Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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First week nutrition for broiler chickens : effects on growth, metabolic status, organ development, and carcass composition
Lamot, David - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Henry van den Brand; Peter Wijtten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430777 - 187
broilers - animal nutrition - poultry feeding - feeds - growth - metabolism - carcass composition - nutrition physiology - vleeskuikens - diervoeding - pluimveevoeding - voer - groei - metabolisme - karkassamenstelling - voedingsfysiologie

During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the residual yolk that is available at hatch and that may provide nutritional support during the first days after hatch, the growth performance may be affected by the time in between hatch and first feed intake. Furthermore, it remains largely unknown to what extend nutritional composition of a pre-starter diet, as well as feed availability directly after hatch have an effect on physiological development directly after hatch, but also at later age. The aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of feed availability and feed composition provided during the first week of life on short-term physiological development, as well as potential long-term effects on growth performance of broiler chickens. Especially early hatched chickens were suggested to benefit more from direct feed access compared to midterm and late hatched chickens, as they tended to have a higher body weight gain during the first week after hatch. A delay in feed access for 48 h resulted in lowered body weight gain and feed intake when compared to direct feed access, but so did a short (13 to 26 h) delay in feed access after hatch. In the latter case, delayed feed access resulted in a lower weight to length ratio of the jejunum and ileum at 4 d of age compared with chickens with direct feed access. Although delayed feed access after hatch resulted in lower body weight gain during the first week after hatch and thereafter, it can be discussed whether this is truly an impairment of long-term growth or just a delayed onset of growth. With respect to feed composition, the inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet had minor effects on humoral immune function. Inclusion of medium chain fatty acids did result in higher body weight gain and lowered feed efficiency during the first week of life, but only during the period it was provided. Feeding increased diet densities during the first week of life, obtained by formulating diets with different dietary fat levels, resulted in an increased gain to feed ratio, whereas body weight gain and feed intake decreased. Despite the shift in dietary energy supply from carbohydrates to fat and the perceived lower fat digestibility in young broiler chickens, nitrogen metabolizability and fat digestibility were not affected in the current study by feeding increased diet densities. The relative crop, liver and pancreas weights decreased when feeding increased diet densities, whereas the length of the entire intestinal tract increased. This suggests that broiler chickens repartition visceral organ development in response to feeding more concentrated diets during the first week of life. Interestingly, protein and fat accretion were not affected. Continued feeding of increased diet densities after 7 d of age resulted in increased BW gain, G:F ratio and metabolizable energy intake, but mainly during the periods that these diets were provided. In summary, even short durations of delayed feed access already impact intestinal development of young broiler chickens. However, a delayed feed access up to 48 h after hatch does not result in impaired growth, but only a delayed onset of growth. Even though digestibility of fats and oils may be suboptimal in young broiler chickens, feeding of these diets does not have to result in lowered performance per se. Young broiler chickens appear to adapt themselves towards high density diets with high fat inclusion levels in the first week of life, enabling them to digest and metabolize these diet types despite a suboptimal capacity for fat digestion. High density diets result in higher growth performance, but only for the period these diets are provided and thus carry-over effects at later age appear to be limited.

Phytate degradation in broilers
Krimpen, M.M. van; Emous, R.A. van; Spek, J.W. ; Kwakernaak, C. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 978) - 50
broilers - phytic acid - digestibility - poultry feeding - vleeskuikens - fytinezuur - verteerbaarheid - pluimveevoeding
Effects of early life conditions on immunity in broilers and layers
Simon, K. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Aart Lammers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576711 - 188 p.
broilers - hens - ontogeny - poultry feeding - chicken housing - immune response - antibiotics - gastrointestinal microbiota - immunology - immunity - vleeskuikens - hennen - ontogenie - pluimveevoeding - huisvesting van kippen - immuniteitsreactie - antibiotica - microbiota van het spijsverteringskanaal - immunologie - immuniteit

ABSTRACT

The course for later life immune responses is set early in life during the developmental phase of the immune system and accordingly disturbances of immune development may have long-term consequences for host health. In terms of immune activation and immune development the gut microbiota play an important role and consequently disturbances of early life microbial colonization may affect host immunity later in life. In chickens, disturbances of microbial colonization may be caused by various early life conditions which in turn may affect robustness of the chick in the long term. The aim of this thesis was to assess the effects of several early life factors including time of access to feed post hatch (immediately or 72 hours delayed), housing conditions, antibiotic treatment, and intestinal pathology on the intestinal microbiota composition, immune development, and specific antibody response later in life in chickens. Additionally, possible differences between broilers and layers were taken into account as unintentional co-selection of immunological traits may have taken place during the selection process for different production traits. Delayed access to feed and administration of antibiotics early in life led to a shift in early life microbiota composition, which seemed to be restored quite quickly in both cases. Microbiota composition in response to DSS was not investigated, but based on rodent studies was expected to be influenced. Ileal immune development, which was assessed in terms of relative cytokine and immunoglobulin mRNA expression levels was not affected by feeding strategy post hatch (early vs. delayed), but a downregulation of ileal immunoglobulin expression levels could be observed during DSS treatment. All early life factors investigated affected the specific antibody response towards an immunological challenge later in life. Interestingly, there seemed to be an interaction between immediate access to feed post hatch and immune responsiveness towards the environment, thus early feeding may influence the adaptive capacity of chickens in different environments. Regarding the differences between breeds it is interesting to note that broilers seem to have developed a more humoral oriented immune strategy, while layers seem to react in a more pro-inflammatory way. Taken together, results suggested that early life conditions may influence priming of the immune system during its developmental phase, leading to altered antibody responses later in life. Furthermore, broilers and layers seem to have developed different immune strategies. Early life conditions as well as possible differences between breeds should therefore be taken into account in future immunological studies.

Response of broilers on incremental dietary P content and consequences for P- requirements
Krimpen, M.M. van; Dekker, R.A. ; Emous, R.A. van; Bikker, P. ; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Lee, A.G. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 931) - 44 p.
broilers - phosphorus - nutrient requirements - poultry feeding - broiler performance - feeds - poultry farming - vleeskuikens - fosfor - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - pluimveevoeding - vleeskuikenresultaten - voer - pluimveehouderij
The aim of the current experiment was to determine the aP requirements in modern broilers by performing a dose-response experiment. This study showed that for realizing maximal performance, in phase 1 (d1-d10) 5.4 g aP per kg of feed was required, in phase 2 (d11-d21) 4.3 g aP per kg of feed, and in phase 4 (d31-d38) 2.6 g aP per kg of feed. In phase 3 (d22-d30), performance of the broilers was not affected by dietary aP content. For realizing maximal tibia ash content in phase 3, an aP-level of 3.8 g/kg was required.
Voer en water tijdens transport van pluimvee
Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Voogt, Annika ; Visser, E.K. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 752) - 45 p.
pluimvee - veevervoer - drinkwater - pluimveevoeding - diervoeding - dierenwelzijn - wetgeving - europese unie - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - poultry - transport of animals - drinking water - poultry feeding - animal nutrition - animal welfare - legislation - european union - animal production - animal health
Effects of rye inclusion in grower diets on immunity-related parameters and performance of broilers
Krimpen, M.M. van; Borgijink, S. ; Vastenhouw, S.A. ; Bree, F.M. de; Bossers, A. ; Fabri, T. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Rebel, J.M.J. ; Smits, M.A. ; Emous, R.A. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 889) - 33
pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikens - pluimveevoeding - dieetstudies - rogge - arabinoxylanen - diergezondheid - poultry farming - broilers - poultry feeding - diet studies - rye - arabinoxylans - animal health
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of three levels (0, 5, and 10%) of rye between 14 and 28 days of age on gut health and performance in broilers. A total of 960 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were allocated to 24 pens (40 birds per pen). The inclusion of 5 or 10% rye in the diet between day 14 and 28 in a broiler diet resulted in decreased performance and litter quality, but in increased villus height and crypt depth in the small intestine (jejunum) of the birds. Relative bursa and spleen weights were not affected by dietary treatments. In the jejunum, no effects on number and size of goblet cells, and only small effects on microbiota composition in the digesta were observed. Dietary rye inclusion affected expression of genes involved in cell cycle processes of the epithelial gut cells, thereby influencing cell growth, cell differentiation and cell survival. This observation is consistent with the observed differences in the morphology of the gut wall. Whether this also affected the barrier function of the epithelial layer, cannot be concluded. The complement and coagulation pathways, which are also affected by providing rye-rich diets, are parts of the innate immune system. These pathways are involved in eradicating invasive pathogens. Overall, it is concluded that inclusion of 5% or 10% rye to the grower diet of broilers in the current study had limited effects on performance. Ileal gut morphology, microbiota composition of jejunal digesta, and gene expression profiles of jejunal tissue, however, were affected by dietary rye inclusion levels.
Fulfilling 100% organic poultry diets: concentrates : ICOPP Technical Note 1
Crawley, K. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2015
ICOPP Consortium
pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - biologische landbouw - eiwitbronnen - aminozuren - voedergewassen - poultry farming - poultry feeding - organic farming - protein sources - amino acids - fodder crops
This guide analyses the potential of locally produced and novel protein sources as viable, alternative feed sources for the organic poultry industry.
Estimating requirements for apparent faecal and standardised ileal digestible amino acids in laying hens by a metaanalysis approach
Krimpen, M.M. van; Veldkamp, T. ; Riel, J.W. van; Khaksar, V. ; Hashemipour, H. ; Blok, M.C. ; Spek, W. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research report 848) - 71
hennen - aminozuren - voer - meta-analyse - verteerbaarheid - eiwitverteerbaarheid - dunne darm - voedingsstoffengehalte - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - voedingsbehoeften - pluimvee - pluimveevoeding - hens - amino acids - feeds - meta-analysis - digestibility - protein digestibility - small intestine - nutrient content - nutrient requirements - feed requirements - poultry - poultry feeding
The aim of the present study is to update the requirements for the essential amino acids of laying hens, both on a AFD and SID basis, by performing a meta-analysis on dose-response studies used to derive requirement values for essential amino acids (lysine, methionine+cysteine, threonine and tryptophan) in laying hens as presented in the literature. In this meta-analysis, the data are fitted by use of the Wood equation (see paragraph 2.4). The amino acid intake levels for realizing maximal rate of lay, egg mass and feed efficiency are provided. The amino acid requirements for use in practice are based on the amino acid intake levels at which 95% of these maximum responses were reached.
Fosforgehalte in legvoeders kan omlaag
Star, L. van der; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2015
De Pluimveehouderij 45 (2015)5. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 20 - 21.
pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - fosfor - hennen - voersamenstelling - poultry farming - poultry feeding - phosphorus - hens - feed formulation
Onderzoek naar de fosforbehoefte van leghennen is gedateerd. Daarom hebben Schothorst Feed Research en Wageningen UR Livestock Research de P-behoefte van huidige leghennen onderzocht. De uitkomst van de literatuurstudie zijn eerder beschreven. In dit artikel staan de resultaten van het bijbehorende dierexperiment.
Implementation of the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol – final report : overview of outcome-based measurement of broiler welfare and a general discussion on the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol
Jong, I.C. de; Gunnink, H. ; Hindle, V.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 833) - 57
dierenwelzijn - pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikens - protocollen - diergezondheid - huisvesting van kippen - pluimveevoeding - animal welfare - poultry farming - broilers - protocols - animal health - chicken housing - poultry feeding
In the current report, two topics related to our study on the implementation of the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol are discussed. First, animal-based measures for broiler welfare, currently included in the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol, are discussed with respect to their suitability as outcome-based measure in future legislation or regulations. Practical experiences with the measures and supporting literature are used to judge the various animal-based measures. Second, the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol is discussed with respect to a simplification, the relevance of the various measures and the aggregation model, and it is suggested how the assessment protocol can be applied in practice.
Phosphorus requirement in laying hens
Lambert, W. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Star, L. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Schothorst Feed Research (Report / Schothorst Feed Research 1362-2) - 48
hennen - fosfor - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - pluimveevoeding - voedersupplementen - diergezondheid - pluimveehokken - hens - phosphorus - nutrient requirements - poultry feeding - feed supplements - animal health - poultry housing
It was hypothesized that P supply by feed in alternative housing systems can be lowered without negative effects on bone quality and production performance. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were 1) to update the retainable phosphorus (rP) needs of two modern laying hen breeds from 36 to 90 weeks of age housed in an aviary system, 2) to investigate the influence of dietary rP levels on Ca and P content in eggs, manure, carcasses and bones.
IAG ring test feed composition 2014
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. ; Vliege, J.J.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2014.010) - 21
voersamenstelling - pluimveevoeding - ringtest - microanalyse - microscopie - kippen - feed formulation - poultry feeding - ring test - microanalysis - microscopy - fowls
A ring test was organized for the microscopic determination of composition in animal feed in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG – International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The aim of the ring study was to provide the participants information on the performance of the local implementation of the method for composition analysis of feed.
IAG ring test animal proteins 2014
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. ; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Prins, T.W. ; Voet, H. van der; Vliege, J.J.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2014.011) - 35
ringtest - microscopie - dierlijke eiwitten - rundveevoeding - pluimveevoeding - diergezondheid - ring test - microscopy - animal proteins - cattle feeding - poultry feeding - animal health
A ring test was organized for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed by microscopy in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG – International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The aim of the ring study was to provide the participants information on the performance of the local implementation of the detection method for their local quality systems. A further aim was to gather information about the application of the microscopic method.
The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens
Veldkamp, T. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van; Bikker, P. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 806) - 27
vleeskuikens - biologische beschikbaarheid - zink - belgië - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - excretie - excreten - landbouw en milieu - pluimveevoeding - pluimveehouderij - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - broilers - bioavailability - zinc - belgium - nutrient requirements - excretion - excreta - agriculture and environment - poultry feeding - poultry farming - scientific research
Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulfilling the zinc requirements of the animal and to reduce zinc excretion in excreta and the environment.
Improving performance of broilers fed lower digestible protein diets
Qaisrani, S.N. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Rene Kwakkel; Marinus van Krimpen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570313 - 182
vleeskuikens - eiwitverteerbaarheid - vleeskuikenresultaten - fermentatie - einddarm - boterzuur - voer - voedingsfysiologie - pluimveevoeding - diervoeding - broilers - protein digestibility - broiler performance - fermentation - hindgut - butyric acid - feeds - nutrition physiology - poultry feeding - animal nutrition

Background and Problem Statement

There is a great interest in recent years to replace soybean meal by cost effective protein sources such as rapeseed meal and maize gluten in animal feed. In poultry, this replacement, however, may result in a poorer performance due to among others its low ileal digestibility, which may lead to hindgut protein fermentation. This hindgut protein fermentation can result in the production of harmful compounds such as ammonia, branched chain fatty acids, biogenic amines and different sulfur containing compounds such as skatole, indole and phenolic compounds. This can negatively affect the cost of broiler meat production. When digestibility is low gut health may be compromised. Also feed to gain ratios will be high and overall performance will be low. Apart from the economic losses, good digestible protein sources may be preferably used for human consumption. Thus, the challenge is to provide the basis for the development of a new feeding strategy that meets the nutrient requirements of modern-day broilers, especially when they are fed a low ileal digestible protein source, i.e. rapeseed meal and maize gluten, thereby minimizing the interruption of their production performance.

Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study was to find ways to improve protein digestibility of poor ileal digestible resources, to reduce potential hindgut protein fermentation by developing appropriate dietary strategies such as an adequate diet structure, the supplementation of organic acids and/or fermentable energy that improve nutrient availability at ileal level and gut health in broilers.

The specific objectives of the present study were to:

Review various factors that influence hindgut protein fermentation in broilers and nutritional strategies that may reduce hindgut protein fermentation (Chapter 2). Determine the effects of protein source, differing in fermentation characteristics, and of digestible dietary protein content on performance, gut morphology and cecal fermentation characteristics in broiler (Chapter 3). Investigate the effects of diet structure combined with different levels of indigestible dietary protein source on performance and gut morphology in broilers (Chapter 4). Study the main and interactive effects of protein source, diet structure, butyric acid and fermentable energy supplementations on performance, gut morphology and cecal fermentation characteristics (Chapter 5). Analyze the effects of protein source, diet structure, butyric acid and fermentable energy supplementation on cecal microbiota population and composition (Chapter 6).

Major Findings of the Thesis

This thesis provides a literature review and describes the results of three experiments in which different nutritional strategies were tested. All experiments were carried out with Ross-308 broilers.

Chapter 2 reviews the literature on hindgut fermentation in broilers with special attention to protein fermentation, its detrimental effects on performance, gut health and on gut microbiota population. A wide range of harmful products such as ammonia, branched chain fatty acids, biogenic amines and different sulfur containing compounds such as skatole, indole and phenols are produced as a result of protein fermentation. Greater concentrations of biogenic amines, branched chain fatty acids, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, indole, phenols, cresol and skatole in the cecal indicate more proteolytic fermentation. Low concentrations of some of the protein fermentation products including biogenic amines are necessary for a normal gut development. This may result in distinct differences in protein digestibility when measured at the ileum and the total digestive tract. It was concluded that nutritional strategies, such as a reduction in dietary CP, supplementation of pre- and probiotics and organic acids, or feeding diets with coarse particles may increase ileal CP digestibility, thereby reducing the amount of substrate available for fermentation. These nutritional interventions can potentially enhance protein digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and, therefore, reduce the chances of protein fermentation in the hindgut.

In Chapter 3, effects of three major protein sources, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and maize gluten at two different digestible CP levels (15.8 and 17.2%) were studied to test the hypothesis that broilers fed a diet with high levels of indigestible protein, will result in a reduced growth performance, lower villus heights, deeper crypts, and more protein fermentation products in cecal digesta. In total, 288 one-day-old male broilers were used for this study. Broilers fed soybean meal diet showed a better performance compared with those fed rapeseed meal and maize gluten diets due its greater ileal digestibility compared with the other two protein sources. High digestible CP (17.2%) diet fed broilers showed better performance compared with those on low digestible CP (15.8%) diet. No significant effects of protein source as well as digestible CP level were found on gastrointestinal tract development, cecal ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Broilers fed soybean meal had improved duodenal morphology compared with those fed the rapeseed meal and maize gluten diets. A lower cecal pH and greater branched chain fatty acids concentrations in the cecal digesta were observed in broilers fed the rapeseed meal diet compared with those fed the soybean meal and maize gluten diets, indicating more proteolytic fermentation. In conclusion, protein source as well as digestible CP level affected growth performance, gut morphology and protein fermentation characteristics in broilers.

In Chapter 4, a hypothesis that a coarse diet improves performance of broilers fed a poorly digestible protein source was tested by using 210 one-day-old broilers. A highly digestible protein diet based on soybean meal was gradually replaced by a low digestible protein diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) in five steps (RSM-0%, RSM-25%, RSM-50%, RSM-75% and RSM-100%) with two diet structures (fine vs. coarse). An increase in indigestible dietary protein decreased the performance of broilers. Total cecal volatile fatty acid concentrations decreased from 209 to 126 mmol/kg DM digesta in broilers with increasing rapeseed meal in diets. Increase in the indigestible protein level, from RSM-0% to RSM-100%, decreased villus heights (1782 vs. 1574 µm), whereas crypt depths increased (237 vs. 274 µm). A coarse diet improved the performance with a 15% heavier empty gizzard weight and changed gut morphology. Coarseness of the diet reduced the empty weights of the crop, proventriculus and jejunum, and reduced gizzard pH by 16%. Protein fermentation indices such as branched chain fatty acids and biogenic amines were reduced by 24 and 12%, respectively, in the cecal digesta of broilers fed coarse diets compared with those fed fine diets. In conclusion, feeding coarse particles improved the performance of broilers even with a poorly digestible protein source. Hindgut protein fermentation was reduced in broilers fed diets with a low CP digestibility by coarse grinding of the diet.

In Chapter 5, the effects of protein source, diet structure and supplementation of butyric acid and fermentable energy on growth performance and cecal digesta characteristics were investigated to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid and fermentable energy improves growth performance of broilers fed a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine vs. coarse), fermentable energy (with vs. without) and butyric acid supplementation (with vs. without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal were evaluated. Coarseness of the diet positively affected performance and improved relative empty gizzard weights by on average 14%. The relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum and ileum, were reduced in coarse diets fed broilers compared with those fed fine diets. Broilers fed coarse diet showed a 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, improved gut morphology, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids compared with those fed the fine diets. Broilers fed butyric acid supplemented diets had improved performance and gut morphology compared with those fed the diets without butyric acid. Fermentable energy supplementation did not influence growth performance nor gut development and contents of total branched chain fatty acids and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta. Supplementation with fermentable energy, however, decreased the concentration of spermine by approximately 31%. In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid improves growth performance of broilers even if they are fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a low digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and butyric acid supplementation in the diet.

In Chapter 6, the effects of protein source, diet structure, butyric acid and fermentable energy supplementations on cecal microbiota population and composition in broilers were evaluated. Cecal digesta samples collected in experiments 1, 2 and 3 were therefore, analysed for some microbiota. The results indicated that cecal microbial diversity was suppressed by dietary coarseness. Similarly, butyric acid and fermentable energy supplementation also resulted in a lower microbial diversity. Soybean meal promoted the average relative contribution of health beneficial L. paracasei and C. lactifermentans spp. compared with those fed rapeseed meal. Dietary coarseness reduced the average relative contribution of E. coli. Butyric acid supplementation promoted the average relative contribution of C. lactifermentans and R. bromii, and suppressed the pathogenic C. perfringens in the cecal digesta. Fermentable energy, in contrast, promoted C. perfringens. In conclusion, feeding a poorly digestible protein source, with coarse grinding and supplemented with butyric acid may be an effective strategy to promote health beneficial and suppress pathogenic microbiota in the cecal digesta.

Conclusions

The main conclusion of the study is that rapeseed meal diets reduce performance and gut health, but these negative effects can be partially counterbalanced by coarse grinding and butyric acid supplementation. Some specific conclusions based on the results of the studies described in this thesis are:

Rapeseed meal is a poorly digestible protein source for broilers and results in reduced growth performance and gut morphology (Chapter 3). Coarse diet feeding enhances the development of the foregut, specially the gizzard, and it increases villus heights and reduces crypts depths in the duodenum (Chapters 4 and 5). The negative effects of moderate inclusion of indigestible protein can be counterbalanced to some extent by feeding a coarse diet (Chapters 4 and 5). The improved foregut development and villus height in the duodenum is associated with an enhanced ileal digestibility of protein, thereby allowing less protein available for fermentation in the hindgut (Chapter 5). Butyric acid supplementation improves growth performance and gut morphology (Chapter 5). Both soybean meal and dietary coarseness suppress cecal microbial diversity and promotes health beneficial microbiota (Chapter 6). Dietary coarseness suppresses pathogenic bacteria and promotes health beneficial microbiota in the ceca (Chapter 6). Coarsely ground diet with a moderate inclusion of poorly digestible protein source, supplements with butyric acid, is a good strategy to improve the ileal digestibility of protein and thus growth performance of broilers (Chapters 4 and 5).

Practical Implementations

This study might have some practical conclusions. Rapeseed meal can be used as a protein source in a broiler ration. Coarsely ground rapeseed meal, supplemented with butyric acid (approximately €2.1/100 broilers), can potentially replace soybean meal. It will not only provide a cheaper protein source but will also reduce the cost of feed production by reducing the steps in grinding the feed ingredients or using a roller mill instead of a hammer mill. These coarse particles will improve gut morphology and growth performance of broilers as well as increase the profitability of broiler feed producers and also broiler farmers (approximately €6/100 broilers). The most perspective feeding strategy to enhance the growth performance of broilers fed a poorly digestible protein source is the use of coarsely ground supplemented with butyric acid.

Laying hen performance in different production systems; why do they differ and how to close the gap? Results of discussions with groups of farmers in The Netherlands, Switzerland and France, benchmarking and model calculations
Leenstra, F.R. ; Maurer, V. ; Galea, F. ; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Amsler, Z. ; Visscher, J. ; Vermeij, I. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2014
European Poultry Science 78 (2014)3. - ISSN 1612-9199 - p. 1 - 10.
pluimveehouderij - hennen - uitloop - biologische landbouw - eierproductie - huisvesting van kippen - pluimveevoeding - dierenwelzijn - poultry farming - hens - outdoor run - organic farming - egg production - chicken housing - poultry feeding - animal welfare - egg-production systems - free-range - feather pecking - risk-factors - welfare - uk
Free range and organic systems expose the laying hen more to unexpected events and adverse climatic conditions than barn and cage systems. In France, The Netherlands and Switzerland the requirements for a hen suitable to produce in free range and organic systems were discussed with farmers. The farmers preferred for these systems a more 'robust' hen, more specifically defined as a heavier hen with good eating capacity
Advies houdt stand
Emous, R.A. van; Krimpen, M.M. van; Kwakkel, R.P. - \ 2014
De Pluimveehouderij 44 (2014)3. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 26 - 27.
pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - diergezondheid - vleeskuikenouderdieren - energiegehalte - voersamenstelling - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - poultry farming - poultry feeding - animal health - broiler breeders - energy content - feed formulation - animal behaviour - animal welfare
Livestock Research bekeek de effecten van een lager en hoger energieniveau in foktoom 1-voer ten opzichte van het huidige advies in de eerste legfase van vleeskuikenouderdieren.
Gering effect ouder-kind
Harn, J. van; Emous, R.A. van - \ 2014
De Pluimveehouderij 44 (2014)2. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 32 - 33.
pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - vleeskuikenouderdieren - vleeskuikens - voetzolen - laesies - voetziekten - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - poultry farming - poultry feeding - broiler breeders - broilers - footpads - lesions - foot diseases - animal health - animal welfare
De invloed van ouderdierenvoeding op kuikenprestaties en voetzoollaesies was nog onbekend. Livestock Research deed daarom onderzoek
Meer energie gunstig
Emous, R.A. van; Krimpen, M.M. van; Kwakkel, R.P. - \ 2014
De Pluimveehouderij 44 (2014)4. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 32 - 33.
pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - vleeskuikenouderdieren - energiegehalte - voer - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - eierproductie - poultry farming - poultry feeding - broiler breeders - energy content - feeds - animal behaviour - animal welfare - egg production
Livestock Research heeft onderzoek verricht naar de effecten van een hoger energiegehalte van het voer in de tweede fase van de legperiode bij vleeskuikenouderdieren.
Rol van voer en broederij
Harn, J. van; Jong, I.C. de - \ 2014
De Pluimveehouderij 44 (2014)4. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 34 - 35.
pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - energiegehalte - voetzolen - laesies - voetziekten - vleeskuikens - dierenwelzijn - voer - uitbroeden - poultry farming - poultry feeding - energy content - footpads - lesions - foot diseases - broilers - animal welfare - feeds - hatching
Livestock Research heeft het effect onderzocht van broedlocatie en energiegehalte van het voer op voetzoollaesies bij vleeskuikens.
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