Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Mining water governance : everyday community-mine relationships in the Peruvian Andes
Sosa Landeo, Milagros - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens, co-promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436762 - 200
mining - water policy - governance - water rights - water management - rural communities - local population - water resources - andes - peru - mijnbouw - waterbeleid - waterrechten - waterbeheer - plattelandsgemeenschappen - plaatselijke bevolking - watervoorraden

This thesis documents as well as questions how the presence of large mining operations in Andean regions of Peru alters social and natural landscapes. Taking conflicts over water as a useful entry-point for the analysis, it explores and unravels the dilemmas and challenges faced by the main conflicting actors: rural communities and mining companies. Through an in-depth analysis of how the actors navigate these challenges, focusing on those related to water, the thesis sets out to understand what happens with water in contexts of mineral extraction. It traces changes in how water is accessed, controlled and governed, and by whom. By making the complex character of water politics in mining contexts explicit, the thesis sheds light on how mining reconfigures water governance arrangements, while also contributing to wider debates about water governance in contexts characterized by huge power differences.

Answering the "Call of the Mountain" : co-creating sustainability through networks of change in Colombia
Chaves Villegas, Martha - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Arjen Wals, co-promotor(en): Gerard Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577251 - 152
sustainable development - sustainability - social networks - networks - communities - rural communities - change - social change - learning - colombia - south america - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociale netwerken - netwerken - gemeenschappen - plattelandsgemeenschappen - verandering - sociale verandering - leren - zuid-amerika

In response to the age of the ‘anthropocene,’ as some authors are calling this epoch in which one single species is disrupting major natural systems (Steffen et al 2011), there are calls for more radical, learning-based sustainability that generates deep transformations in individuals and communities so as to transition towards a more reflexive and process-oriented society (Wals 2009, Sterling 2009). The principal contention of this thesis is that new social movements (NSM) of the network society (Castells 2012, Buechler 2016), based on integrated visions of sustainability, can provide platforms for bringing about transformative learning. This thesis is based on empirical research (2012-2016) into a fraction of such NSM named the Council of Sustainable Settlements of Latin America (C.A.S.A.). Comprising a diversity of members from Indigenous pueblos, afro-colombian communities, neo-rural settlements (ecovillages), Hare Krishna communities, campesino farmers, NGOs and urban peoples and initiatives, the C.A.S.A. network organizes intercultural exchanges where transformative learning can be traced. Through new forms of collective action centered on a plurality of ideas and practices, and with a strong focus on reflection and personal development, in such encounters through ‘ontological politics’, ‘optimal dissonance’ and ‘deep reflexivity and flexibility’ members are articulating new paradigms of alternative development and creating spaces for transformation. Yet, such learning processes are incredibly complex, and the value-action gap remains substantial in many cases. What this thesis has shown, however, is that by putting into practice principles of buen vivir and the pluriverse such as reconnecting to ancestral wisdom, acknowledging the other, questioning values of competition and consumerism, and forming new relations to place and territory, one begins to question one's own set of norms, and those of society. Ultimately, the C.A.S.A. network’s struggles, negotiations and learning processes remind us that global sustainability entails more than 'menus' of good practices but a plurality of solutions which include humans and non-humans, different ontologies, and even a multiplicity of worlds, in what is a tough but rewarding aula.

Climate Change in Southern Africa: Farmers’ Perceptions and Responses
Kuivanen, K. ; Alvarez, S. ; Langeveld, C.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - 46 p.
climatic change - farmers - attitudes - knowledge systems - adaptation - rural communities - southern africa - klimaatverandering - boeren - kennissystemen - adaptatie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - zuidelijk afrika
Southern Africa is characterized by natural climate variability onto which human-induced climate change is being superimposed. Rural communities that depend heavily on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihood are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate-related change. This report takes stock of existing perceptions of- and responses to climate change among smallholder farmers in the region, in the hope of contributing to a better understanding of the complexities of local knowledge- and adaptation systems.
Towards food autonomy: connectivity and self-help groups in Hisar, India
Singh, S. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574922 - 228
landbouw bedrijven in het klein - voedsel - autonomie - voedselproductie - voedselconsumptie - zelfhulp - samenwerking - boerenstand - plattelandsgemeenschappen - netwerken - ondernemerschap - mungbonen - landbouwontwikkeling - rurale sociologie - india - peasant farming - food - autonomy - food production - food consumption - self help - cooperation - peasantry - rural communities - networks - entrepreneurship - mung beans - agricultural development - rural sociology

Keywords: self-help groups, connectivity, food autonomy, peasants, micro-enterprise

Towards Food Autonomy: Connectivity and Self-help Groups in Hisar, India

PhD Thesis

Shweta Singh

Rural Sociology Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands

Abstract Food autonomy requires consideration of the various connectivity and self-help action organizing by the peasants’ communities. The socio-spatial organization of mung-bean production, household processing and consumption practices in Hisar district of Haryana-India are studied. The socio-spatial organization of food connects agriculture to its local environment, the regionally tied agriculture produce to local consumption patterns, and food production and consumption to livelihood and health, which are enabled by the abilities and practices of peasants and stimulate food autonomy. The connections are related to mung-bean food qualities at various levels of production, processing and consumption. Local mung-bean preferences of producers, processors, consumers and the market conditions are studied. It showed that local mung-bean food qualities related to suitability in the local cropping system, processing requirement (short cooking-time, better consistency and appearance) and consumption choice (easy to cook, healthy food). Mung-bean market conditions indicated that the market works against peasants (traders and urban processors are winners). However, the producers’ viewpoint on mung-bean processing at the community level is linked to the creation of new social relations in the mung-bean food network to strengthen the territorial connectivity of mung-bean for reinforcing mung-bean food autonomy. The possibilities of Self-Help Group (SHG) and SHG-based (food) Micro-Enterprise (ME) developments were discussed. In reviewing the literature on SHGs and previous empirical studies, various factors were identified that contribute to a success or failure of a functioning of SHG. These include full participation from and homogeneity among members, and clear group goals and transparency in group operations and functioning. The SHG mung-bean food-based ME initiated in Mangali village of Hisar was studied, to investigate ways in which this group functions. Results revealed three identifiable roles of the self-help peasants’ group: i) it consolidates local mung-bean food production, local resources and motivations of the peasants; ii) it develops another perspective of development based upon a more localized choice for processing, distributing, marketing and accessing local mung-bean food; and iii) it empowers local people (especially peasants and the poor rural community) and strengthens the connectivity between local mung-bean production and consumption. The need remains for technological efforts to address the specific location of peasant resources while in the SHG there is clearly a need to restore or redefine collective responsibility.

Contesting control : land and forest in the struggle for Loita Maasai self-government in Kenya
Kronenburg García, A.J.N. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): S.W.J. Luning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572720 - 311
landgebruik - autonomie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - grondrechten - bosbezit - bosbeheer - governance - leiderschap - pachtstelsel - regering - staat - interventie - kenya - land use - autonomy - rural communities - land rights - forest ownership - forest administration - leadership - tenure systems - government - state - intervention


Contesting Control: Land and Forest in the Struggle for Loita Maasai Self-government in Kenya

Angela Kronenburg García

Contesting Control is about the Loita Maasai in Kenya who, faced with increasing outside interventions and pressure from neighbouring communities, the state and other agencies, have been struggling to maintain access and control over the land they inhabit and the forest they use. They have been on the losing side in territorial struggles with neighbouring Purko Maasai and (non-Maasai) Sonjo. However, with regard to the state, NGOs and environmental organizations, the Loita have successfully navigated policies and projects and retained access and control of their land and forest. Interventions have, nevertheless, changed the way people engage with the land and forest and with each other on these issues. This study investigates the (in)direct effects of interventions and how they have articulated with existing relations, practices, processes and struggles in Loita. It considers the state-led land adjudication programme of the 1960s that sought to convert Kenya’s pastoral lands into privately owned group ranches, the attempt by Narok County Council to turn the Naimina Enkiyio Forest into a nature reserve for tourism in the 1990s, and a forest co-management project carried out by IUCN in the early 2000s. This volume captures the process of property-in-the-making and socio-political change among the Loita Maasai as they struggle for autonomy and self-government.

What policy says and practice does : gender, household and community in rural water provision in Tanzania
Mandara, C.G. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Hilje van der Horst; Ron van Lammeren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571334 - 201
watervoorziening - plattelandsgemeenschappen - waterbeheer - geslacht (gender) - vrouwen - huishoudens - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - tanzania - water supply - rural communities - water management - gender - women - households - sustainability

Since 1945 to date the governance of the rural water sector in Tanzania has passed through multiple phases, from the colonial era to the times characterized by liberalization, decentralisation and privatization. Generally, changes in the policies and governance strategies reflect a correspondence with national and international reforms in the political and economic spheres. In turn, these changes made the sector to experience pendulum swings over time in terms of policies and achieve­ments.

The main objective of this study was to examine how gender, household and community shape the appropriateness, accessibility and sustainability of domestic water schemes in rural Tanzania, and to explore whether and in what ways domestic water services take women’s gender needs into account. The study aimed at a critical analysis of the policy-practices nexus in terms of appropriate­ness, accessibility and sustainability in the contexts of the household and the community as representing the water users and hosting local water management structures, respectively.

The theoretical pillars of the study are ecological modernisation theory, gender theory, the concept of users’ perspective, and the community management model. These were blended into one theoretical framework. The fieldwork for the study was conducted between October 2011 and September 2012 in the rural districts of Kondoa and Mpwapwa in Dodoma region, in central Tanzania. It consisted of three overlapping phases in which quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to collect data from multiple units of analysis. Data collection for primary data was done through the household survey, focus group discussions, interviews with key informants, village and women case studies, participatory sketch mapping, and field observation. Secondary data was collected through the analysis of information from relevant documents at the village, district and national levels. Overall a total number of 334 respondents were involved in the study.

The study found that accessibility to the improved domestic water services is associated with seasonality and that, surprisingly, the average distance to the water distribution points increases during the rainy season. This is because then few water distribution points are operational. The mean number of users per water point is higher than the standard set by the policy guidelines, because the planning and designing of the water schemes rely on population projections and do not take migration and the spatial distribution of the population into account.

It was found that there is a difference between the existing water policy and practices related to domestic water uses and management at the micro levels of the household and the village. Within the household, the provision and use of domestic water is organised based on the gendered division of labour in domestic production. At the community level, the same pattern of the gendered division of labour influences men’s and women’s participation in the management of the public water schemes. At both levels the gendered division of labour and performance of men and women is shaped by social norms and traditions that are rooted in patriarchal culture. Women relate to domestic water more closely than men because they are the managers, providers and users of water for carrying out their reproductive roles in the household. This makes women knowledgeable about the appropriateness of water for domestic uses. However, women’s preferences and perceptions on the appropriateness of the domestic water are rarely integrated in the designing and planning phases of water projects. The government, in collaboration with the international community, has established women quota to ensure women’s participation in local decision-making spaces and management structures. However, the informal structures which are embedded in the normative traditions within and beyond the household, explicitly and implicit­ly deter women’s involvement in the public management of the water schemes.

Water users’ participation, and women’s participation in particular, was very minimal in the pre-implementation phase of village water projects. Hence, the users’ perspectives are poorly represented in the early stages of the water schemes. In general, there was low community participation not only before but also after implementation of the water schemes. Additionally, the sustainability of the rural water infrastructures is endangered mainly because water using communities have been assigned technical and managerial roles without being equipped with the corresponding capabilities. The district water departments which are responsible to provide technical support to the villages, are also confronted with shortages of human and financial resources plus inadequate transport facilities.

The findings from this study reveal the need to review the existing water policy and change the current community management approach. This thesis concludes by identifying ways forward through research, programs and policies to improve the rural domestic water provision in Tanzania.

Naar een dorpshart voor Spijk : een levend dorp met een rijke geschiedenis
Kruit, J. ; Cate, B. ten; Beljaars, D.N.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 302) - ISBN 9789461738738 - 60
plattelandsgemeenschappen - participatie - cohesie - netwerken - sociale netwerken - recreatie - bevolkingsafname - gelderse poort - rural communities - participation - cohesion - networks - social networks - recreation - population decrease
De Stichting Actief Spijk staat voor een leefbaar Spijk. Een dorpshart moet hiervoor een belangrijke drager worden. Een plek waar ontmoeten centraal staat en waar ruimte is voor alle dorpsactiviteiten. Een plek die verbonden is met de geweldige natuurlijke omgeving en de rijke steenfabricagegeschiedenis. In het dorpsplan uit 2012 is aangegeven dat passerende recreanten onder meer een rustplek, een eet-en drinkgelegenheid en sanitaire voorzieningen zouden willen hebben. Verder bestaat er bij de bewoners van Spijk behoefte aan een groener dorpsaanzicht. De Stichting Actief Spijk heeft de Wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR gevraagd om te helpen een dorpshart vorm te geven. Met aandacht voor ontwikkelingen (kansen) die kunnen bijdragen aan de leefbaarheid van Spijk. In de zomer van 2012 is het project van start gegaan. Er is een onderzoek geweest onder de jeugd van Spijk om te achterhalen wat hun ideeën zijn voor een dorpshart. Daarnaast hebben zes studenten landschapsarchitectuur van Hogeschool Van Hall Larenstein het Gelders Eiland als onderzoeksgebied voor hun afstudeerproject uitgekozen. Ze hebben gekeken naar het bijzondere door de rivier gevormde landschap, de rol van de landbouw in het gebied, de relatie met het water, de industriële activiteiten en haar geschiedenis en de potentie van de recreatie. Soms is ingezoomd op Spijk, en zijn ideeën geschetst voor een nieuw dorpshart. Een begeleidingscommissie met vertegenwoordigers uit de gemeente, Stichting Actief Spijk, diverse experts en de onderzoekers heeft het project regelmatig van feed back voorzien. Verblijven en ontmoeten zijn de kernwoorden voor het nieuwe dorpshart, niet alleen voor de Spijkenaren maar ook voor de bezoekers. Het dorpshart moet het groene karakter van Spijk versterken en goed aansluiten op de directe omgeving van het dorp. De conclusie van het onderzoek is dat Spijk eigenlijk al een ‘dorpshart’ heeft. Het dorpshart zit in de mensen en hun netwerken. Het zijn namelijk de verbindingen die het dorpshart ‘maken’: een divers, complex en sterk netwerk dat je Spijk zou kunnen noemen.
Decision making under the tree: gender perspectives on decentralization reforms in service delivery in rural Tanzania
Masanyiwa, Z.S. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof; Katrien Termeer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738998 - 195
decentralisatie - overheidssector - dienstensector - plattelandsgemeenschappen - geslacht (gender) - man-vrouwrelaties - tanzania - afrika - decentralization - public sector - services - rural communities - gender - gender relations - africa

In recent decades, decentralization has been upheld by governments, donors and policy makers in many developing countries as a means of improving people’s participation and public services delivery. In 1996, the government of Tanzania embarked on major local government reforms reflecting the global trends and as part of the wider public sector reforms. The reforms aim at improving the access, quality and equitable delivery of public services through a policy of ‘decentralization by devolution’. Since then, many studies have examined the fiscal, administra­tive, legal and political aspects of the reforms. However, the gender dimensions of both the process and outcomes of the reforms have been less examined. In Tanzania, like in other sub-Saharan African countries, little is documented about decentrali­zation and gender, especially at the village level. This study, therefore, examines the impact of decentralization reforms on service delivery in rural Tanzania using a gender perspective.The study addresses the question of how decentralization affects the user-provider interactions and gender-sensitivity of water and health services in the rural villages. Specifically, it focuses on the institu­tional characte­ristics for decentralized service delivery, the impact of the reforms on service users’ participation in decision-making processes, on access to gender-sensitive water and health services, and on cooperation and trust at the village level.

To investigate this, the study draws on governance theory and sociological theory, including an institutional, principal-agent, an actor and a gender perspective. In this study, gender is seen as a cross-cutting perspective taking in account the wider socio-cultural and political structures that influence the process and outcomes of decentralization in a specific context. The study is based on quantitative and qualitative data obtained at district, village and household levels in the districts of Kondoa and Kongwa in the Dodoma Region in Tanzania. The fieldwork consisted of three overlapping phases: an exploratory phase, house­hold survey and in-depth qualitative study. Mixed data collection methods were used because they enrich our understanding of the topic and contribute to the validity and reliability of findings. A house­hold survey was used to collect quantitative data, whereas semi-structured and unstruc­tured interviews, focus group discussions, observations, case studies and life histories were used to collect qualitative data. Overall, 513 respondents (236 men and 277 women) were involved in the study: 332 in the survey (115 men and 227 women), 69 in the focus group discussions (44 men and 25 women), 107 in the interviews (77 men and 30 women) and five women in life histories. In addition, review and analysis of available data at district and village levels provided secondary data to complement the primary data.

The study found that the reforms have resulted in a number of institutional changes by restructuring the district and village councils, and by establishing service boards and commi­ttees at each administrative level or service delivery point. These changes have incre­ased local govern­ments’ autonomy to plan and imple­ment service delivery functions, and service users’ participation in planning and managing public services. However, the existing central-local relations limit local governments’ autonomy to fully exercise their decentralized mandates and to address local service delivery needs. Local govern­ments have limited financial and technical capacity, and the central government controls their functions through intergovernmental trans­fers, guidelines and national priorities. At the village level, conflicting roles and responsi­bi­lities of village councils and service committees limit the latter to fun­ction effectively. Thus, decent­ralized service delivery in Tanzania takes on different forms where the nature of sector is an important factor in the kind of institutional arrangements.

It was revealed that decentralization reforms have created spaces for service users’ participation in planning and decision-making processes. Men and women participate in these spaces through attending meetings, contributing labour, cash or both, in construction of service infrastructures, membership in committees, speaking up and influencing decisions in meetings. The majority of women participate passively by attending meetings, consultation or through activity-specific spaces. Although the proportion of women in village councils and committees has increased because of the quota-based representation, local decision-making processes conti­nue to be largely male dominated. Women’s participation contributes to meeting practical gender needs, but to a lesser extent addresses their strategic gender needs because of the gende­red power rela­tions which have been largely untouched by the reforms. The main const­raints to effective women’s participation include patriarchy, household respo­nsibilities, compli­cated elec­tion proce­dures, lack of self-confidence and less experience in public affairs. Gender also inter­sects with religion, ethnicity, age and marital status, and may compound women’s disadva­ntaged position in local decision-making structures. While dece­nt­ralization is expected to address gender inequalities, instead it repro­duces them, because it does not address the socio-cultural barriers that inhibit women’s effec­tive participation in local structures.

The study shows that the impact of reforms on water and health services delivery is mixed. Access to the services has improved for some users but decentralization has also led to marginalization of other users. The number of water and health services infrastructure has increased, thereby raising the service coverage. However, there is still inade­quate infrastructure to provide full service coverage, and the situation is more critical in the health sector because most villages do not have their own health facilities. Despite improvements in coverage, less has been achieved in other respects, such as adequate staffing and availability of drugs and other essential supplies. Comparatively, more users are satisfied with water services than with health services. For both services, there are overlaps and differences between the users’ and the gender perspectives. Men and women hold similar opinions on some aspects, but there are also marked differences. This confirms the fact that men and women are actually different users because they have different needs, and are positioned differently regarding their access to basic services. Understanding these simi­larities and differences is, thus, an important step in making basic services ‘gender-sensitive’.

It was shown that the reforms have strengthened formal cooperation aimed at improving public services and the informal mechanisms of social networks and groups. Decentralization outcomes in terms of increased citizen’s participation in decision-making processes and improved services influence political trust, and also here gender relations proved to play an important role. There is a two-way interface between trust and decentra­lization reforms: trust enhances participation in local institutions and ‘good’ decentrali­zation outcomes can generate trust. Conversely, ‘bad’ decentralization outcomes decrease trust. The study further revealed that political trust is a multi-layered concept where citizens judge local leaders and service providers at different administrative levels differently. These levels are crucial in analysing political trust and the impact of gender on political trust at different levels.

The general conclusion of this study is that the current decentralization reforms in Tanzania present both opportunities and challenges for increasing service users’ participation, cooperation and trust, addressing gender equality issues and, for improving service delivery. In order to improve the user-provider interactions and service delivery, a number of design and implementation issues should be addressed. At the national level, policy makers need to address the existing imbalance in central-local relations by redefining the relationship, functions and roles of central and local governments. District councils need to clarify the roles and responsibi­lities of service committees in relation to those of village councils, provide regular gender-sensitive training to service committees, and integrate local needs into district plans. Village leaders should consider holding meetings at times and in locations that are convenient for women, announce meetings and agenda in advance, and address village concerns adequately and transparently in the meeti­ngs. Actors at all levels need to explore effective strategies for transforming the socio-cultural norms that underlie women’s subordinate position in decision-making processes, and in their access to basic services.

PES, peasants and power in Andean watersheds : power relations and payment for environmental services in Colombia and Ecuador
Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens; J. Budds. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737861 - 179
hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - beheer van waterbekkens - ecosysteemdiensten - inheemse volkeren - plattelandsgemeenschappen - milieubeleid - andes - colombia - ecuador - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - resource management - natural resources - watershed management - ecosystem services - indigenous people - rural communities - environmental policy - peasant farming

During the last decade, the market environmentalist policy model of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) has become a widely promoted and implemented conservation and development tool, around the world as well as in the Andean countries Colombia and Ecuador. For upstream peasant indigenous communities in the Andes, the great expansion of this policy model has meant an increased level of negotiations and interactions with a wide range of downstream water users and conservation agencies. However, there is not a clear understanding of how power dynamics influence the terms of exchange in watershed PES schemes, and the implications that these dynamics have for peasant indigenous control of, and access to, natural resources. The main research question of this thesis is: How do power relations influence the promotion of PES as a policy model and the crafting and operation of PES (-like) projects, and how in turn do these influence natural resource management and control by PES-targeted peasant communities, in the Andean regions of Colombia and Ecuador? The cases included in this thesis show how the impacts of these forms of power influencing PES schemes are variegated, but for the poorest they appear to work toward the deeper entrenching of the status quo, which in most cases implies confirmation and extension of unequal access and rights to natural resources.

Peasants and the art of farming : A Chayanovian manifesto
Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2013
Winnipeg : Fernwood (Agrarian Change and Peasant Studies Series 2) - ISBN 9781552665657 - 157
landbouw bedrijven in het klein - bedrijfssystemen - duurzame landbouw - plattelandsgemeenschappen - landbouw bedrijven - landbouw - verandering - theorie - geschiedenis - wereld - voedselsoevereiniteit - peasant farming - farming systems - sustainable agriculture - rural communities - farming - agriculture - change - theory - history - world - food sovereignty
Many impressive studies on the changing nature of the global food system have been published, and nearly all address changes at the macro level. The far less visible changes occurring at the micro level have received relatively little attention, especially in the realm of critical rural studies. This book is a reflection of the far reaching and complex transformations of food systems that have occurred as a result of liberalization and globalization. This book focuses on the structure and dynamics of peasant farms and the historically highly variable relations that govern the processes of labour and production within the peasant farms. Jan Douwe van der Ploeg argues that peasant agriculture can play an important, if not central, role in augmenting food production and creating sustainability. However, peasants today, as in the past, are materially neglected. By building on the pioneering work of Chayanov, this book seeks to address this neglect and to show how important peasants are in the ongoing struggles for food, food sustainability and food sovereignty.
Exploring a low carbon development in rural China : the role of households
Liu Wenling, Wenling - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Nico Heerink. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735539 - 172
klimaatverandering - china - milieubeleid - kooldioxide - plattelandsomgeving - emissiereductie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - landbouwhuishoudens - huishoudens - climatic change - environmental policy - carbon dioxide - rural environment - emission reduction - rural communities - agricultural households - households

As the largest emitter of greenhouse gasses in the world, China is facing great pressure to reduce these emissions in order to mitigate global climate change. Developing a low carbon economy has been initiated in many countries, including China, as a means to tackle this issue. China’s actions in tackling climate changehave mainly focused so far on setting targets in its national energy strategy, and on implementing measures in the industrial sector and in urban transportation and buildings. The contribution of rural energy use to climate change has largely been neglected. In recent decades, China’s rural economy has undergone rapid development, accompanied by a substantial and profound change of rural lifestyles and a gradual transition of residential energy use patterns. This resulted in a trend towards the use of a greater variety of energy sources among rural residents.Thisrural energy transition is in particular characterized by a steady rise ofcommercial energyconsumptionand of energy intensity per capita, resulting in an increase in carbon emissions. As a result, mitigating rural CO2 emissions and promoting a rural low carbon transition arecrucial forChina’sclimate change agenda. Households are considered key actors in the rural energy transition, since reduction of CO2 emissions is bound up with changing domestic routines of energy consumption. The central objective of this research is to define the existing contribution of rural energy consumption to climate change and to explore the possibilities for low carbon transitions of rural households in China by examining the composition, formation and (potential) transformation of household energy consumption practices.

Western ecological modernization theory is used as the theoretical basis of this study. The social practice model, developed within this theory, offers an integrative model to analyze transitions towards sustainable consumption at the level of everyday life. As such, social practices of household energy use are taken as focal points. Both individual attitudes towards energy use and the structural energy-related provision systems are taken into consideration in analyzing the transformation of household energy use practices.

Official data on rural energy use faces some major shortcomings that hinder a comprehensive evaluation of rural CO2 emissions. Thus, to understand the contribution of rural domestic energy use to national greenhouse gas emissions in China, a general evaluation on its climate impacts is conducted in chapter two, based on multiple data sources and calculating methods. It is found that the contribution of rural (residential) carbon emissions to national total emissions might be easily neglected, since only emissions from commercial energy use are taken into account in official statistics, not those from traditional biomass use. This results in an underestimation on rural carbon emissions and mitigation potentials. The estimated CO2 emissions of rural commercial energy consumption accounts for around 4% of national total emissions, but the commercial energy use is only 1/5-1/4 of rural residential energy consumption. Large emissions and mitigation potentials from traditional biomass use are usually neglected. An energy transition is taking place in rural areas, with the dominant use of conventional biomass gradually being (partly) substituted by commercial energy utilization. Despite this transition, the increase of total rural domestic energy consumption and their carbon emissions may continue for a long time when the rural economy continues its rapid development. Promoting a transformation in the energy structure and of the behaviour of rural energy users is therefore crucial to slow down and reverse this process.

Developing renewable energy is taken as a key strategy to optimize the energy structure and stimulate a low carbon transition. Public acceptance of such sustainable energy technologies is crucial for their successful introduction and penetration. The third chapter applies a socio-psychological framework to analyze rural householders’ understandings of a low carbon future by examining their attitudes towards the development of renewable energy in rural China. A case study was conducted in Shandong province. The results show that most rural householders have vague understandings of the ‘low carbon’ concept, but they are generally supportive torenewable energy development. In particular, a positive behavioural intention to pay for ‘higher cost’ of renewable energy production is observed among a large part of the respondents. This willingness to pay increases with household income and individual knowledge. It may be expected that continued development of the rural economy and society will result in improvements in rural education and income levels, which will come along with a growing environmental awareness among rural residents and further a change of their behavioural practices towards a low carbon transition.

Energy use practices of rural households show a wide variety in China. These diverse energy use practices contribute differently to greenhouse gas emissions. A case study in north China (Shandong) was carried out to probe into their different contribution and examine the factors that influence or determine energy use behavioural practices of rural households (chapter four). The results show that space heating in north China is the largest emissions source among domestic energy use practices, which accounts for around 60% of household carbon emissions. The variety of rural energy use practices also leads to many possibilities of transition. The most obvious change may be brought along by a modernization of household lifestyles. Economic factors are one of the major drivers of such a transition. High-income groups are found to consume more energy for transportation and water heating, while low-income groups consume more energy for basic living practices such as space heating and cooking. It should be noted that a transition to modern-lifestyles tends to result in higher carbon emissions due to a larger energy consumption demand. However, a low carbon transition is also taking place to some extent within each energy use practice. For instance, natural gas is increasingly used for cooking instead of coal and traditional biomass; and renewable energy such as solar energy and biogas are replacing the use of fossil fuels for water heating and cooking. A low carbon development emphasizes both modernization and de-carbonization of domestic energy use practices, and cannot be separated from changes in the system of energy provision.

Rural housing provision is crucial for future domestic energy use in rural China. The provision of rural housing is increasingly diversifying over the past decade, with variations in type of houses as well as actor arrangements that determine the lay-out of houses, the kind of energy sources used and thus future household energy use. Several case studies of concentrated rural housing provision are conducted in Shandong and Inner Mongolia, China to understand the factors influencing possible low carbon housing (chapter five). The major objective is to look into how decisions are being made regarding low carbon (behavioural and technological) alternatives for future rural domestic energy consumption practices. The empirical results show that providers of houses are the major decision makers with regard to the kind of materials, technologies and energy networks applied in rural housing development. Concentrated rural housing can improve both the energy efficiency of houses and the living conditions of households compared to traditional stand-alone modes of housing, which implies a relatively low carbon housing provision. Local governments, private property developers and local (energy) authorities in principle have the power to select and apply low carbon alternatives. Other energy (related) provision systems are also engaged in a transition of modernizing and de-carbonizing, including improved commercial energy supply, increased renewable electricity generation and decentralized energy provision. However, the transition can to a great extent be attributed to technological improvements within these systems. The transition to a low carbon economy would greatly benefit from strengthening other important aspects, such as improved energy-related markets, decentralized management of energy provision projects, diversified strategies aiming at different agents or actors involved, and increased participation of rural householders to alter the situation of ‘captive consumers’ of energy.

In sum, this thesis finds that with rural development and modernizing rural lifestyles in China rural residential energy use is leading to increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy use practices of rural households in China have to be both modernized and decarbonized in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A low carbon development demands, on the one hand, improvement of environmental awareness and attitudes, which is starting to play a more important role in the energy use decision making of rural householders; on the other hand, it demands that energy-related provision systems in rural China continue to be diversified, modernized and de-carbonized, and thereby make low carbon alternatives available for rural householders.

Community-Managed Disaster Risk Reduction : Investing in Resilience. A report prepared for Cordaid
Gordon, A.N. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation - 81
risicovermindering - droogteresistentie - droogte - ethiopië - kenya - oost-afrika - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - natuurrampen - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - plattelandsgemeenschappen - noodhulp - risicobeheersing - risk reduction - drought resistance - drought - ethiopia - east africa - community involvement - natural disasters - community development - rural communities - emergency relief - risk management
Cordaid has been supporting community-managed disaster risk reduction (CMDRR) and drought cycle management (DCM) in the Horn of Africa for eight years. Many evaluations have pointed to successful outcomes but quantitative data are scarce. The aim of this study was to verify the extent to which Cordaid’s CMDRR/DCM work has contributed to building more resilient communities. Cordaid wanted to know more precisely what its added value is, compared to relief assistance. This was considered particularly timely given the recent (severe) drought situation in the Horn of Africa. This report is based on work undertaken in Kenya and Ethiopia in late 2011 and early 2012. A wealth of largely qualitative evidence is presented to support the finding that CMDRR can indeed build resilience. Importantly, many CMDRR communities themselves attest to being more resilient as a result of CMDRR. However, measuring those results is difficult. In common with other approaches, CMDRR helps communities strengthen physical assets for resilience (water development, pastures, animal health care etc.) but its “edge” may be in the emphasis it places on intangible assets (capacity-building in “soft” skills such as representative process for community organisation and planning) – as the means by which to ensure that interventions are demand-led, well-managed by the community and hence sustainable. Measuring the potentially far-reaching impacts of those “process” assets requires the development of robust monitoring systems to follow communities over a number of years.
Soupravljanje naravnih virov: vaške skupnosti in sorodne oblike skupne lastnine in skupnega upravljanja
Rodela, R. - \ 2012
Wageningen [etc.] : Wageningen University [etc.] - 91
hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - plattelandsgemeenschappen - participatief management - slovenië - resource management - natural resources - rural communities - participative management - slovenia
Evaluating land use options at the wildlife/livestock interface: an integrated spatial land use analysis
Chaminuka, P. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; Akke van der Zijpp; C.M.E. Mccrindle, co-promotor(en): Rolf Groeneveld. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731333 - 258
wild - vee - rundvee - landgebruik - plattelandsgemeenschappen - ecotoerisme - middelen van bestaan - wildlife - livestock - cattle - land use - rural communities - ecotourism - livelihoods
In Africa, rural development and biodiversity conservation, are both important, but sometimes potentially conflicting priorities. Most rural areas adjacent to wildlife protected areas in Southern Africa have high biodiversity potential, but are characterised by high poverty, unemployment, and limited economic activity. The problems in these rural areas are further compounded by problems of crop destruction, and livestock depredation by wildlife. Transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), recently introduced in Southern Africa, have potential to address both biodiversity and poverty alleviation through promotion of multiple land uses such as wildlife ranching, tourism, livestock and crop production. It is however, not clear how these land uses can be combined, and what the associated socio-economic costs and benefits of alternative land use options in these areas are. This study proposed a spatial land use model for evaluating alternative land uses and development pathways in these rural areas. The model maximised net revenues from the land, assuming the presence of a social planner. The model proposed, considered a range of socio-economic and biophysical factors, identified jointly with rural communities. The study comprised five empirical chapters in which the following issues are addressed; (i) socioeconomic risks associated with agriculture at the interface, and community attitudes towards wildlife tourism land uses (ii) contribution of existing livelihood strategies to household incomes, (iii) potential for tourism development and (iv) trade-offs in net revenues between different options for land use. The case study areas was Mhinga, one of the rural areas within the Great Limpopo TFCA in South Africa. The study area is situated on the north-western border of Kruger National Park (KNP), next to the Punda Maria park gate. Results showed that the costs by wildlife related damage such as livestock depredation and diseases, were higher than the benefits in employment and subsidies from the park for households. As a consequence attitudes towards wildlife by farmers were generally negative. There was also no mechanism to compensate households incurring wildlife damage. Households living closer to the park had more problems with wildlife damage. When the contribution of different livelihood activities to household incomes were considered, the study found that the main sources of income were the government welfare grants, formal employment and cattle farming. Cattle farmers were not in support of introducing wildlife based land use activities as they considered them to impose costs on other livelihood activities. Some community members were however of the opinion that introducing wildlife tourism could create employment and improve household incomes, especially for those households not engaged in cattle farming. When preferences of tourists, towards supporting forms of ecotourism outside the KNP were analysed, through a choice experiment approach, the study found that tourists were interested in village tours and crafts markets, but generally reluctant to use accommodation facilities outside the park. Analysis of options for land based development at the interface showed that existing land use practices were not optimal. The model results indicate that, by introducing irrigation, tourism and wildlife land uses, net revenues from land could be doubled in the future. It is concluded that, given the socioeconomic and bio-physical constraints characteristic to the area, most income can be obtained by combining all four land uses in the area in optimal proportions. Factors such as property rights, and benefits distribution which could impact the ability of rural communities in the TFCA to support, utilize and benefit from wildlife resources need to be addressed before any land use changes are implemented.
The other side of migration in rural Nepal: sociocultural transformation and the women left behind
Gartaula, H.N. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Leontine Visser. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730329 - 177
sociale kwesties - arbeidsmobiliteit - beroepsmobiliteit - plattelandsgemeenschappen - nepal - migratie - vrouwenemancipatie - landgebruik - voedselzekerheid - landbouwhuishoudens - huishoudens - middelen van bestaan - plattelandsvrouwen - vrouwen - azië - social issues - labour mobility - occupational mobility - rural communities - migration - emancipation of women - land use - food security - agricultural households - households - livelihoods - rural women - women - asia

This study examines the relationship between male labour out-migration and the process of sociocultural transformation in the places of origin. Taking an example from Nepal, it shows that male labour out-migration has increased women’s partici­pation in agriculture, more significantly so in those cases where the left-behind women are de-facto household heads than in cases where they live with in-laws. Similarly, in the case of ­­de-facto female heads of households, women’s role in agricultural decision-making has increased. Women, who in the absence of their husbands live with their in-laws, continue to remain under patriarchal control, not by their husbands but by their father-in-law and elder brothers-in-law. Women who are de-facto heads of the households can exercise more autonomy in decision-making and have more control over their own mobility. Hence, the effects of male out-migration on women’s participation in agricultural work and decision-making are also conti­ngent upon the domestic arrangement in which they find themselves.

Dorpsidentiteit: op zoek naar eenheid in verscheidenheid : vijf methoden waarmee dorpsbewoners hun dorpsidentiteit expliciet kunnen maken
Aalvanger, A. ; Beunen, R. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 275) - 58
plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandsplanning - plattelandsgemeenschappen - dorpen - sociale participatie - plattelandsopbouw - toekomst - sociaal kapitaal - rural development - rural planning - rural communities - villages - social participation - rural animation - future - social capital
Dit rapport gaat over de identiteit van dorpen. De Brede Overleggroep Kleine Dorpen in Drenthe, Doarpswurk en de Vereniging Groninger Dorpen ondersteunen dorpen bij het opstellen van een eigen dorpsvisie. Hierin zijn de wensen en ideeën van de dorpsbewoners opgenomen voor de toekomst van hun dorp. Daarbij speelt de dorpsidentiteit een belangrijke rol in de manier waarop bewoners omgaan met de ontwikkelingen die op hun dorp afkomen. Omgekeerd kunnen de ontwikkelingen gevolgen hebben voor de identiteit van het dorp. Het doel van dit onderzoek is het ontwikkelen van methoden waarmee bewoners zelfstandig, of met minimale ondersteuning, de identiteit van het dorp expliciet kunnen maken.
Eefde: identiteit en toekomst van een woondorp in het groen
Kauffmann, A. ; Kersten, I. ; Noordhuizen, J. ; Weenink, D. ; Hoofwijk, H. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR Wetenschapswinkel 274) - ISBN 9789085857303 - 42
ruimtelijke ordening - ruimtelijke analyse - ontwerp - bewonersparticipatie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - identiteit - gelderland - plattelandsplanning - physical planning - spatial analysis - design - community participation - rural communities - identity - rural planning
In aanvulling op het onlangs afgeronde Dorpsplan Eefde had de dorpsraad van dit Gelderse dorp behoefte aan een visie voor de sociaal-ruimtelijke ontwikkeling voor Eefde. Dit met name in het licht van de grote infrastructurele projecten die in Eefde gepland staan voor de komende jaren. Het is in dit kader dat de Dorpsraad zich tot de Wetenschapswinkel wendde met het verzoek na te denken over een toekomstvisie voor het dorp, maar dan wel één die nadrukkelijk verankerd is in de Eefdese realiteit.
Reshaping institutions : bricolage processes in smallholder forestry in the Amazon
Koning, J. de - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856979 - 268
tropische bossen - bolivia - amazonia - governance - bosbezit - bosbouwkundige handelingen - besluitvorming - plattelandsgemeenschappen - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - instellingen - bosbeleid - tropical forests - forest ownership - forestry practices - decision making - rural communities - non-governmental organizations - institutions - forest policy
This thesis aims at identifying the different kinds of institutional influences on forest practices of small farmers in the Amazon region of Ecuador and Bolivia and how small farmers respond to them. It departs from the perspective that institutions affecting forest practices are subject to processes of institutional bricolage in which small farmers construct their own institutional frameworks by aggregating, altering, or articulating elements of existing disparate institutions. This research demonstrates that institutions, whether introduced by government, NGO, or already existing, are subject to processes of institutional bricolage that can be either conscious and strategic of nature or less conscious and unintentional.
Leefbaarheid & kulturhusen : welke overheid doet wat?
Fontein, R.J. ; Hogenkamp, M. ; Kranendijk, J. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra [etc.] - 10
plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandsgemeenschappen - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - voorzieningen - participatie - gezondheid op regionaal niveau - regionaal beleid - overijssel - rural development - rural communities - community development - facilities - participation - community health - regional policy
Een discussienotitie over verschillende overheidsrollen, taken en verantwoordelijkheden bij het waarborgen van leefbaarheid, specifiek de ontwikkeling van het kulturhus-concept.
Samen leven in het dorp : 'sociale cohesie: voor wat het waard is'
Weenink, D. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 261) - ISBN 9789085851929 - 42
plattelandsgemeenschappen - cohesie - dorpen - opinies - sociale participatie - nederland - salland - overijssel - bewonersparticipatie - rural communities - cohesion - villages - opinions - social participation - netherlands - community participation
Dit rapport doet verslag van een onderzoek naar het gemeenschapsgevoel in dorpen. Doel van het onderzoek was te achterhalen hoe dorpsbewoners betekenis en vorm geven aan het lokale gemeenschapsgevoel in hun alledaagse leven. Twee Overijsselse dorpen (Lierderholthuis en Wesepe) zijn intensief bestudeerd met behulp van interviews, enquêtes en dorpsgesprekken. Saamhorigheid is het tastbare resultaat van gezamenlijke activiteiten: opknappen van het schoolplein, verbouwen van de sportaccommodatie en de acties rond de defibrillators. Gezien de langere aanrijtijd voor de ambulance in de dorpen lopen mensen een groter risico bij acute hartproblemen, hetgeen Wesepe in het verleden heeft moeten betreuren door het overlijden van bewoners. De dorpsgemeenschap werd gemobiliseerd, er werden collectes gehouden, de defibrillators werden aangeschaft en geïnstalleerd op verschillende plekken in de dorpskern en het buitengebied. Vervolgens gingen vele dorpsbewoners op cursus om de apparaten te leren bedienen. Het is van belang om in te zien dat deze symbolen niet slechts een eenmalige betekenis hebben. Een van de doelen van het onderzoek was om door een vergelijking te maken van twee dorpen die leken te verschillen met betrekking tot de sociale samenhang, na te gaan hoe sociale cohesie tot stand komt
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