Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Soil protection for a sustainable future : options for a soil monitoring network for Ireland
O'Sullivan, L. ; Bampa, F. ; Knights, K. ; Creamer, R.E. - \ 2017
Soil Use and Management 33 (2017)2. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 346 - 363.
drainage class - indicators - land use - natural resource - protection - Soil monitoring - sustainability

The increased recognition of the importance of soil is reflected in the UN Post-2015 Development Agenda with sustainable development goals that directly and indirectly relate to soil quality and protection. Despite a lack of legally binding legislation for soil protection, the European Commission remains committed to the objective of soil protection. However, the achievement of a legally binding framework for soil protection relies on the implementation of a soil monitoring network (SMN) that can detect changes to soil quality over time. As beneficiaries do not pay for the provision of soil information, the options for soil monitoring are limited. The use of existing data sets should be considered first. Using Ireland as an example, this research explored the opportunities for a SMN for Ireland considering three existing national data sets. The options for a SMN are considered in terms of their spatial and stratified distribution, the parameters to be measured and an economic analysis of the options proposed. This research finds that for Ireland, either a 10 or a 16 km2 grid interval stratified by land use and drainage class offers the best potential in relation to the spatial distribution of existing data sets to reflect local data at a national level. With existing data, the stratified SIS data using the 16 km2 grid offers the best value for money, with baseline costs for analysis, excluding field costs, of between €706 481 and €2.8 million. Acknowledging the impossibility of measuring all parameters with ideal frequency, this study proposes a two-tier system for optimized monitoring frequency. Parameters must anticipate future policy requirements. Finally, the implementation of a SMN must be accompanied by standardized methods, defined thresholds and action mandates to maintain soil quality within allowable limits.

Fishing intensity around the BBL pipeline
Hintzen, Niels - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C102/16) - 27
visserij - vismethoden - pijpleidingen - bescherming - noordzee - fisheries - fishing methods - pipelines - protection - north sea
Wageningen Marine Research was requested by ACRB B.V. to investigate the fishing activities around the BBL pipeline. This gas pipeline crosses the southern North Sea from Balgzand (near Den Helder) in the Netherlands to Bacton in the UK (230km). This pipeline is abbreviated as the BBL pipeline. Part of the activities deployed by the owner of the BBL pipeline is to secure the integrity of the pipeline, which includes checking burial status, detecting free-spans and investigating internal and external threats to the integrity of the pipeline. Fishing is considered as one of the external threats to the pipeline where a collision with fishing gear could damage the pipeline, the fishing gear, the vessel or the crew. Therefore in areas with substantial fishing activity, extra care should be taken. Such a risk inventory becomes more and more common day practice of submarine pipeline and cable owners where discussions now focus on how to best spend effort on protecting pipelines and where to relieve specific burial requirements.
Indicatieve impact maatregelen zeebaars : eerste indicatie van de mogelijke impact van zeebaarsbeschermende maatregelen op de Nederlandse zeevisserij
Strietman, W.J. ; Weegh, J.B.M. op de - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-007) - 23 p.
zeebaars - zeevisserij - visserijbeheer - visbestand - bescherming - quota's - milieueffect - nederland - sea bass - marine fisheries - fishery management - fishery resources - protection - quotas - environmental impact - netherlands
Costs of seabed protection on the Frisian Front and Central Oyster Grounds for the Dutch fishing sector : addendum to LEI report 2015-145
Oostenbrugge, J.A.E. van; Turenhout, M.N.J. ; Hamon, K.G. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Memorandum / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-062) - 29 p.
cost benefit analysis - fisheries - aquatic ecosystems - protection - benthos - ecosystems - oyster culture - north sea - kosten-batenanalyse - visserij - aquatische ecosystemen - bescherming - ecosystemen - oesterteelt - noordzee
This memorandum provides an estimation of the costs for four variant closures for the protection of the benthic ecosystem on the Frisian Front and the Central Oyster Grounds for the Dutch fishing sector in addition to the cost-benefit analysis carried out in Van Oostenbrugge et al. (2015). The two preferential variants lead to similar costs for the fisheries sector, whereas the costs of the two alternative combinations are either 20% higher or lower.
Effects of seabed protection on the Frisian Front and Central Oyster Grounds; A Cost Benefit Analysis
Oostenbrugge, J.A.E. van; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Hamon, K.G. ; Bos, O.G. ; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Valk, O.M.C. van der; Hintzen, N.T. ; Bos, E.J. ; Wal, J.T. van der; Coolen, J.W.P. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (LEI Report 2015-145) - ISBN 9789086157266 - 170 p.
cost benefit analysis - fisheries - aquatic ecosystems - protection - benthos - ecosystems - oyster culture - north sea - kosten-batenanalyse - visserij - aquatische ecosystemen - bescherming - ecosystemen - oesterteelt - noordzee
This report provides an overview of the important benefits and costs for six variant closures for the protection of the benthic ecosystem on the Frisian Front and the Central Oyster Grounds. The proposed closures lead to a range of ecological benefits and economic costs. The current study facilitates an informed discussion about an optimal allocation of the closures.
Data rapport: Effect van vooroeververdediging op bodemorganismen in Oosterschelde en Westerschelde in 2014
Tangelder, M. ; Kluijver, M. de; Brummelhuis, E.B.M. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den - \ 2015
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C116/15) - 81
oevers - bescherming - milieueffect - oeverecologie - bodemarthropoden - bodeminvertebraten - oosterschelde - westerschelde - bodemecologie - zeeland - shores - protection - environmental impact - riparian ecology - soil arthropods - soil invertebrates - eastern scheldt - western scheldt - soil ecology
Hoe verhoudt de rekolonisatie van infauna (diversiteit en aantallen) in het nieuwe gevormde sediment op de aangelegde vooroever op de Cluster 1 en 2 locaties in de Oosterschelde en Westerschelde zich tot de eerdere T0-, T1-, T2-,T3- en T4 monitoring en referentielocaties en hoe is de T0 situatie bij Cluster 3 locatie Wemeldinge in de Oosterschelde?
Vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to stop FMDV transmission in mixed populations of sheep and cattle
Bravo De Rueda, C. ; Dekker, A. ; Eblé, P.L. ; Jong, M. de - \ 2015
Epidemiology and Infection 143 (2015)11. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 2279 - 2286.
mouth-disease virus - basic reproduction ratio - between-pen transmission - emergency vaccination - infectious-diseases - quantification - eradication - protection - reduction - exposure
We quantified the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mixed cattle-sheep populations and the effect of different vaccination strategies. The (partial) reproduction ratios (R) in groups of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle and/or sheep were estimated from (published) transmission experiments. A 4 × 4 next-generation matrix (NGM) was constructed using these estimates. The dominant eigenvalue of the NGM, the R for a mixed population, was determined for populations with different proportions of cattle and sheep and for three different vaccination strategies. The higher the proportion of cattle in a mixed cattle-sheep population, the higher the R for the mixed population. Therefore the impact of vaccination of the cattle is higher. After vaccination of all animals R = 0·1 independent of population composition. In mixed cattle-sheep populations with at least 14% of cattle, vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to reduce R to <1.
An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plant: recommendations from a SETAC Europe workshop
Arts, G.H.P. ; Dollinger, M. ; Kohlschmid, E. ; Maltby, L. ; Ochoa-Acuna, H. ; Poulsen, V. - \ 2015
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22 (2015)3. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 2350 - 2355.
The registration of plant protection products (PPPs) in the EU is under Regulation 1107/2009, which recommends a tiered approach to assessing the risk to non-target terrestrial plants (NTTPs). However, little information is provided on how to perform and implement higher tier studies or how to use them to refine the risk assessments. Therefore, a stakeholder workshop was organized to consolidate current knowledge and expertise to aid the further development of testing and assessment procedures for NTTPs. This brief communication highlights the agreed recommendations of the workshop, which relate to the three main themes, i.e. specific protection goals, risk assessment and mitigation. The participants of the workshop adopted the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approach of using an ecosystem services framework for identifying specific protection goals. First, delivery and protection of ecosystem services were discussed for in-crop, in-field and off-crop, and off-field areas. Second, lower and higher tier risk assessment methods, including modelling approaches, were evaluated. Third, options for risk mitigation of spray drift and run-off were discussed and evaluated. Several important knowledge gaps were identified, and specific data collation and literature-based tasks were actioned to begin to address them. A full workshop report is planned for the fall of 2014.
Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature
Vriend, H.J. de; Koningsveld, M. van; Aarninkhof, S.G.J. ; Vries, M.B. de; Baptist, M.J. - \ 2015
Journal of Hydro-environment Research 9 (2015)2. - ISSN 1570-6443 - p. 159 - 171.
sea-level rise - intertidal habitats - river - protection - wetlands - coastal
Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important attributes. These are central to Building with Nature (BwN), an innovative approach to hydraulic engineering infrastructure development and operation. Starting from the natural system and making use of nature's ecosystem services, BwN attempts to meet society's needs for infrastructural functionality, and to create room for nature development at the same time. By including natural components in infrastructure designs, flexibility, adaptability to changing environmental conditions and extra functionalities and ecosystem services can be achieved, often at lower costs on a life-cycle basis than ‘traditional’ engineering solutions. The paper shows by a number of examples that this requires a different way of thinking, acting and interacting.
The political economy of agricultural liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe: An empirical analysis
Klomp, J.G. - \ 2014
Food Policy 49 (2014). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 332 - 346.
food policies - initial conditions - budget cycles - panel-data - reform - transition - protection - countries - insights - institutions
We examine the effect of upcoming elections and government ideology on agricultural liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe countries in the post-communist period. Our results suggest first that prices and markets liberalization and land market privatization are manipulated in pre-election periods to secure re-election by favouring farmers. Second, we find no evidence that reforms in the agro-process industry, rural finance or institutional environment are affected by upcoming elections. Third, we demonstrate that right-wing governments protect the interest of the agricultural sector more than left-wing governments by affecting the speed of price and market reforms, privatization in the agro-processing industry and land market privatization. Finally, we demonstrate that liberalization the agricultural sector is partly retarded by nationalistic governments. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mapping ecosystem services: The supply and demand of flood regulation services in Europe
Sturck, J. ; Poortinga, A. ; Verburg, P.H. - \ 2014
Ecological Indicators 38 (2014). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 198 - 211.
land-use changes - climate-change - changing climate - runoff - soil - protection - catchments - forests - areas - time
Ecosystem services (ES) feature highly distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of distribution, quantity, and flows. The flow of ecosystem goods and services to beneficiaries plays a decisive role in the valuation of ES and the successful implementation of the ES concept in environmental planning. This is particularly relevant to regulating services where demands emerge often spatially separated from supply. However, spatial patterns of both supply and demand are rarely incorporated in ES assessments on continental scales. In this paper, we present an ES modeling approach with low data demand, fit to be employed in scenario analysis and on multiple scales. We analyze flood regulation services at a European scale by explicitly addressing the spatial distribution of ES demand. A flood regulation supply indicator is developed based on scenario runs with a hydrological model in representative river catchments, incorporating detailed information on land, cover, land use and management. Land use sensitive flood damage estimates in the European Union (EU) are employed to develop a spatial indicator for flood regulation demand. Findings are transferred to the EU territory to create a map of the current supply of flood regulation and the potential supply under conditions of natural vegetation. Regions with a high capacity to provide flood regulation are mainly characterized by large patches of natural vegetation or extensive agriculture. The main factor limiting supply on a continental scale is a low water holding capacity of the soil. Flood regulation demand is highest in central Europe, at the foothills of the Alps and upstream of agglomerations. We were able to identify areas with a high potential capacity to provide flood regulation in conjunction with land use modifications. When combined with spatial patterns of current supply and demand, we could identify priority areas for investments in ES flood regulation supply through conservation and land use planning. We found that only in a fraction of the EU river catchments exhibiting a high demand, significant increases in flood regulation supply are achievable by means of land use modifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Genetic and antigenetic charactersation of serotype a FMD viruses from East Africa to select new vaccine strains.
Bari, F.D. ; Parida, S. ; Tekleghiorghis, T. ; Dekker, A. ; Sangula, A. ; Reeve, R. ; Haydon, D.T. ; Paton, D.J. - \ 2014
Vaccine 32 (2014)44. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 5794 - 5800.
mouth-disease virus - middle-east - foot - sites - identification - conservation - strategies - protection - evolution - spread
Vaccine strain selection for emerging foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outbreaks in enzootic countries can be addressed through antigenic and genetic characterisation of recently circulating viruses. A total of 56 serotype A FMDVs isolated between 1998 and 2012, from Central, East and North African countries were characterised antigenically by virus neutralisation test using antisera to three existing and four candidate vaccine strains and, genetically by characterising the full capsid sequence data. A Bayesian analysis of the capsid sequence data revealed the viruses to be of either African or Asian topotypes with subdivision of the African topotype viruses into four genotypes (Genotypes I, II, IV and VII). The existing vaccine strains were found to be least cross-reactive (good matches observed for only 5.4–46.4% of the sampled viruses). Three bovine antisera, raised against A-EA-2007, A-EA-1981 and A-EA-1984 viruses, exhibited broad cross-neutralisation, towards more than 85% of the circulating viruses. Of the three vaccines, A-EA-2007 was the best showing more than 90% in-vitro cross-protection, as well as being the most recent amongst the vaccine strains used in this study. It therefore appears antigenically suitable as a vaccine strain to be used in the region in FMD control programmes.
Do Current European Policies Prevent Soil Threats and Support Soil Functions?
Glaesner, N. ; Helming, K. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2014
Sustainability 6 (2014)12. - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 9538 - 9563.
ecosystem services - sustainable intensification - management - agriculture - protection - framework - quality - carbon - classification - conservation
There is currently no legislation at the European level that focuses exclusively on soil conservation. A cross-policy analysis was carried out to identify gaps and overlaps in existing EU legislation that is related to soil threats and functions. We found that three soil threats, namely compaction, salinization and soil sealing, were not addressed in any of the 19 legislative policies that were analyzed. Other soil threats, such as erosion, decline in organic matter, loss of biodiversity and contamination, were covered in existing legislation, but only a few directives provided targets for reducing the soil threats. Existing legislation addresses the reduction of the seven soil functions that were analyzed, but there are very few directives for improving soil functions. Because soil degradation is ongoing in Europe, it raises the question whether existing legislation is sufficient for maintaining soil resources. Addressing soil functions individually in various directives fails to account for the multifunctionality of soil. This paper suggests that a European Soil Framework Directive would increase the effectiveness of conserving soil functions in the EU.
Specificity and effector functions of human RSV-specific IgG from bovine milk
Hartog, C.G. den; Jacobino, S. ; Bont, L. ; Cox, L. ; Ulfman, L.H. ; Leusen, J.H.W. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van - \ 2014
PLoS One 9 (2014)11. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 8 p.
respiratory syncytial virus - acute otitis-media - childhood asthma - immune-response - inverse association - influenza-virus - infection - antibody - infants - protection
Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the second most important cause of death in the first year of life, and early RSV infections are associated with the development of asthma. Breastfeeding and serum IgG have been shown to protect against RSV infection. Yet, many infants depend on bovine milk-based nutrition, which at present lacks intact immunoglobulins. Objective To investigate whether IgG purified from bovine milk (bIgG) can modulate immune responses against human RSV. Methods ELISAs were performed to analyse binding of bIgG to human respiratory pathogens. bIgG or hRSV was coated to plates to assess dose-dependent binding of bIgG to human Fc¿ receptors (Fc¿R) or bIgG-mediated binding of myeloid cells to hRSV respectively. S. Epidermidis and RSV were used to test bIgG-mediated binding and internalisation of pathogens by myeloid cells. Finally, the ability of bIgG to neutralise infection of HEp2 cells by hRSV was evaluated. Results bIgG recognised human RSV, influenza haemagglutinin and Haemophilus influenza. bIgG bound to Fc¿RII on neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages, but not to Fc¿RI and Fc¿RIII, and could bind simultaneously to hRSV and human Fc¿RII on neutrophils. In addition, human neutrophils and dendritic cells internalised pathogens that were opsonised with bIgG. Finally, bIgG could prevent infection of HEp2 cells by hRSV. Conclusions The data presented here show that bIgG binds to hRSV and other human respiratory pathogens and induces effector functions through binding to human Fc¿RII on phagocytes. Thus bovine IgG may contribute to immune protection against RSV.
Farmers and retailers knowledge and awareness of the risk from pesticide use: a case study in the Wei River catchment, China
Yang, X. ; Wang, L. ; Meng, L. ; Zhang, W. ; Fan, L. ; Geissen, V. ; Ritsema, C.J. - \ 2014
Science of the Total Environment 497-498 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 172 - 179.
developing-countries - human health - safe use - attitudes - workers - management - suicide - smallholders - protection - behaviors
Monitoring the educational level of farmers and retailers on pesticide use would be useful to assess the appropriateness of information for reducing or/and avoiding the risks from pesticides in rural regions. The levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers to the environment and human health were investigated by questionnaires for farmers (209) and retailers (20) in two rural regions (Qianyang County (S1) and Chencang County (S2)) of the Wei River catchment in China where the modes of farming and the state of erosion are very different. The results showed that farmers learned the use and dangers of pesticides mainly by oral communication (p <0.01). Protective measures were inadequate; 65% (S1) and 55% (S2) of farmers never used any protective measures during spraying (p <0.05). Washing hands (> 70%) was the most common mode of personal hygiene, relative to wearing masks, showering, and changing clothes, but no significant differences were observed between the selected regions. Most pesticide wastes were dumped directly onto the land or into water, suggesting that educational measures should be taken to address the potential risks from the residues in the wastes. Over 85% of farmers (S1 and S2) claimed to use illegal pesticides, but the reasons for their use varied (p <0.01). Retailers were well-informed and highly conscious of their responsibility for the safe use of pesticides, especially in S2 (p <0.01). A canonical correspondence analysis indicated that educational level and age differed between the two regions and contributed greatly to the risks from pesticide use (p <0.01). Educational programmes targeted to age groups, proper disposal of pesticide waste, and sufficient supervision from authorities should consequently be considered for improving the levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers of pesticides to human health and environmental pollution in the Wei River catchment, China.
Let’s bring in the floods: de-poldering in the Netherlands as a strategy for long-term delta survival?
Staveren, M.F. van; Warner, J.F. ; Tatenhove, J. van; Wester, P. - \ 2014
Water International 39 (2014)5. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 686 - 700.
management - protection
Controlled flooding, while heavily contested, is being experimented with in the Dutch delta as a new and ecologically oriented strategy to deal with floods, in contrast to the conventional flood prevention paradigm. The Noordwaard project (2012–15) represents an exemplary case. At the expense of agricultural practices, land is set aside occasionally to accommodate river floods, while restored flood and tidal dynamics aim to benefit nature development. It is argued that although controlled flooding aims to restore historical land and water dynamics in the area, the role of sedimentation processes has remained largely unaddressed in relation to shaping long-term delta futures.
Green adaptation by innovative dike concepts along the Dutch Wadden Sea coast
Loon-Steensma, J.M. van; Schelfhout, H.A. ; Vellinga, P. - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Policy 44 (2014). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 108 - 125.
flood risk-management - salt marshes - netherlands - defense - protection - robust
This paper describes the development and application of an approach to adapt the existing flood defences along the Dutch Wadden Sea coast to the effects of climate change and sea level rise in the context of other uncertainties and developments. It starts with the development of a dike-portfolio with traditional as well as new flood protection concepts. Next these concepts are evaluated by means of a multi-criteria analysis by local experts. The objective is to identify realistic adaptation options that use or enable natural processes to strengthen ecological resilience and facilitate sustainable human use in the Wadden region. In our analyses Eco-engineering concepts (in rural areas) as well as a Multifunctional dike (in built-up areas) received the highest scores. Multifunctional dikes are robust and offer space for other functions and values. However, their performance in an integral assessment strongly depends on the applied functions and the weight per evaluation criterion. Eco-engineering concepts can potentially contribute to nature and landscape values, but implementation may lead to tension with nature legislation. For the Wadden Sea landscape, which is characterised by the presence of semi-natural salt marshes, the application of vegetated foreshores for flood protection comes forward as being particularly attractive. For every specific stretch of the 227 km long coastline the study has identified the most promising dike concept. The result of this study has been adopted by the national government and the regional water boards as a basis for more detailed analysis and design per stretch of coast. Additional modelling studies and cost benefit analyses will be required at this stage to verify the outcome of our studies and to optimise the design.
Comparison of test methodologies for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A vaccine matching
Tekleghiorghis, T. ; Weerdmeester, K. ; Hemert-Kluitenberg, F. van; Moormann, R.J.M. ; Dekker, A. - \ 2014
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 21 (2014)5. - ISSN 1556-6811 - p. 674 - 683.
binary ethylenimine - protection - potency - antibodies - cattle - elisa - variability - challenge - evolution - selection
Vaccination has been one of the most important interventions in disease prevention and control. The impact of vaccination largely depends on the quality and suitability of the chosen vaccine. To determine the suitability of a vaccine strain, antigenic matching is usually studied by in vitro analysis. In this study, we performed three in vitro test methods to determine which one gives the lowest variability and the highest discriminatory capacity. Binary ethylenimine inactivated vaccines, prepared from 10 different foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype A strains, were used to vaccinate cattle (5 animals for each strain). The antibody titers in blood serum samples 3 weeks postvaccination (w.p.v.) were determined by a virus neutralization test, neutralization index test, and liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The titers were then used to calculate relationship coefficient (r1) values. These r1 values were compared to the genetic lineage using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the two neutralization test methods, the median titers observed against the test strains differed considerably, and the sera of the vaccinated animals did not always show the highest titers against their respective homologous virus strains. When the titers were corrected for test strain effect (scaling), the variability (standard error of the mean per vaccinated group) increased because the results were on a different scale, but the discriminatory capacity improved. An ROC analysis of the r1 value calculated on both observed and scaled titers showed that only r1 values of the liquid-phase blocking ELISA gave a consistent statistically significant result. Under the conditions of the present study, the liquid-phase blocking ELISA showed less variation and still had a higher discriminatory capacity than the other tests.
More than fear: role of emotions in acceptability of lethal control of wolves
Jacobs, M.H. ; Vaske, J.J. ; Dubois, S. ; Fehres, P. - \ 2014
European Journal of Wildlife Research 60 (2014)4. - ISSN 1612-4642 - p. 589 - 598.
large carnivores - animal fears - wolf reintroduction - united-states - management - attitudes - wildlife - conservation - dimensions - protection
Wolf populations have increased in Western Europe and North America. Lethal control of problem wolves is controversial and support varies among stakeholder groups. Knowing why people support or oppose policies can assist managers in dealing with the public. We examined the influence of emotions toward wolves on the acceptability of lethal wolf control. Two perspectives were used to classify emotions. The discrete perspective distinguishes qualitatively different emotions (e.g., fear, joy). The dimensional perspective differentiates emotions on the basis of valence and arousal. We conducted a survey among Dutch (n¿=¿369) and Canadian (n¿=¿208) university students. The independent variables were discrete emotions toward wolves (joy, fear, surprise, anger, disgust, sadness, interest) as well as valence and arousal. The dependent variables were acceptability of lethal control of wolves in three situations that reflect different problem levels (wolves present, wolves kill sheep, wolves kill human). Emotional dispositions toward wolves predicted up to 20 % of the variance of acceptability of lethal control. Disgust in both samples and joy in the Dutch sample were the best predictors. The predictive potential of fear was smaller and confined to two scenarios in the Dutch sample. Discrete emotions predicted acceptability better than valence and arousal. Emotions beyond fear should be considered in wildlife decision-making.
Proper Quality Control of Formulated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines in Countries with Prophylactic Vaccination is Necessary
Jamal, S.M. ; Shah, S.I. ; Ali, Q. ; Mehmood, A. ; Afzal, M. ; Dekker, A. - \ 2014
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 61 (2014)6. - ISSN 1865-1674 - p. 483 - 489.
neutralizing antibody-response - potency tests - cattle - pakistan - serotype - afghanistan - protection - challenge - epidemic - immunity
Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine available in Pakistan, including three locally produced and two imported products. All the vaccines were found free of bacterial or fungal contamination. No adverse effects were noted in suckling mice and buffalo calves inoculated with the vaccines, showing that the vaccines were sterile and safe. The humoral immune response to the FMD vaccines was determined in buffalo calves for 234 days post-vaccination. Very low humoral immune responses against FMD serotypes O, A and Asia 1 viruses were detected to the locally produced vaccines. The imported vaccines, however, elicited a higher antibody response which persisted for a long period in one of the 2 vaccines. The present study highlights the need of assessing an independent vaccine quality control of finished FMD vaccine products.
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