Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Gender action plans in the aquaculture value chain : what's missing?
Bosma, Roel H. ; Nguyen, Thi Dien ; Calumpang, Lorna M. ; Carandang, Sef Alba - \ 2018
Reviews in Aquaculture (2018). - ISSN 1753-5123
farmed seafood - gender mainstreaming - inequality - patriarchy - poverty - women

Gender equality has been a political issue in view of human rights and welfare since several decades. Therefore, many countries have developed Gender Action Plans (GAPs) that support equal access of both sexes to education, employment and finance. Two workshops on GAPs in aquaculture and a literature review brought about the question: what's missing in Asian sectoral GAPs. Not all reviewed Asian countries have GAPs for fishery/ aquaculture, but all encountered constraints to achieve their goals regarding equal access for women. Women's contribution in aquaculture tends to go beyond the traditional gender divide. For example, women may lead in the area of production because they can combine aquaculture with their homebound tasks and own vertically integrated companies. However, skewed perceptions on the role, status and perception of women and men, more so in strong than weak patriarchies (the former accept the subservient role, while the latter exercise the dominant role) limit women's access to training opportunities on new aquaculture technologies. Women are also left out in policy- and decision-making processes; and in the value chain, women receive lower wages than men. Their role is underestimated by lack of disaggregated data, as reflected in post-disaster interventions and industrial development programs. To be effective sectoral GAPs, based on disaggregated data, should have budgets, plans and target indicators for which leaders could be held accountable. These GAPs, however, can't address the required radical change in attitude toward women; unless deliberately planned educational media campaigns are embedded into the national GAPs.

Agro-clusters and rural poverty: a spatial perspective for West Java
Wardhana, D. ; Ihle, R. ; Heijman, W.J.M. - \ 2017
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 53 (2017)2. - ISSN 0007-4918 - p. 161 - 186.
clusters - farming activities - poverty - spatial dependence - Indonesia
Neighbouring economies are likely to influence one another. The concentration of farming activities referred to as an ‘agro-cluster’ generates opportunities for income and employment in a given region and its surrounding area. We analyse the link between poverty rates and agro-clusters by accounting for spatial spillovers. To quantify agroclusters, we employ one input-oriented and one output-oriented measure. Our analysis applies six spatial econometric specifications and focuses on 545 subdistricts of West Java, where about 10% of the population live in poverty. We find that the concentration of agricultural employment substantially reduces poverty in a subdistrict as well as in neighbouring subdistricts. We also find that specialisation in crop outputs has positive impacts on poverty reduction and that localisation externalities are fundamental to agriculture's success. These findings imply that policy interventions may be applied in a spatially selective manner because they will generate spatial-spillover effects on poverty reduction in surrounding areas.
Understanding poverty-related diseases in Cameroon from a salutogenic perspective
Makoge, Valerie - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Maria Koelen, co-promotor(en): Harro Maat; Lenneke Vaandrager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434515 - 193
armoede - kameroen - malaria - tyfus - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - hiv-infecties - cholera - tuberculose - diarree - gezondheidsgedrag - gezondheidsvoorzieningen - spanningen - poverty - cameroon - typhoid - hiv infections - tuberculosis - diarrhoea - health behaviour - health services - stresses

Poverty-related diseases (PRDs) assume poverty as a determinant in catching disease and an obstacle for cure and recovery. In Cameroon, over 48 % of the population lives below the poverty line. This dissertation starts from the premise that the relation between poverty and disease is mediated by a person’s capacity to cope with the challenges posed by the natural and social environment. The central problem addressed is that in (inter)national health promotion, disease eradication is overemphasized whereas strengthening the capacity of people to cope with harsh conditions is disregarded. Research efforts show a similar division in emphasis, resulting in a limited understanding of the way people deal with health challenges in conditions of poverty. This dissertation is based on the salutogenic model of health that emphasizes the combined effects of (natural) disease conditions, mental conditions and social factors as determinants of health. This implies an emphasis on health as a positive strategy to deal with stressors and also an emphasis on the agency of people to respond to challenges that hamper their health and wellbeing. The study is carried out among two different groups of people in Cameroon. These are workers including dependants of workers of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) and students from the universities of Buea and Yaoundé. The overall aim of this dissertation is to understand how conditions of poverty impact the health of people and how they manage these challenges. Specifically, the study aims to unravel the interlinkages between poverty and health by creating a deeper understanding of the social and material dynamics which enable people’s capacity to preserve health, anticipate health risks, and mitigate or recover from stressors such as PRDs. The main research question addressed is: What factors underlie the maintenance of good health and overcoming stressors in the face of PRDs in Cameroon?

Different research methods were used to collect data. Interviews were carried out with respondents from both groups addressing PRDs, other stressors and coping strategies. General surveys were carried out to identify perceptions as well as health behaviour patterns across the two groups. Standardised surveys were carried out to measure individual factors such as sense of coherence, resilience, self-efficacy, subjective well-being and self-rated health. Results presented in different empirical chapters of the thesis each respond to a specific research question. In Chapters 2 and 3 are presented surveys with 272 students and 237 camp-dwellers respectively. Perceptions, attributed causes of, and responses towards PRDs are explored as well as motivations for given responses to health challenges. In chapter 4, a qualitative study with 21 camp-dwellers and 21 students is presented in which the dynamics of health-seeking behaviour is highlighted. In this chapter also, factors which are influential in seeking formal healthcare are indicated. Chapter 5 elaborates on what people experience as stressors and the mechanisms they put in place to cope with the stressors. In this chapter, not only is the diversity of stressors outlined for both groups, but also presented are the different identified coping mechanisms put in place by respondents. Chapter 6 which is the last empirical chapter presents coping with PRDs through an analysis of individual, demographic and environmental factors.

Based on the studies carried out, this thesis concludes that the two groups investigated are very aware of what PRDs are and can differentiate them from common diseases. Major PRDs listed by the two groups of respondents were malaria, cholera and diarrhoea. This classification is different from what is considered major PRDs by (inter)national health bodies such as the World Health Organisation and the Ministry of Public Health in Cameroon. Also, organisations such as CDC and Universities, offer limited contributions towards better health for camp-dwellers and students respectively. This is experienced relative to the living conditions, quality of the healthcare system and poor work or study conditions. That notwithstanding, people play an active role in maintaining their health through diverse coping mechanisms. Coping was most strongly related to enabling individual factors such as sense of coherence and subjective health, perceptions of effective strategies to respond to diseases as well as social factors such as the meaningful activities in the social groups to which they belong. The results presented in this thesis are intended to contribute to sustainable and effective response strategies towards PRDs.

Stadium Coltan : artisanal mining, reforms and social change in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
Wakenge, Claude Iguma - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): K. Vlassenroot; Jeroen Cuvelier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434560 - 210
mining - conflict - economic sociology - cooperatives - reconstruction - poverty - rural sociology - workers - feedstocks - minerals - congo democratic republic - central africa - mijnbouw - economische sociologie - coöperaties - reconstructie - armoede - rurale sociologie - werkers - industriële grondstoffen - mineralen - democratische republiek kongo - centraal-afrika

In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the mining sector has the potential to play a pivotal role in post-conflict reconstruction (World Bank, 2008), and artisanal mining sustains the livelihoods of millions people in the country (PACT, 2010). However, in the last 15 years, minerals from this artisanal mining have been ill-reputed. Eastern DRC has often been characterised by chronic instability and violent conflicts (Autesserre, 2010; Stearns, 2011) because it is widely believed that minerals in this region have attracted the greed of national and foreign armed groups, who benefit from the mining business.

Although this ‘greed hypothesis’ has been criticised for its inconsistent performance in explaining resource-related conflicts (Le Billon, 2010; Ross, 2006), various national and international reform initiatives have gained momentum (Verbruggen et al., 2011). These initiatives aim to make the Congolese artisanal mining sector more transparent and to prevent ‘conflict minerals’ from entering the international market. In 2014, 13 reform initiatives—10 focusing on 3T (tantalum, tin and tungsten) and three on gold—were operational in eastern DRC (Cuvelier et al. 2014: 5). The implicit assumptions are that mining reforms will fully ‘clean’ artisanal mining of violence and corruption and that this will contribute to sustaining people’s livelihoods (Garrett and Mitchell, 2009: 12).

This study investigated initiatives intended to ‘formalise’ artisanal mining in DRC—in other words, they aimed to bring mining under state control. The study especially focuses on the effects of one among these initiatives—the ITRI Tin Supply Chain Initiative (iTSCi)—on two groups of actors: miners (creuseurs) and middlemen (négociants). This thesis thus presents a fine-grained case study of the iTSCi. Designed by the International Tin Research Institute in 2009, iTSCi provides a means of determining the origin of 3T and documenting the trading chain for these minerals by ‘tagging and bagging’ the loads of 3T near miners’ shafts (at postes d’achat/selling points or buying stations), at counting offices (comptoirs) and in mineral depots, before the minerals are exported through the international market.

This is a qualitative study undertaken at three coltan mining sites of northern Katanga: Kahendwa, Kisengo and Mai-Baridi. Coltan has been extracted at these sites since 2007. From March 2013 to September 2014, data were collected using participant observation of people’s practices (extraction/sale of coltan and various types of interactions between trading houses, cooperatives, mineworkers (creuseurs) and middlemen (négociants), as well as detailed in-depth interviews with creuseurs, négociants and their households. Data were also collected from the staff of mining cooperatives, trading houses, state authorities and civil servants—predominantly of the Service d’Assistance et d’Encadrement du Small-Scale Mining (SAESSCAM) and the Division des Mines. The last group of informants were a group of clandestine coltan négociants (known as hiboux—literally, ‘owls’), who were followed in the study.

The purpose of this research is to study the micro-dynamics of changes after the reforms following the implementation of iTSCi. The study thus provides insights into how iTSCi is concretely implemented and how it has altered the organisation of mining and the trade of coltan. The study also aims to examine how this organisation affected creuseurs and négociants. The main research question of this study is as follows:

How have initiatives to reform artisanal mining (iTSCi in particular) affected institutional change, how does this relate to changes in patterns of coltan production and trade, how were creuseurs and négociants affected by these changes, and how did these groups respond in the coltan mining areas of Kahendwa, Kisengo and Mai Baridi (northern Katanga) from 2009 to 2014?

Analytically, the study adopted three main theoretical perspectives. First, an actor-oriented approach was taken, building on the premise that individual actors have the agency, knowledge and experience to reflect upon their situation and to respond to changes in their surrounding context (Giddens, 1984). Although the examined mining reforms consist predominantly of ‘ready-made’ techniques such as iTSCi’s ‘tagging and bagging’, analysing reforms with an actor orientation helps to highlight people’s reactions and responses. This includes how reform policies are applied in institutions (e.g. mining cooperatives), how they interact, how they are assigned meaning and how they are negotiated by social actors (Christoplos and Hilhorst, 2009).

Second, the study builds on the sociology of economic life, which holds that economic action is a form of social action that is socially ‘embedded’, meaning that it is linked with or dependent on actions and institutions (such as social networks) that are noneconomic in content, goals and processes (Granovetter, 2005). This perspective facilitates the analysis of the livelihoods of négociants, including mechanisms of smuggling minerals into and beyond the mining areas where iTSCi is in force.

Third, this thesis introduced the original concept of ‘enclaves of regulations’. These enclaves refer to the mining areas where iTSCi or other reforms are in force. This thesis has shown that, although these ‘enclaves’ appear to be ‘closed’ and insulated from the environment in terms of the locally applied rules for the mining and trading of minerals (e.g. ‘tagging and bagging’), in reality, such closure is not complete. This thesis has demonstrated that it would therefore be more appropriate to consider these ‘enclaves’ as semi-autonomous fields with porous boundaries.

Apart from the introduction and the concluding chapters, this thesis is composed of five chapters. Chapter 2 explores the evolution of the mineral sector in the Katanga province. It analyses the history of mining, the initiation of artisanal mining and how the ongoing reforms have been informed by this history. In this chapter, it is shown that there is a long history of the organisation of mining in the Katangese province. The reforms therefore did not enter into a stage of anarchy, or an institutional void, but they added a layer to already existing forms of organisation.

Chapter 3 focuses on mining cooperatives as newly introduced institutions aimed at governing the artisanal mining sites. Through a single case study, the chapter analyses how these cooperatives —especially the Coopérative des Artisanaux Miniers du Congo, CDMC—were introduced into the mining areas and how they interacted and blended with pre-existing miners’ organisations. This chapter demonstrates that cooperatives have been an emergent—rather than durable—solution in terms of representing the interests of artisanal miners.

In Chapter 4, I provide a different perspective on ‘conflict minerals’. I thus introduce the notion of ‘reform conflicts’ to emphasise that, although ongoing reforms aim to sever the supposed linkages between the artisanal mining business and violent conflicts, these reforms have become a driving force behind the emergence of new conflicts over property rights and access to minerals.

Chapter 5 is about livelihoods. It analyses how the reforms have influenced the livelihoods and socioeconomic position of négociants. This chapter also explores what kind of opportunities the reforms have offered to this group of mineral brokers often considered powerful in the mineral supply chain and explains what kind of constraints the négociants have confronted and why they have opted to diversify their livelihood portfolios. The chapter has shown that the reforms have affected this group of mineral brokers in different ways. Some négociants were well off, whereas others have been excluded from the mineral commodity chain. These findings contradict the widespread opinion that négociants are always abusive brokers in the mineral production and commodity chain.

Chapter 6 analyses the responses of creuseurs and négociants to iTSCi. Although the mining sites where iTSCi is in force appear to be ‘enclaves of regulations’, I explore the strategies of creuseurs and négociants to bypass iTSCi and the reforms, especially around the coltan trade. This chapter demonstrates that coltan smuggling is a deeply rooted practice. Despite the reforms, smuggling continues in different forms.

All of the elements highlighted above suggest that mining reforms have undergone a major shift, from addressing the initial problems associated with ‘conflict minerals’ to creating or reinforcing various types of problems, such as the influence of ‘big men’ in the mining business, coltan smuggling and the emergence of new conflicts over accessing minerals. This means that reform initiatives such as iTSCi should be based on knowledge about the actual situation. Thus, understanding and addressing these new types of problems calls for a comprehensive approach at both local and broader levels.

Moving Toward New Horizons for Marketing Education : Designing a Marketing Training for the Poor in Developing and Emerging Markets
Teklehaimanot, Mebrahtu L. ; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M. ; Tessema, Workneh K. ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van - \ 2017
Journal of Marketing Education 39 (2017)1. - ISSN 0273-4753 - p. 47 - 60.
customer value - developing and emerging markets - marketing training - pastoralists - poverty

In recent years, marketing education has broadened to poor people in developing and emerging countries. In this article, the authors use four empirical studies that apply well-established training design procedures to design a marketing training program for Ethiopian pastoralists. Because pastoralists operate in extremely remote, traditional, and sparsely populated regions of developing and emerging markets, the training complements trainings for the poor applied in urban areas of these countries. As such, the article provides implications for training program designers on how they can adapt the training program procedures to other contexts, thereby making marketing ideas accessible to a large and important new target group for marketing education.

Mountains Under Pressure: Evaluating Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods in the Upper Himalayan Region of Nepal
Bhusal, Jagat K. ; Chapagain, Prem Sagar ; Regmi, Santosh ; Gurung, Praju ; Zulkafli, Zed ; Karpouzoglou, T.D. ; Pandeya, Bhopal ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Clark, Julian - \ 2016
International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 42 (2016)3. - ISSN 0377-015X - p. 217 - 226.
water scarcity - poverty - adaptations - Trans-Himalaya - Upper Mustang
Natural resource-based livelihoods in mountainous regions are subject to new types of development as well as climate related pressures and vulnerabilities. On one hand, the integrity of the mountainous landscape is under pressure from the melting of glaciers, changes in water availability, rainfall patterns, and soil degradation. On the other hand, as mountainous environments become increasingly more important in national growth strategies and development priorities, new avenues for livelihoods and vulnerabilities become more pronounced. Climate change effects are expected to be disproportionately higher in mountainous regions. There is therefore a critical urgency to better comprehend these changes shaping mountainous environments and to better
assess future direct and indirect impacts on ecosystem services and livelihoods.
This article presents the results of an analysis of ecosystem services and livelihoods in the Upper Mustang region of Nepal. The region was selected for its particular trans-Himalayan location, development diversity, and climatic changes that have placed increasing pressure on local ecosystem services. We examine the central role of ecosystem services for remote mountain regions, particularly for the poor, the existing pressures on the key ecosystem services and local ways of adapting to climate-induced effect to ecosystem services and, cogeneration of the knowledge gaps and co-production of knowledge with communities to support local adaptation strategies. We adopted a combination of qualitative and quantitative analytical approaches. We found significant implications for local livelihoods and adaptation strategies with reference to water for farming, pasture productivity and livestock rearing, as well as tourism development. Additionally, we highlight knowledge gaps in assessing ecosystem services and opportunities for local monitoring that may close in on the gaps with an end goal of overcoming poverty.
Is sustainable development of semi-subsistence mixed crop-livestock systems possible? : an integrated assessment of Machakos, Kenya
Valdivia, R.O. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Tammo Bult, co-promotor(en): J. Antle; Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578272 - 233 p.
sustainable development - development economics - livestock - cash crops - agriculture - mixed farming - development policy - policy - rural areas - poverty - farming - kenya - east africa - duurzame ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingseconomie - vee - marktgewassen - landbouw - gemengde landbouw - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleid - platteland - armoede - landbouw bedrijven - oost-afrika

Sub-Saharan Africa countries face the challenge of reducing rural poverty and reversing the declining trends of agricultural productivity and the high levels of soil nutrient depletion. Despite of numerous efforts and investments, high levels of poverty and resource degradation persist in African agriculture. The Millennium Development Goals Report (MDGR) states that the majority of people living below the poverty line of $1.25 a day belong to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia. About two thirds of the global rural population lives in mixed crop-livestock systems (CLS), typical of SSA, where interactions between crops and livestock activities are important for the subsistence of smallholders. CLS are characterized by high degree of biophysical and economic heterogeneity, complex and diversified production system that frequently involves a combination of several subsistence and cash crops and livestock. Increasing crop productivity is clearly a key element to improve living standards and to take these people out of poverty. However, agricultural productivity in most of SSA has been stagnant or increased slowly. In addition, the likely negative impacts of climate change on agriculture have accentuated the vulnerability of smallholders.

The international research community has once more the eyes on SSA with the recently proposed post-2015 MDGs, the Sustainable Development Goals that emphasize the need to achieve sustainable development globally by 2030 by promoting economic development, environmental sustainability, good governance and social inclusion. Governments and scientists are making considerable efforts to develop strategies that include structural transformations of the different sectors of the economy in search of the recipe to achieve the SDGs. Most of these strategies are based on policy and technology interventions that seek to achieve the “win-win” outcomes and move from the usual “tradeoffs” between poverty-productivity-sustainability to synergies. A key message of this thesis is that achieving the goal of sustainable development in semi-subsistence African agriculture will require better understanding of the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle: why high poverty and resource degradation levels persist in African agriculture. I hypothesize that the answer to this puzzle lies, at least in part, in understanding and appropriately analyzing key features of semi-subsistence crop-livestock systems (CLS) typical of Sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity and diversity of CLS often constrain the ability of policy or technology interventions to achieve a “win-win” outcome of simultaneously reducing poverty while increasing productivity sustainably (i.e., avoiding soil nutrient losses).

This thesis focuses on the Machakos Region in Kenya. Machakos has been the center of many studies looking at soil fertility issues and its implications for poverty and food security, including the well-known study by Tiffen et al. (1994). Recently, the Government of Kenya developed the Kenya Vision 2030, a long-term development strategy designed to guide the country to meet the 2015 MDGs and beyond. The agricultural sector is recognized as one of the economic actors that can lead to reduce poverty if appropriate policies are in place. For the Vision 2030, the key is to improve smallholder productivity and promote non-farm opportunities. The Vision 2030 was used to assess if the implementation of some of the proposed plans and policies can lead to a sustainable agriculture for smallholders in the Machakos region.

This thesis describes and uses the Tradeoff Analysis Model (TOA), an integrated modeling approach designed to deal with the complexities associated to production systems such as the CLS and at the same time, quantify economic and sustainability indicators for policy tradeoff analysis (e.g., poverty indexes and measures of sustainability). The TOA was linked to Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios to represent different future socio-economic scenarios (based on the Vision 2030) to assess the impacts of policy interventions aimed to move agricultural systems towards meeting sustainable development goals.

One important finding is that the complex behavior of CLS has important implications for the effectiveness of policy interventions. The Machakos analysis provides important findings regarding the implementation and effectiveness of policy interventions addressing poverty and sustainability in Africa and other parts of the developing world. The analysis shows that policy interventions tend to result in much larger benefits for better-endowed farms, implying that farm heterogeneity results in differential policy impacts and that resilience of agricultural systems is likely to be highly variable and strongly associated with heterogeneity in bio-physical and economic conditions. The results shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region. The pathway from tradeoffs to synergies (win-win) seems to be feasible if these interventions and strategies are well implemented, however the analysis also shows that some villages may respond better to these strategies than others. The analysis suggests that these interventions may actually benefit most the areas with better initial endowments of soils and climate.

The analysis also suggested that prices (e.g., maize price) play a key role in the assessment of policy interventions. There is an increasing recognition that analysis of economic and environmental outcomes of agricultural production systems requires a bottom-up linkage from the farm to market, as well as top-down linkage from market to farm. Hence, a two-way linkage between the TOA model and a partial equilibrium market model (ME) was developed. The TOA model links site-specific bio-physical process models and economic decision models, and aggregate economic and environmental outcomes to a regional scale, but treats prices as exogenous. The resulting TOA-ME allows the effects of site-specific interactions at the farm scale to be aggregated and used to determine market equilibrium. This in turn, can be linked back to the underlying spatial distribution of economic and environmental outcomes at market equilibrium quantities and prices. The results suggest that market equilibrium is likely to be important in the analysis of agricultural systems in developing countries where product and input markets are not well integrated, and therefore, local supply determines local prices (e.g., high transport costs may cause farm-gate prices be set locally) or where market supply schedules are driven not only by prices but also by changes in farm characteristics in response to policy changes, environmental conditions or socio-economic conditions. The results suggest that the market equilibrium price associated to a policy intervention could be substantially different than the prices observed without the market equilibrium analysis, and consequently could play an important role in evaluating the impacts of policy or technology interventions.

As mentioned above, climate change poses a long-term threat for rural households in vulnerable regions like Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy and technology interventions can have different impacts under climate change conditions. In this thesis the likely economic and environmental impacts of climate change and adaptations on the agricultural production systems of Machakos are analyzed.

Climate change impact assessment studies have moved towards the use of more integrated approaches and the use of scenarios to deal with the uncertainty of future condition. However, several studies fall short of adequately incorporating adaptation in the analysis, they also fall short of adequately assessing distributional economic and environmental impacts. Similarly, climate change is likely to change patterns of supply and demand of commodities with a consequent change in prices that could play an important role in designing policies at regional, national and international levels. Therefore, a market equilibrium model should also be incorporated in the analysis to assess how markets react to changing prices due to shifts in supply and demand of commodities. The TOA-ME was used to incorporate the elements mentioned above to assess the impacts of climate change. Using data from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) with three emission scenarios (SRES, 2000) to estimate the climate change projections, these projections were used to perturb weather data used by a crop simulation model to estimate the productivity effects of climate change. Land use change and impacts on poverty and nutrient depletion at the market equilibrium were then assessed using the TOA-ME model.

The simulation was carried out for three scenarios, which are a combination of socio-economic and climate change scenarios: a baseline scenario that represents current socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a climate change and current socio-economic scenarios (i.e., future climate change with no policy or technology intervention), and a climate change and future socio economic conditions which are a consequence of rural development policies.

Our findings show that in this particular case, the changes on precipitation, temperature and solar radiation do not show a significant difference among the selected emission scenarios. However, the variability is significant across GCMs. The effects of climate change on crop productivity are negative on average. These results show that policy and technology interventions are needed to reduce this region’s vulnerability. Furthermore, the socio-economic scenarios based on policy and technology interventions presented in the case study would be effective to offset the negative effect of climate change on the sustainability (economical and environmental) of the system across a range of possible climate outcomes represented by different GCMs. Finally, the results show that ignoring market equilibrium analysis can lead to biased results and incorrect information for policy making, in particular for the scenario based on policy and technology interventions.

One of the major conclusions of the thesis are that policy interventions aimed to deal with poverty and sustainability can have unintended consequences if they are not accompanied by a set of policy strategies and investments. For example, increasing the maize price can result in substitution from subsistence crops to maize, without much increase in nutrient inputs, thus increasing soil nutrient losses. The analysis shows that improving soil nutrient balances by increasing fertilizer and manure use is critically important, but is not enough to move the system to a sustainable path.

There is no one factor that can reverse the negative nutrient balances and move the system towards sustainability. Rather, a broad-based strategy is required that stimulates rural development, increases farm size to a sustainable level, and also reduces distortions and inefficiencies in input and output markets that tend to discourage the use of sustainable practices. The Machakos case shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region.

Step-Change : Micro-Entrepreneurs’ Entry into the Middle-Class Market
Babah Daouda, Falylath ; Ingenbleek, P.T.M. ; Trijp, H.C.M. van - \ 2016
Journal of African Business (2016). - ISSN 1522-8916 - p. 129 - 147.
business development - micro-entrepreneurs - poverty - resource-based view - Social mobility

With upcoming middle classes in Africa, micro-entrepreneurs witness new opportunities that can potentially lift them out of poverty. Exploiting these opportunities requires entrepreneurs to make a ‘step-change’ away from the bottom of the pyramid to middle-class markets. This process hosts potential conflicts between informal-sector and formal-sector stakeholders as it requires both new resources and continued access to existing resources. By taking a strategic marketing perspective, this study labels and defines the phenomenon of step-change and offers an explanatory conceptual framework for it. The article draws implications for business development, the gender debate, as well as academic research.

Endline report – Ethiopia, Amref MFS II country evaluations
Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Buizer, N.N. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-031) - 112
development - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - civil society - capacity - ontwikkeling - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - maatschappelijk middenveld - capaciteit
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, Amref. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia MFS II country evaluations
Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-057) - 78
civil society - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Ethiopia, ECFA MFS II country evaluations
Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-054) - 110
civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, ECFA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Ninasam end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Hofstede, M. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Madaan, A. ; Pandey, R. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-040) - 72
poverty - civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - india - south asia - asia - armoede - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - zuid-azië - azië
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Indian theatre and arts organisation Ninasam that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses Ninasam’s contribution to Civil Society in India and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which Ninasam contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain Ninasam’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
Endline report – Ethiopia, TTCA MFS II country evaluations
Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-053) - 74
civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, TTCA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Ethiopia, NVEA MFS II country evaluations
Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Getu, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-052) - 76
civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, NVEA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Ethiopia, HUNDEE MFS II country evaluations
Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-059) - 116
civil society - community development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HUNDEE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Ethiopia, HOA-REC MFS II country evaluations
Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Peters, B. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-058) - 84
civil society - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - maatschappelijk middenveld - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HOA-REC. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Endline report – Ethiopia, FSCE MFS II country evaluations
Ingen, T. van; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Zerfu, E. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Buizer, N.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI rapporten CDI-15-055) - 104
development - community development - civil society - development cooperation - evaluation - ethiopia - netherlands - poverty - social participation - capacity - ontwikkeling - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - maatschappelijk middenveld - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - ethiopië - nederland - armoede - sociale participatie - capaciteit
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, FSCE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Yayasan RUANGRUPA end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Prasetyo, K. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-038)
maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - governance - sociale participatie - beeldende kunsten - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - social participation - visual arts - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Yayasan RUANGRUPA that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses RUANGRUPA’s contributions towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which RUANGRUPA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain RUANGRUPA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
KKI-WARSI end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetya, K. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-062) - 86
maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - sociale participatie - natuurbescherming - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - social participation - nature conservation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Indonesian Organisation KKI-WARSI that is a partner of IUCN-NL. It assesses KKI-WARSI’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia and used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which KKI-WARSI contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain the organisation’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
NTFP-EP end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Larastiti, C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-068) - 92
maatschappelijk middenveld - sociale participatie - armoede - bosbestanden - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - social participation - poverty - forest resources - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
This report describes the results of the end line assessment of Non Timber Forest Product-Exchange Programme (NTFP-EP) that is a partner of IUCN and a part of the Ecosystem Alliance. It assesses NTFP-EP’s contributions towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which NTFP-EP contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain NTFP-EP’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
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