but with low relative basal area (e.g.Acalyphadiversifolia).

The "Initial Floristic Composition" hypothesis predicts that, on abandoned agricultural fields with light previous land-use and close to seed sources, both pioneer and shade-tolerant species colonize a site directly after abandonment and that the recruitment of pioneers sharply declines while the recruitment of shade-tolerant species continues as soon as the canopy closes. It also predicts higher mortality among pioneers. Consequently, recruited and dead trees are expected to differ in species composition, with highest species richness for the recruits. To evaluate these predictions, recruitment and mortality was examined in eight permanent sample plots with initial fallow age of 1 to 5 y (chapter 3). Shade-tolerant species established in the first years of succession, albeit in low numbers. As predicted, recruited and dead trees differed in species richness and composition, and in shade-tolerant frequency. In contrast to expected, over 50% of recruits were from pioneer species. Results suggested that high stand-level mortality opened new opportunities for continued pioneer colonization. Results demonstrate that species turnover starts very early in succession but is not always a gradual and continuous process, complicating prevailing succession models.

In chapter 4, stand structure dynamics (i.e, rate and direction of stand structure changes) were related to mortality, growth, and recruitment rates over a two-year period, and the dependence of these demographic processes on fallow age and initial stand structure attributes was evaluated. Changes in stand structure were especially fast in the first 5 y of succession, and decreased rapidly afterwards, which resulted from similar stand-level changes in relative mortality, growth, and recruitment rates. Changes in most stand structure attributes (e.g. basal area, canopy height) were closely correlated, and more linked with tree growth rates than with net changes in tree density due to recruitment and mortality. Demographic processes were negatively related with initial stand basal area, but independent of initial tree density. Results suggest that asymmetric competition and resulting patterns of size and density dependent mortality and growth are major driving forces determining secondary forest successional pathways. Sudden mass mortality among dominant species in some stands showed that early secondary forest succession is not always a gradual and unidirectional process.

The strong spatial and temporal variability of successional dynamics emphasizes the need to monitor these dynamics in permanent plots across a range of initial stand ages, with multiple plots in a given age class. In chapter 5, case studies inCosta RicaandMexicoshow that the actual rates of change in tree communities often deviate from chronosequence trends. With respect to tree species composition, sites of different agesdiffermore than a single site followed over time through the same age range. While changes in stem density have little to do with chronosequence trends, changes in basal area within stands generally followed chronosequence trends. Stem turnover rates were poor predictors of species turnover rates, particularly at longer time-intervals. Effects of the surrounding landscape on tree community dynamics within individual plots were not specifically included in this or in any of the other chapters, but results suggest that they are likely to be important determinants of species accumulation rates and relative abundance patterns.

Competition for light is often considered to be one of the main mechanisms that regulate successional vegetation dynamics. Competition for light is largely asymmetric, as larger trees shade smaller trees and not the other way around. Consequently, within-site variation in growth and survival of tree saplings can be expected to relate to variation in the degree of neighborhood competition, especially from the larger neighbors. In chapter 6, these hypotheses were tested for Cecropia peltata and Trichospermum mexicanum saplings in two adjacent 1-2 year old secondary forest stands. The degree of competition was estimated by neighborhood basal area (NBA). Both diameter and height growth were strongly negatively related to NBA of the larger neighbors. Only a small proportion of variation in survival, on the other hand, could be accounted for by variation in NBA, suggesting that other factors are more important. The effect of NBA of smaller neighbors on growth and survival was very weak or non-significant, indicating that competition between neighbors, indeed, is largely asymmetric.

Population dynamics of a species vary much from one secondary forest to another. In chapter 7 we examined if such between-site differences in demographic behavior can be related to variation in asymmetric competition that result from differences in stand and population size structures. Specifically, we tested if differences in mean growth and mortality of the biggest and of the smallest trees of a population (growth and survival asymmetry) were related to differences in the average level of asymmetric neighborhood competition in both size groups (competition asymmetry). We used 24 populations of four pioneer tree species in nine early (1-5 y) secondary forest stands. For each population, we compared average neighborhood basal area, growth and survival of the twenty percent smallest and twenty percent largest trees. The between-plot variation in competition asymmetry explained a significant part of the between-plot variation in growth asymmetry, with smallest trees growing faster in populations with low competition asymmetry, and largest trees growing fastest in populations with high competition asymmetry. Survival was size-related, with lowest survival rates among the smallest plants, as expected. However, survival asymmetry was significantly related to competition asymmetry in just one species. The differences in

theeffects of asymmetric competition on the mortality and survival of the four species show that susceptibility to competition for, presumably, light, varies considerably between early successional pioneer species. Results of chapter 6 and 7 support the prediction that in young secondary forests, asymmetric competition for light is one of the main mechanisms that govern secondary forest dynamics.

Plant and soil community assembly in secondary succession on ex-arable land. Fundamental and applied approaches
Kardol, P. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten, co-promotor(en): T.M. Bezemer. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046127 - 203
bouwland - conversie - plantengemeenschappen - bodembiologie - graslanden - plantensuccessie - bodemfauna - nematoda - arable land - conversion - plant communities - soil biology - grasslands - plant succession - soil fauna
Het omvormen van landbouwgronden tot half-natuurlijke ecosystemen kan het huidige verlies aan soortenrijke graslanden en heidevelden tegen gaan. Pogingen tot herstel van soortenrijke graslanden en heidevelden door landbouwgronden uit productie te nemen, zijn niet altijd succesvol gebleken. Dergelijke omvorming is een vorm van secundaire successie: de opeenvolging van soorten (planten of andere organismen) met als startpunt een ‘biologische’ nalatenschap na een initiële verstoring. Er is nog steeds veel onbekend omtrent de ontwikkeling van ecosystemen gedurende secundaire successie, met name als het gaat om interacties tussen planten en bodemorganismen. Bodemorganismen kunnen een belangrijke rol spelen in de opbouw en samenstelling van plantengemeenschappen
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