Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Development of pigs raised in a group housing system for lactating sows and their litters
Nieuwamerongen, S.E. van - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth Bolhuis; Nicoline Nieuwenhuizen-Soede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431392 - 270
pigs - piglets - sows - biological development - group housing - lactation - weaning - environmental enrichment - animal behaviour - performance - varkens - biggen - zeugen - biologische ontwikkeling - groepshuisvesting - lactatie - spenen - omgevingsverrijking - diergedrag - prestatieniveau

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the development of pigs that were raised in a newly developed group housing system for lactating sows and their litters, with a focus on the transition around weaning and performance later in life. The starting point of our multi-suckling (MS) system was the natural behaviour of pigs, and the system consisted of 5 farrowing pens connected to a communal area, which included a communal feeding area. Litters were grouped at 1 week of age. Compared with a conventional farrowing system (in which a sow and her piglets are housed in a pen in which the sow is confined individually in a crate), the MS system provided a more spacious and complex environment, with more social and physical enrichment. Before weaning, we found that MS piglets showed more feed-directed behaviour and less damaging behaviours, such as tail biting, than conventionally housed piglets. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, when housed in a more physically and socially enriched pen, MS-raised piglets showed a higher feed intake, a higher weight gain, more play behaviour, and less maladaptive behaviour than the conventionally raised piglets that were housed in a standard nursery pen. In a follow-up study, in which all pigs were housed under equal and enriched conditions after weaning, we found that piglets raised in the MS system had a higher feed utilisation and a lower carbohydrate absorption in an oral sugar absorption test in the early post-weaning phase. In a subsequent study, the same animals were used to investigate their social and cognitive development, using behaviour tests during which pigs competed for access to feed. We found few differences, but there were indications that the pigs raised pre-weaning in the MS system made more use of social information than the conventionally raised pigs. Lastly, we studied effects of different weaning procedures in the MS system (gradual weaning during 9 weeks of lactation vs. abrupt weaning at 4 weeks of age). Weaning seemed to have less impact for the pigs subjected to the gradual weaning treatment (reflected in weight gain and maladaptive behaviour). Also on the long term during the finishing phase (during which both groups were housed equally from 9 weeks of age), the pigs subjected to the gradual weaning treatment showed less maladaptive behaviour and had fewer body lesions than abruptly weaned pigs. To conclude, the multi-suckling system seems promising for improving pig performance, behaviour, and welfare, especially in combination with a more gradual weaning procedure during an extended lactation.

Groepskraamsysteem: ontwikkeling van zeugen, biggen en vleesvarkens bij spenen op 4 of 9 weken leeftijd
Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Nieuwamerongen, S.E. van; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1012) - 38
zeugen - zogende vrouwtjes - biggen - speenleeftijd - groepshuisvesting - kraamhokken - zogen - varkenshouderij - dierlijke productie - prestatieniveau - sows - lactating females - piglets - age at weaning - group housing - farrowing pens - suckling - pig farming - animal production - performance
Op Varkens Innovatie Centrum Sterksel is het effect onderzocht van twee speenstrategieën op de ontwikkeling (groei, voeropname, gezondheid, spelgedrag en beschadigend gedrag) van biggen uit een groepskraamsysteem met vijf zeugen en haar biggen. In de ene groep werden de biggen abrupt gespeend op 4 weken leeftijd (A4). In de andere groep werden de biggen geleidelijk gespeend op 9 weken leeftijd door toepassing van intermittent suckling (IS9). De A4 biggen bleven na spenen in een groep van 35 bij elkaar in een verrijkt biggenhok. Op een leeftijd van 9 weken zijn zowel de A4 als de IS9 biggen opgelegd in verrijkte vleesvarkenshokken voor 35 dieren. De bevindingen van het onderzoek bij de zeugen, biggen en vleesvarkens zijn beschreven in dit rapport.
Genomic selection for improved crossbred performance
Lopes, Marcos Soares - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Henk Bovenhuis; John Bastiaansen; E.F. Knol. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576315 - 202 p.
pigs - crossbreds - genomics - selective breeding - performance - genetic improvement - pig breeding - varkens - kruising - genomica - selectief fokken - prestatieniveau - genetische verbetering - varkensfokkerij

Lopes, M.S. (2016). Genomic selection for improved crossbred performance. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

With the implementation of genomic selection in pig breeding, the genetic progress in purebred populations is expected to increase up to 55% compared to traditional selection based on pedigree information. However, as most of the animals in the pork production system are crossbreds, the increase in genetic progress in purebreds will only be observed on production farms if this progress is expressed in the performance of crossbreds. The main aim of this thesis was to evaluate different models based on genomic information which can be applied to improve performance of crossbred animals. Another aim was to gain insight into genetic architecture of (complex) traits and to investigate how selection history has influenced haplotype patterns of current commercial pigs. This thesis shows that by going beyond traditional genomic selection models, phenotypes can be predicted more accurately. Therefore, these improved models should be considered to improve crossbred performance. Further, this thesis provides important insights into the genetic architecture of the evaluated (complex) traits and also shows evidence that human-driven introgression and selection have shaped the genome of current commercial pig breeds. The research presented in this thesis was performed using data from pigs and the discussion on the practical application of results was focused on pig breeding. The results are relevant for all livestock species where crossbreeding is applied.

De invloed van de concentratie vrij koolstofdioxide in het water op de prestaties van snoekbaars
Blom, E. ; Remmerswaal, Rene ; Janssen, Jac ; Schram, E. - \ 2015
IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C183/15) - 16 p.
snoekbaars - kooldioxide - concentratie - prestatieniveau - visteelt - viskwekerijen - aquacultuur - pike perch - carbon dioxide - concentration - performance - fish culture - fish farms - aquaculture
National Agrologistics Program : report 3: Strategy
Ravensbergen, P. ; Langelaan, H.C. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 82 p.
logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - management science - performance - guidelines - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - bedrijfswetenschap - prestatieniveau - richtlijnen (guidelines)
Programa Nacional de Agrologística : informe 3: Estrategia
Ravensbergen, P. ; Langelaan, H.C. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 64 p.
logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - management science - performance - guidelines - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - bedrijfswetenschap - prestatieniveau - richtlijnen (guidelines)
Wettelijke normen ten aanzien van bodem en gewas in relatie tot de KringloopWijze
Schroder, J.J. ; Aarts, H.F.M. ; Oenema, J. ; Reijs, J.W. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 623) - 16 p.
melkveehouderij - akkerbouw - modellen - normen - mestbeleid - prestatieniveau - milieuwetgeving - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - duurzaam bodemgebruik - kringlopen - landbouwbedrijven - nederland - dairy farming - arable farming - models - standards - manure policy - performance - environmental legislation - farm management - sustainable land use - cycling - farms - netherlands
Om landbouwkundige en milieukundige prestaties van bedrijven te beoordelen, kan het nuttig zijn om prestaties te spiegelen aan normen. Eén van de normen die hiervoor gebruikt kan worden, zijn de normen (opbrengsten, afvoeren, bodemoverschotten, benuttingen) die behoren bij een bedrijf dat de wettelijke toegestane (kunst)mestgiften (‘gebruiksnormen’) maximaal opvult. Dit type normen kan modelmatig geschat worden. Een voorbeeld van een daarvoor geschikt model is het WOD-model. Dit model beschrijft relaties zoals die in proeven gevonden zijn en is geijkt met gegevens uit het BIN uit de periode 1998-2006.
Exploiting genomic information on purebred and crossbred pigs
Hidalgo, A.M. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Martien Groenen, co-promotor(en): D.J. de Koning; John Bastiaansen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576018 - 202
varkens - genomica - kruising - inteeltlijnen - genetische verbetering - fokwaarde - drachtigheidsperiode - androstenon - prestatieniveau - varkensfokkerij - diergenetica - pigs - genomics - crossbreds - inbred lines - genetic improvement - breeding value - gestation period - androstenone - performance - pig breeding - animal genetics
Steroids accumulation in recirculating aquaculture systems
Mota, V.C. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): A.V.M. Cana´rio; C.I.M. Martins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575554 - 145
steroïden - recirculatie aquacultuur systemen - prestatieniveau - bezettingsdichtheid - stress - ph - hydrocortison - testosteron - chemische communicatie - visteelt - viskwekerijen - steroids - recirculating aquaculture systems - performance - stocking density - hydrocortisone - testosterone - chemical communication - fish culture - fish farms
Culturing soles on ragworms: growth and feeding behaviour
Ende, S.S.W. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Johan Schrama. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575622 - 128
solea - soleidae - kweekvis - voeropname - groei - prooi - wormen - foerageren - voedingsgedrag - prestatieniveau - vijverteelt - aquacultuur - farmed fish - feed intake - growth - prey - helminths - foraging - feeding behaviour - performance - pond culture - aquaculture

Ende, S.S.W. (2015). Culturing soles on ragworms: Growth and feeding behaviour. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

Despite the high market demand and intensive research efforts since the 1960s commercial culture of common sole (Solea solea L.) has been unsuccessful. Problems related to availability and price of suitable raw materials (invertebrates) and the low tolerance to crowding have hampered the development of intensive sole culture. Alternative extensive pond cultures systems are currently explored where common sole can graze on natural food. The general aim of this study was to get insight into which factors limit growth of common sole foraging on ragworms in ponds. The results did not show any nutritional effects that may hamper the growth of common sole. At non-limiting conditions, i.e. when fed chopped ragworms and when housed in sediment free tanks, common sole showed higher food intake, higher growth rates and higher nutrient utilization efficiencies than when fed mussels or a formulated diet. The results however suggest that growth in a pond with ragworms was limited by reduced foraging capabilities of common sole. To explore this hypothesis, the effect of prey size, predator size and prey density were tested. Overall, intake of buried ragworms was reduced by more than half in contrast to intake of unburied ragworms. Intake of buried ragworms was reduced regardless of ragworm size or common sole size. Increasing ragworm density only resulted in satiation intake values in smaller common sole. Our results additionally indicate that the presence of common sole hampers ragworm performance in a pond. Ragworms reduced their feeding activities when receiving water from tanks which contained common sole and ragworms, i.e. when common sole could graze on ragworms. Results from this PhD study suggest that the growth of common sole in ponds is not limited by nutritional but by their foraging abilities. However, the results of this study are too incomplete to fully predict growth performance of common sole in a pond. Factors such as temperature, oxygen supply or feeding activity need to be investigated to make comprehensive growth predictions.

GLAMUR case-study report: The comparison of three Dutch pork cases (Tasks 3.5)
Oostindië, H.A. ; Horlings, L.G. ; Broekhuizen, R.E. van; Hees, E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 72
pig farming - case studies - netherlands - supply chain management - performance - animal production - intensive livestock farming - sustainable animal husbandry - regional food chains - animal welfare - pigs - animal housing - varkenshouderij - gevalsanalyse - nederland - ketenmanagement - prestatieniveau - dierlijke productie - intensieve veehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - regionale voedselketens - dierenwelzijn - varkens - huisvesting, dieren
This report presents the case study results of local-global pork chain performances in The Netherlands. As part of Work Package 3, this case study was carried out in cooperation with our Italian GLAMUR partner. The Dutch pork production sector came up after World War 2 and developed into a highly intensified and specialized sector, with emphasis in the southern part of the country. As it became possible and economically attractive to transport fodder ingredients over great distances, pig husbandry became a booming sector, with high technology and knowledge input, and a major exporting sector. In the last decade, the number of pig farms reduced sharply, whereas the number of pigs per farm rose constantly. As a consequence of a combination of factors as pig disease outbreaks in the late 90-s, environmental externalities, growing national opposition against animal welfare conditions ánd growing international competition, the pig sector came to a standstill. In this study three chains are compared: first the Good Farming Global pork chain, to be considered Dutch most typical bulk pork chain, oriented towards more anonymous far-from-home markets with basic requirements in terms of low-priced, food safe and mainstream qualified. The second is the Sustainable Pork Chain, developed some 10 years ago on the Environmental certification schema (MK) as a transparent pork chain towards specialized butchers and more critical retailers. Third, the so-called Lupine Pig project has been analyzed, an early-life cycle initiative that responds to national growing demand for more locally sourced pork production.
The growth of academic spin-offs : the management team’s absorptive capacity and facilitator support
Khodaei, H. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Emiel Wubben; Victor Scholten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574885 - 148
ondernemerschap - universiteiten - ondersteunende maatregelen - bedrijfsvoering - teams - prestatieniveau - entrepreneurship - universities - support measures - management - performance

The Growth of Academic Spin-offs

The Management Team’s Absorptive Capacity and Facilitator Support

Academic spin-offs are defined as new start-up firms that commercially exploit research developed within an academic environment to the benefit of economic, social, and regional development. These start-ups can be initiated by university employees, students or graduates, but also by external individuals grasping the opportunity to bring new knowledge to the market.

Academic spin-offs often face difficulties in translating their initial idea to a business opportunity. In this thesis it is proposed that academic spin-offs can overcome these challenges by enhancing their absorptive capacity and by taking advantage of the guidance and resources provided by supporting organizations. Our findings can assist Academic spin-offs founders to develop their management team capabilities. They can also help university facilitators to optimize their support activities and policy makers to optimize the regional innovation ecosystem.

Groepskraamsysteem: analyse van de ontwikkeling van zeugen, biggen en vleesvarkens
Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Nieuwamerongen, S.E. van; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Troquet, L.M.P. ; Hoofs, A.I.J. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 880)
zeugen - biggen - varkenshouderij - varkensfokkerij - varkens - spenen - kraamhokken - varkensstallen - diergedrag - prestatieniveau - biggen werpen - vee - dierenwelzijn - groepshuisvesting - sows - piglets - pig farming - pig breeding - pigs - weaning - farrowing pens - pig housing - animal behaviour - performance - farrowing - livestock - animal welfare - group housing
Op VIC Sterksel is de ontwikkeling (groei, voeropname, gezondheid, sociaal gedrag, spelgedrag en beschadigend gedrag) van biggen die opgegroeid zijn in een groepskraamsysteem en na spenen gehuisvest zijn in een verrijkt hok in een groep van 40 biggen vergeleken met de ontwikkeling van biggen die opgegroeid zijn in een traditioneel kraamhok en na spenen als toom bij elkaar zijn gehouden in een gangbaar hok met 10 biggen. Bij opleg in de vleesvarkensstal zijn alle biggen opgelegd in traditionele vleesvarkenshokken met 12 dieren per hok. De bevindingen van het onderzoek bij de zeugen, biggen en vleesvarkens zijn beschreven in dit rapport.
Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia
Woldegiorgiss, W.E. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth van der Waaij; T. Dessie. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573161 - 130
kippen - pluimvee - inheems vee - genetische verbetering - houding van boeren - perceptie - kippenrassen - prestatieniveau - dierveredeling - ethiopië - fowls - poultry - native livestock - genetic improvement - farmers' attitudes - perception - fowl breeds - performance - animal breeding - ethiopia

Abstract

Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using improved indigenous chicken. The approaches were structured survey questionnaire, village poultry simulation model (VIPOSIM), Heckman two-step model (econometric model), and experiments involving laboratory and field. First factors that determine the probability and intensity of adoption of exotic chickens were assessed. The probability of adopting exotic chickens was found to be positively affected by access to an off-farm income and negatively by livestock income. The intensity of adoption was negatively affected by being male household head, having a larger farm size, and having livestock income. Then, perceptions of farmers towards village poultry and impacts of interventions on flock and economic performance were assessed. Farmers’ perceptions affected their decisions about implementation of interventions, and interventions increased productivity but only in a few cases the increased revenues outweighed the additional costs. Subsequently, the evaluation of the breeds was conducted by comparing the natural antibody and productivity of improved indigenous chicken with crossbred, commercial and unimproved indigenous chickens. The results revealed that not only the NAb levels but also the effect of NAbs on survival differ between indigenous and improved breeds. NAb levels are associated with survival in commercial layer breed, but reduced survival in indigenous chickens placed in confinement. Improved indigenous chickens showed higher performance than unimproved one for all traits measured on-station, but remains lighter and developed more into a laying type than meat through the short-term selective breeding program. Overall, the present studies indicate that interventions need to be tailored towards the local situation to ensure that they lead not only to improved productivity but also to improved income.

Wat levert een Zonneweide per ha op?
Spruijt, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : ACRRES - Wageningen UR - 15
zonne-energie - zonnecollectoren - energie - rentabiliteit - prestatieniveau - vergelijkingen - akkerbouw - kosten-batenanalyse - solar energy - solar collectors - energy - profitability - performance - comparisons - arable farming - cost benefit analysis
Agrarische ondernemers vragen zich wel eens af hoeveel zonnestroom er op een zonnepark opgewekt kan worden en of het aantrekkelijk is om minder productieve percelen uit productie te nemen en er stroom op te gaan produceren. Op de Zonneweide van ACRRES - Wageningen UR in Lelystad worden stroomproductie en rentabiliteit van verschillende typen PV panelen en vrije veldopstellingen vergeleken. Op basis van de onderzoekservaringen in de afgelopen jaren wordt in dit rapport beschreven wat de opbrengst van een zonneweide per ha kan zijn, hoe het saldo zich verhoudt tot dat van akkerbouwgewassen en of aanleg van een zonnepark op landbouwgrond rendabel kan zijn.
Body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders: impact of feeding strategies
Emous, R.A. van - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Rene Kwakkel; Marinus van Krimpen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572386 - 173
vleeskuikenouderdieren - vleeskuikens - lichaamssamenstelling - gevogeltevoeding - voer - voedingseiwit - voeropname - diergedrag - corticosteron - voortplanting - vrouwelijke vruchtbaarheid - prestatieniveau - diervoeding - broiler breeders - broilers - body composition - fowl feeding - feeds - dietary protein - feed intake - animal behaviour - corticosterone - reproduction - female fertility - performance - animal nutrition

ABSTRACT

Key words: broiler breeder, feeding strategies, body composition, reproduction, behavior

Nowadays, welfare issues in broiler breeders associated with nutrition and reproductive characteristics, are becoming increasingly challenging. Due to genetic selection on broilers, body composition of breeders has changed dramatically during the last 50 years to less fat and more breast muscle. It is postulated that a certain amount of body fat in broiler breeders at the onset of lay is necessary for maximum performance and offspring quality. Body composition of breeders can be influenced by different feed allowances during rearing and lay, as well as by changes in nutrient composition of the diet. However, little is known about the effects of body composition on reproduction of broiler breeders. In this thesis, we investigated the effects of different feeding strategies during the rearing period on body composition at the end of rearing. Moreover, the effects of differences in body composition at the end of rearing, and feeding strategies during lay were evaluated on breeder performance, incubation traits, offspring performance, behavior and feather cover. From this study, it can be concluded that feeding a low protein diet during rearing decreased breast muscle and increased abdominal fat pad, whereas providing an increased feeding schedule, which resulted in a high growth pattern, only increased abdominal fat pad, at the end of rearing. The higher abdominal fat pad content resulted in an increased hatchability during the first phase of lay and a larger number of eggs during the second phase of lay. For maintaining growth pattern, broiler breeders had to provide a higher amount of feed with an increased energy to protein ratio compared to broiler breeders that were fed a diet with a standard energy to protein ratio. This resulted in an increased eating time and less stereotypic object pecking, which may indicate a reduced hunger and frustration. On the other hand, a low daily protein intake during the rearing and first phase of lay can lead to a poor feather cover. Feeding a high-energy diet during the second phase of lay resulted in increased hatchability, decreased embryonic mortality and more first grade chicks.

Grass silage in diets for organic growing-finishing pigs
Bikker, P. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Vermeer, H.M. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der - \ 2014
In: Proceedings of the 4th ISOFAR Scientific Conference ‘Building Organic Bridges’, at the Organic World Congress. - - p. 815 - 818.
graskuilvoer - varkens - varkenshouderij - ruwvoer (roughage) - groei - prestatieniveau - biologische landbouw - varkensvoeding - grass silage - pigs - pig farming - roughage - growth - performance - organic farming - pig feeding
In this study, organically raised pigs received an increasing proportion of grass silage up to 10 and 20% dry matter in the daily ration in the grower and finisher period, respectively, to determine the effects of grass silage on feed intake and growth performance. The pigs receiving a mixture of grass silage and compound feed ingested 0.3 kg DM/d (13% of their daily ration) as grass silage and realised a similar daily net energy intake as pigs fed compound feed only. However, the silage fed pigs realised a lower daily gain (37 g/d) and a lower calculated net energy utilisation (1.6 MJ/kg) for gain and a lower dressing percentage (1.1%) of the carcass. The optimal feeding system and the nutritive value of grass silage for growing pigs requires further investigation to improve the silage intake and clarify and minimise the loss in animal performance.
Environmental innovation in chains and networks : assessing determinants and performance implications in Dutch food and beverage firms
Grekova, E. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Harry Bremmers; Jacques Trienekens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572232 - 150
milieubeheer - ketenmanagement - firma's - bedrijven - prestatieniveau - innovaties - voedselindustrie - dranken - nederland - environmental management - supply chain management - firms - businesses - performance - innovations - food industry - beverages - netherlands

Challenged by the increasing scale of environmental degradation and corresponding stakeholders’ pressure, firms are increasingly integrating environmental concerns into their operations and into the relationships with external partners. Mainly through the theoretical lens of the Resource-based view and its spins-offs, this dissertation focuses on environmental innovation and environmental management (EM) that involves supply chain partners as means of promoting sustainable industry growth, using the Dutch food and beverage processors as a subject of the study. In–house environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM have a promising potential to induce sustainable growth in the industry because they are increasingly connected not only to improved environmental but also to an improved economic performance. However, the implications of environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM for the firm performance are not clear-cut and require further investigation. Prompted by the promising potential of environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM, the current research agenda focuses on their determinants: internal organizational capabilities and external factors (such as the roles of public policies, consumer demand, and other stakeholder pressures). Therefore, the present dissertation aims to investigate determinants of environmental innovation and of supply chain-oriented EM and their impact on firm performance.

Chapter 2 illustrates in a dynamic perspective how changing institutional pressures and internal organizational factors influence the development of chain-oriented EM. Overall, institutional pressures are proven to be an important determinant. However, pressures on different levels vary considerably with respect to their impact. We found that pressures from supply chain partners and increasingly from long-term public–private environmental covenants significantly influence the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM. Interestingly, regulative institutional pressure from public authorities appeared to have no impact on supply chain-oriented EM. These findings are of particular interest as they suggest that Dutch public policy has chosen to rely on a responsibility culture, initiative, and self-organization, rather than on direct steering. This policy setting seems to work since our data evidence a progress in the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM. Furthermore, the findings show that food processors with more developed EM systems, associated with the presence of continuous improvement capabilities, are more likely to advance their EM by implementing supply chain-oriented EM. In course of time, as firms increasingly consider the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM as appropriate behaviour, institutional pressures become less influential and internal organizational factors become crucial to enable the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM.

Chapter 3 offers further insights into organizational capabilities for supply chain-oriented EM. Prior research rarely considered how firms use their existing capabilities and the capabilities developed within their environmental strategy to come up with new and better ways to reduce the environmental impact. We investigate whether the integration of environmental concerns within the firm can provide an additional impetus to the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM, when combined with innovative orientation. In this context, we assess performance implications of capabilities for supply chain-oriented EM. Compared with the past research, we consider supply chain-oriented EM as an organizational capability for the integration of supply chain partners into EM, not as a set of environmental practices. The findings show that the development of supply chain-oriented EM is supported by both capabilities of innovative orientation and environmental integration and is accelerated by their combination. Furthermore, integration capabilities on in-house and supply chain levels appeared to be interconnected. The capability to integrate environmental concerns within the firm induces the integration of environmental concerns in the supply chain relationships. Finally, it is shown that the overarching capability to engage supply chain in EM pays off. This capability is induced by the implementation of interconnected environmental practices that involve supply chain partners (green purchasing, environmental collaboration with customers, and eco-design).

Chapter 4 advances the understanding of the impact of supply chain-oriented EM on firm performance by introducing in environmental research the problem of appropriation of benefits created by the partners. Grounded in the Resource based view spin-offs, we claim that supply chain-oriented EM can enhance the performance of the focal firm not only directly, but also indirectly. The indirect relationship implies that supply chain-oriented EM stimulates the focal firm to implement more environmentally sustainable processes that in turn contribute to firm's performance. We found that supply chain-oriented EM involving customers can induce in-house environmental innovation that results in strong performance improvements. Interestingly, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers brings about weak performance improvements as a result of appropriation of the advantage realized by suppliers. Therefore, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers has a limited value and potential for Dutch food processors. Possibly, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers can induce process changes among suppliers, not focal firms. In this context, Chapter 4 illustrates the necessity to integrate the characteristics of supply chain actors into the research on the implications of supply chain-oriented EM. The findings regarding the impact of supply chain-oriented EM on the sustainability of internal operations have a link with firm performance. Supply chain-oriented EM that involves suppliers was shown to induce no significant improvements in environmental sustainability of operations among food processors. Unlike supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers, supply chain-oriented EM involving customers has an indirect effect on the firm performance via environmental innovation.

Firm’s network can be seen as a rich source of knowledge. Having access to knowledge and resources of the partners in supply chains and networks does not imply that a firm can appropriate (i.e. capture) corresponding benefits that could enhance environmental sustainability of in-house operations and performance. The exploitation of external knowledge requires the development of organizational capability to realize the value of new external knowledge, assimilate it and ultimately exploit it – absorptive capacity. Chapter 5 brings absorptive capacity into the discussion regarding the role of external partners in environmental innovation. Environmental innovation can also rely on internal knowledge sources. Development and accumulation of internal knowledge can be supported by the continuous improvement capability vested in the EM system. Therefore, Chapter 5 informs the discussion of the roles of internal and external knowledge for environmental innovation by considering organizational capabilities for knowledge sourcing: absorptive capacity to exploit external knowledge and continuous improvement to develop and accumulate internal environmental knowledge. The findings demonstrate that Dutch food processors develop environmental innovations relying on both external knowledge in their network tapped with the help of absorptive capacity and on internal knowledge built within the EM system with the help of continuous improvement capabilities. These findings challenge the presence of a substitution effect between internal and external knowledge. We expand the research on the determinants of environmental innovation by considering not only different knowledge sources but by providing insights into the knowledge sourcing process.

Overall, the dissertation evidences an increasing importance of internal organizational capabilities to enable sustainable industry growth. Internal organizational capabilities appeared to be decisive to induce environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM. Also the appropriation of benefits created in cooperation with external partners and exploitation of external knowledge require certain organizational capabilities. In the earlier periods of corporate environmentalism, external pressures were of primary importance to induce the reduction of the environmental impact. Nowadays, the increasing role of organizational capabilities implies that a lot of power is concentrated in the hands of managers. For public policy, these findings suggest a focus on the development of instruments to stimulate the accumulation of organizational capabilities and capacity building.

Sociable swine: prospects of indirect genetic effects for the improvement of productivity, welfare and quality
Duijvesteijn, N. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Piter Bijma; E.F. Knol. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571525 - 202
varkens - sociaal gedrag - groepsinteractie - genetische effecten - prestatieniveau - dierenwelzijn - androsteron - genomen - genetische correlatie - varkensfokkerij - stakeholders - beoordeling - dierlijke productie - pigs - social behaviour - group interaction - genetic effects - performance - animal welfare - androsterone - genomes - genetic correlation - pig breeding - assessment - animal production

Towards Healthy Diets for parents: efectiveness of a counselling intervention

Eveline J.C. Hooft van Huysduynen

Abstract

Introduction and Objective: As parents’ modelling of dietary behaviour is one of the factors influencing children’s diets, improving parents’ diets is expected to result in improved dietary intake of their children. This thesis describes research that was conducted to develop and evaluate a counselling intervention to improve parental adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines.

Methods: A counselling intervention was developed, which was underpinned with the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model. In 20 weeks, five face-to-face counselling sessions were provided by a registered dietician who used motivational interviewing to improve parental adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines. In addition, parents received three individually tailored email messages. During the counselling, the dietary guidelines and additional eating behaviours, that were hypothesized to affect diet quality, were addressed. The intervention was evaluated in a randomised controlled trial with 92 parents receiving the counselling and 94 parents as controls. Effects on dietary intake, biomarkers, intermediate markers of health and children’s dietary intake were evaluated. With mediation analyses, it was investigated if changes in dietary intake were established via changes in behavioural determinants. Thereby, it was also examined if spot urine samples could be used to replace 24 h urine samples for evaluating changes in sodium and potassium intake.

Results: The intervention group increased their adherence to the dietary guidelines, as assessed with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index (ranging from 0 to 100 points), by 6.7 points more than the control group did. This improvement was achieved by small increases in the scores of seven out of ten index components. The most substantial changes were shown in fruit and fish intakes of which increases in fish intake were reflected in changes in fatty acid profiles derived from blood plasma. Also a small decrease in waist circumference was observed. Based on parental reports, the children in the intervention group increased their intakes of fruit, vegetables and fish more than the children in the control group. Improvements in parental fruit intake were mediated by changes in the behavioural determinants attitude and habit strength. Decreases in snack intake were mediated by changes in self-identity as a healthy eater. Although the results of a study in young Caucasian women showed that spot urine can be used to rank individuals for their ratios of sodium to potassium, no intervention effects on these ratios were observed.

Conclusion: This thesis provides empirical knowledge on potential effective elements for counselling interventions aiming at improving the dietary pattern as a whole of parents and provides knowledge on methods to evaluate changes in dietary intake.

Masterplan for the development of nutrient based dynamic mechanistic response models for pigs and poultry
Jansman, A.J.M. ; Laar, H. van; Veldkamp, A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 765) - 32
modelleren - dynamische modellen - diervoeding - reacties - prestatieniveau - varkens - pluimvee - voedingsstoffenretentie - vleeskuikens - modeling - dynamic models - animal nutrition - responses - performance - pigs - poultry - nutrient retention - broilers
The masterplan describes the development of new nutrient based dynamic mechanistic response models for pigs and poultry predicting the animal’s performance, the retention of nutrients in the body and in “end products”, and the output of non-retained nutrients in the environment. The plan has been developed in the framework of the Public Private Partnership Feed4Foodure (F4F) in the Netherlands.
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