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- L.M.M. Tijskens (1)
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Nitric oxide prevents wound-induced browning and delays senescence through inhibition of hydrogen peroxide accumulation in fresh-cut lettuce
Iakimova, E.T. ; Woltering, E.J. - \ 2015
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 30 (2015). - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 157 - 169.
programmed cell-death - short-term exposure - lactuca-sativa l. - disease resistance response - processed romaine lettuce - ammonia-lyase activity - phenolic metabolism - iceberg lettuce - shelf-life - postharvest senescence
As a source of bioactive ingredients, lettuce is a preferable component of a healthy diet. In recent years the production of fresh-cut produce has become a fast growing business. However, the shreds are highly sensitive to wound-induced browning and premature senescence that substantially reduces the visual and sensory qualities and shortens the shelf life. To improve the fresh-cut quality, in this work, short pre-storage exposure of shreds from butterhead and iceberg lettuce to nitric oxide (NO) gas was applied. It was found that fumigation with 100 and 200 ppm NO for 1 or 2 h remarkably inhibited the browning of the cut surface and of other injured leaf areas; NO treatment delayed the senescence and substantially prolonged the shelf life upon storage at 4 °C and 12 °C. To obtain information on the physiological processes involved in the wound response, the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the occurrence of cell death were analyzed. The results revealed that the wounding stimulated the accumulation of H2O2 thus generating oxidative stress leading to cell death. A correlation between elevated H2O2 levels, cut surface browning, senescence and storability of the fresh-cuts was established. In comparison to mature leaves, younger leaves expressed a lesser susceptibility to wound-induced browning and the associated oxidative stress. Applied NO strongly inhibited the H2O2 accumulation which may explain its beneficial effects.
Development of colour of broccoli heads as affected by controlled atmosphere storage and temperature
Schouten, R.E. ; Zhang, X. ; Verkerk, R. ; Verschoor, J.A. ; Otma, E.C. ; Tijskens, L.M.M. ; Kooten, O. van - \ 2009
Postharvest Biology and Technology 51 (2009)1. - ISSN 0925-5214 - p. 27 - 35.
brassica-oleracea l. - nadph-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase - chlorophyll degrading enzymes - var. italica heads - carbon-dioxide - postharvest senescence - gas-exchange - harvested broccoli - keeping quality - firmness change
Colour is one of the most important quality attributes of broccoli. Yellowing due to senescence of broccoli florets is the main external quality problem. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage is a very effective method to maintain broccoli quality. The aim of this paper is to characterise the colour behaviour (measured by RGB colour image analysis) of broccoli as affected by CA and temperature. Data on colour behaviour and gas exchange were gathered for broccoli heads stored in containers at three temperatures and subjected to four levels of O2 and three levels of CO2 concentrations. An integrated colour model is proposed that combines a colour model with a standard gas exchange model. The colour model is based on an existing colour model that describes the formation of (blue/green) chlorophyllide from the colourless precursor, the bidirectional conversion of chlorophyllide into (blue/green) chlorophyll and the decay of chlorophyllide. A multi-response approach was applied, accounting for 92% of the variance. Gas exchange parameters were estimated using the gas exchange model, the colour parameters were estimated using the colour model. Both models are linked via the reaction rate constant that describes the decay of chlorophyllide, as this reaction rate constant was found to be affected by the gas conditions. The integrated model might be applied to predict colour changes of MAP packaged broccoli as a low level of O2 and a high level of CO2 will only affect colour retention at higher temperatures.
Gene expression in opening and senescing petals of morning glory (Ipomoea nil) flowers
Yamada, T. ; Ichimura, K. ; Kanekatsu, M. ; Doorn, W.G. van - \ 2007
Plant Cell Reports 26 (2007)6. - ISSN 0721-7714 - p. 823 - 835.
programmed cell-death - senescence-associated genes - leaf senescence - arabidopsis-thaliana - cysteine proteinase - postharvest senescence - alstroemeria petals - caffeoyl-coenzyme - identification - disease
We isolated several senescence-associated genes (SAGs) from the petals of morning glory (Ipomoea nil) flowers, with the aim of furthering our understanding of programmed cell death. Samples were taken from the closed bud stage to advanced visible senescence. Actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription, if given prior to 4 h after opening, suppressed the onset of visible senescence, which occurred at about 9 h after flower opening. The isolated genes all showed upregulation. Two cell-wall related genes were upregulated early, one encoding an extensin and one a caffeoyl-CoA-3-O-methyltransferase, involved in lignin production. A pectinacetylesterase was upregulated after flower opening and might be involved in cell-wall degradation. Some identified genes showed high homology with published SAGs possibly involved in remobilisation processes: an alcohol dehydrogenase and three cysteine proteases. One transcript encoded a leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase, putatively involved in signal transduction. Another transcript encoded a 14-3-3 protein, also a protein kinase. Two genes have apparently not been associated previously with senescence: the first encoded a putative SEC14, which is required for Golgi vesicle transport, the second was a putative ataxin-2, which has been related to RNA metabolism. Induction of the latter has been shown to result in cell death in yeast, due to defects in actin filament formation. The possible roles of these genes in programmed cell death are discussed.