Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Prof. Liesje Mommer over groei en overlevingskansen bij planten
Mommer, L. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR
biodiversiteit - plantenecologie - landbouwkundig onderzoek - plantenontwikkeling - openbare redes - microbiële interacties - grondvegetatie - wortels - planteninteractie - biodiversity - plant ecology - agricultural research - plant development - public speeches - microbial interactions - ground vegetation - roots - plant interaction
Planten jutten elkaar op. Verschillende gewassen die samen een vegetatie vormen, groeien beter dan wanneer er maar één soort groeit. Maar hoe werkt dat? Welke processen onder de grond zorgen ervoor dat deze gewassen samen beter groeien? Prof. Liesje Mommer licht een tip van de sluier op tijdens haar inaugurele rede als persoonlijk hoogleraar bij de leerstoelgroep Plantenecologie en natuurbeheer aan Wageningen
Fermented foods : Products of science and craftsmanship
Smid, E.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462573710 - 20 p.
fermentation - microorganisms - food microbiology - fermented foods - fermentation products - public speeches - fermentatie - micro-organismen - voedselmicrobiologie - gefermenteerde voedingsmiddelen - fermentatieproducten - openbare redes
Inaugural lecture upon taking up the post of Personal Professor of Food Microbiology at Wageningen University on 11 June 2015. 'Microbial cultures deliver the typical characteristics of fermented food products through their metabolic activity, by secretion of enzymes in the food matrix and by their particular growth and survival behaviour. Knowledge of the structural complexity and population dynamics provides explanations for compositional stability and overall performance of such cultures. Especially, insight into microbial interactions delivers new design rules for robust composite starter cultures with predictable and desirable industrial performance.'
Spotlight on the presenter : a study into presentations of conference papers with PowerPoint
Hertz, B. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum, co-promotor(en): P. Kerkhof. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573192 - 193
publiceren - informatieverspreiding - communicatievaardigheden - verbale communicatie - toepassingen - wetenschappers - openbare redes - publishing - diffusion of information - communication skills - verbal communication - applications - scientists - public speeches


1. Introduction

PowerPoint is the most widely used presentation software tool. As of 2012, PowerPoint had more than 200 million presenters worldwide. Presenters all over the world use the program. Some use it for university teaching, others for business meetings and some even use PowerPoint to deliver a sermon. But the program doesn’t always seem to be used to the satisfaction of the audience. In many critical articles, presenters are accused of using too many words on their slides and too often looking at the projection instead of keeping eye contact with the audience. Some authors also criticize the program itself for what they see as a negative influence on presentations.

If these critical observations are valid, then PowerPoint presentations don’t conform to the advice given in instruction books nor to the outcome of research into human information processing. This advice usually proposes the use of minimal text on slides, and instead using pictures or other graphics. This would help the audience process the information. In addition, the instruction book stress the importance of maintaining eye contact with the audience. It is remarkable that the program is so frequently used, while it is so often criticized for what seem to be valid reasons.

There has been some research into PowerPoint use in the classroom, investigating the effects on student appreciation and grades. Much of this research does not describe how nor why the program is used in these situations. The critical articles on PowerPoint are mainly based on personal experiences and not on research. So there has not been much empirical evidence that presenters actually do use too many words or that they look too often at the projection, nor has the influence of PowerPoint on the presentation been established. In addition it is not clear why so many presenters don’t seem to follow the advice in instruction books, which say to use a minimum amount of text on a slide and which stress the importance of maintaining eye contact with the audience.

This dissertation focuses on the role of the presenter. It investigates how presenters use PowerPoint and if they are guilty of the negative behavior mentioned above. If they are guilty, what are the reasons they use PowerPoint in this way? Some authors have suggested that presenters use PowerPoint not only for the benefit of the audience, but that they also use the words on the slides as speaking notes. In particular, presenters suffering from speaking anxiety might be afraid of being “lost for words” or forgetting the structure of their presentation. They would then be able to turn to the text on the slides as support. This dissertation will investigate the possible role of speaking anxiety and how it affects PowerPoint usage.

The research looks at the use of PowerPoint by scholars presenting conference papers. Conferences play a central role in the network of scientific communication and are important for a researcher’s profile. The majority of scholars present their work at conferences several times a year and these presentations can be demanding and challenging. In contrast with writing and publishing a paper, conferences allow scholars to interact with an audience of their peers who will evaluate their work by posing critical questions. Challenging exposure of this kind might well engender or increase speaking anxiety in the presenter.

Clearly there is a need for empirical research on PowerPoint use, research focused on the program’s use in delivering scholarly presentations. Questions to be answered by the research include:

• How do scholars use PowerPoint?

• Why do scholars use PowerPoint in the way that they do?
• Does speaking anxiety influence the way that scholars use PowerPoint?

• Does PowerPoint influence the quality of presentations?

This thesis studies the use of PowerPoint in a real life setting and looks at presentations as being complex interactions among slides, presenter behavior and audience. An overview of the different elements regarding the presenter, his/her background, the presentation, the presenter’s behavior and the PowerPoint program itself can be found in Figure I.

2. Method

There is a literature review and three empirical studies. The literature review compares the program with its predecessors and describes the software, slide design and the user’s presentation behavior, focusing on the interaction of these elements. Instruction books and articles on PowerPoint, criticism and empirical research on the topics of slide design, presentation behavior and its effects on audiences are discussed.

In the first empirical study, fifteen scientific presentations of language scientists are analyzed on the use of text and pictures on the slides. The physical and verbal behavior of the presenter has also been studied, specifically investigating how often presenters look at the projection and if they verbally introduce a slide. Furthermore the relation between the slides and the presenter’s behavior has been analyzed.

The second empirical study employs interviews with scholars about their reasons for PowerPoint use. It distinguishes between first-year PhD students (beginners) and advanced, prize winning scholars from different disciplines of science (humanities, physical science, social science and medical science). Special attention is given to the acquisition of PowerPoint skills.

The third study consists of a survey using social scientists and focuses on the influence of speaking anxiety on the use of PowerPoint. It tests if speaking anxiety causes presenters to spend more time on preparing and rehearsing the presentation, and analyzes the possible relationships among speaking anxiety, time spent on preparing and rehearsing a presentation, and the use of words on a slide.

3. Results

Certain characteristics of PowerPoint such as its default-settings and the ability to use slides on the Internet and as handouts may tempt the presenter to increase the amount of text on slides. These choices, however, are not necessary, and are decisions made by the presenter. The scholars in our study used a relatively large number of words when compared to what instruction books advise (a maximum of 20 to 36 words per slide, depending on the author). An average number of 35 (language scientists) and 50 (social scientists) per slide was found. Many of the scholars used a small number of pictures (depending on the scientific discipline).

Presenters look on average 73 times at the projection during their presentation of 20 minutes (more than three times a minute). Looking at the projection to indicate a new slide or ‘new’ elements on a slide seems to be characteristic for the use of PowerPoint. Presenters turn away from the audience and break eye-contact, something which is considered negative in making presentations. The critics of PowerPoint clearly have a point when they complain about the high number of words on the slides and about presenters looking towards the projection.

There are differences, however, between beginning and advanced presenters. Beginners use more than twice as many words per minute than advanced presenters and only half as many pictures. In maintaining contact with the audience there is also a difference between beginning and advanced scholars. Advanced presenters often like to present without the use of PowerPoint because this allows more contact with their audience.

Some scholars say that they use the text on the slides as speaking notes. Many have also said that they use pictures almost exclusively for the benefit of the audience. Beginners probably use more text and fewer pictures because they suffer more from speaking anxiety than advanced presenters. They might be more concerned with their own performance. Advanced scholars on the other hand have indicated that they have their audience in mind when preparing and delivering a presentation. Speaking anxiety, in an indirect way, also plays a role in the number of words used on the slides. Anxious presenters spend more time rehearsing the presentation; this is related to the number of words used on the slides.

Scholars often seem to lack knowledge about how to use PowerPoint in an appropriate manner. Instead of receiving training in using PowerPoint, they learn to present with the program by experimenting and by observing colleagues and designing slides on the basis of common sense, which is often against the advice in instruction books. Moreover some scholars erroneously think that PowerPoint makes rhetorical skills redundant.

4. Conclusions

The concept of “performance” seems to be appropriate in describing all the elements that matter in the presentation itself: speech, animated slides, working with projections, physical motion and maintaining eye contact with the audience. Presenters need an understanding of how audiences process different sources of information, and they must then be able to orchestrate their presentation skills in appropriate ways. If we look at PowerPoint presentations as performances, we can see that presenters must be designers, actors and directors at the same time.

It is clear that PowerPoint elicits behavior that is not always consistent with what is considered to be good presentation form. This, however, is not the fault of the program. The apparent user friendliness of PowerPoint might disguise the fact that presentations with the program are in fact complex. It is not PowerPoint itself which causes some bad presentations, but the choices and behavior of the presenters who must deal with all the new possibilities and requirements inherent in this program.

Presenters should be educated in appropriate slide design. They also should be taught how to direct the attention of the audience. It is not sufficient to teach presenters how they should design and present their slides, however, if they aren’t helped to learn how to reduce their speaking anxiety in ways other than using the PowerPoint slides as support. This thesis suggests ways of teaching these skills

Social-ecology networks : building connections for sustainable landscapes
Opdam, P.F.M. - \ 2014
[Wageningen] : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462572041 - 24
landschap - ecologische hoofdstructuur - landschapsplanning - sociale netwerken - samenwerking - openbare redes - landscape - ecological network - landscape planning - social networks - cooperation - public speeches
Humans adapt their landscapes, their living environment. Sustainable use of the various landscape benefits requires that land owners and users collaborate in managing ecological networks. Because the government is stepping back as the organizer of coordinated landscape adaptation, we need new landscape planning approaches that enhance collaboration by building social networks and link them to ecological networks. In this farewell address I will explain why the social-ecological network is a promising conceptual model for landscape governance.
Oratie Piet Verdonschot : Eenvoud in samenhang - Het verbinden van
Verdonschot, Piet - \ 2014
aquatic ecology - ecosystems - ecological restoration - resilience of nature - public speeches
The global impact of insects
Huis, A. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 32
insects as food - university research - public speeches - insecten als voedsel - universitair onderzoek - openbare redes
Fungal plant pathogens and the plant immune system
Wit, P.J.G.M. de - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461739766 - 48
plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - planten - verdedigingsmechanismen - immuunsysteem - openbare redes - plant pathogenic fungi - plants - defence mechanisms - immune system - public speeches
Fungi are notorious plant pathogens and continuously threat global food production. In the last decades we have obtained a better understanding of infection strategies of fungi and the plant immune system. This has facilitated more efficient introduction of disease resistance genes in crop plants by plant breeders. A brief overview of progress in research and applications will be provided as well as a glimpse into the future.
Ecologie van bodemmicro-organismen: de basis voor een gezonde bodem
Boer, W. de - \ 2014
Gewasbescherming 45 (2014)1. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 4 - 6.
bodemecologie - terrestrische ecosystemen - microbiologie - openbare redes - gewasbescherming - bodemweerbaarheid - bodembiologie - soil ecology - terrestrial ecosystems - microbiology - public speeches - plant protection - soil suppressiveness - soil biology
Dit is de titel van de inaugurele rede die op 14 februari 2013 heb gehouden in de aula van Wageningen University bij de aanvaarding van het ambt als buitengewoon hoogleraar Microbiële Bodemecologie. Onlangs is de gedrukte versie verschenen. In de rede wordt ingegaan op het belang van interacties tussen bodemmicro-organismen voor het functioneren van het bodemecosysteem en met name op de natuurlijk regulerende werking die microbiële interacties kunnen hebben op ziekteverwekkers in de bodem.
Ecosystem services and environmental change : from ecosystem accounting to environmental management
Hein, L.G. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462571839 - 18
ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubeheer - openbare redes - ecosystem services - ecosystems - sustainability - environmental management - public speeches
Kunst- en vliegwerk : wisselwerkingen tussen virus, gastheer en vector
Oers, M.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461737991 - 28
virologie - plantenvirussen - insectenvirussen - openbare redes - virology - plant viruses - insect viruses - public speeches
Samen op zoek naar nieuwe kansen
Wijsman, J.W.M. - \ 2014
Vlissingen : Delta Academy van Hogeschool Zeeland; University of Applied Sciences - 10
aquacultuur - delta's - samenwerking - diversiteit - natuurgebieden - transport over water - openbare redes - waterbeheer - natuurbeheer - aquacultuur en milieu - waterkwaliteit - afvalwater - waterzuivering - aquaculture - deltas - cooperation - diversity - natural areas - water transport - public speeches - water management - nature management - aquaculture and environment - water quality - waste water - water treatment
Dit lectoraat richt zich specifiek op aquacultuur in deltagebieden. Een delta kenmerkt zich door een grote dynamiek als gevolg van de getijdenwerking vanuit zee, door de menging van zout- met zoetwater en de slib- en nutriëntenaanvoer vanuit de rivier. Veel verschillende functies komen er samen. De veelheid aan functies leidt vaak tot conflicten, maar soms kunnen verschillende functies elkaar juist versterken. Dit maakt aquacultuur in deltagebieden een zeer interessant onderzoeksthema waar verschillende belangen en disciplines samenkomen. Zo vindt in Nederland de extensieve schelpdierkweek plaats in Natura-2000 gebieden. Enerzijds is de kweek afhankelijk van natuurwaarden zoals productiviteit en waterkwaliteit. Anderzijds kan het de natuurwaarden ook positief of negatief beïnvloeden. De uitdaging zit hem in het zoeken naar kansen waarbij aquacultuur en andere gebruiksfuncties zoals natuur, veiligheid en recreatie elkaar versterken om daar waar conflicten optreden samen te zoeken naar oplossingen.
Bodemlegers in een lege bodem : het belang van ondergrondse microbiële conflciten
Boer, W. de - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461735959 - 24
bodemmicrobiologie - bodemecologie - openbare redes - bodembiologie - soil microbiology - soil ecology - public speeches - soil biology
Met de entree van kunstmest, 2e helft 19e eeuw, is de volledige afhankelijkheid van organische meststoffen opgeheven. De toepassing van gewasrotaties om te zorgen dat ziekteverwekkers in de bodem zich niet uit kunnen breiden kent al een lange geschiedenis. In deze rede aandacht voor de geschiedenis van het omgaan met bodem, bemesting en bodemvruchtbaarheid en uiteindelijk de rol van de bodemecologie daarin.
Matthijs Schouten: terug naar de natuur
Schouten, Matthijs - \ 2013
nature - attitudes - behaviour - resistance to change - nature conservation - health - public speeches
Van begrip naar voorspelling? : over de relatie tussen fundamentele en toegepaste ecologie
Mooij, W.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789461736017 - 24
ecologie - aquatische ecologie - aquatische ecosystemen - voorspellen - openbare redes - ecology - aquatic ecology - aquatic ecosystems - forecasting - public speeches
Inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van het ambt van buitengewoon hoogleraar Aquatische Voedselweb Ecologie
De toekomst van het verleden : ruimtelijke ordening en erfgoedzorg na Belvedere
Janssen, J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461731579 - 31
erfgoed - landschapsarchitectuur - ruimtelijke ordening - nederland - cultuurlandschap - openbare redes - heritage areas - landscape architecture - physical planning - netherlands - cultural landscape - public speeches
Inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van het ambt van buitengewoon hoogleraar in Ruimtelijke Planning en Cultuurhistorie aan Wageningen University op 1 november 2012
Metamorfose : vlinders in een veranderend landschap
Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461733269 - 27
lepidoptera - natuurbescherming - ecologie - openbare redes - nature conservation - ecology - public speeches
Rede bij aanvaarding buitengewoon hoogleraarschap in Ecologie en Bescherming van Insecten. Gezien de belangrijke ecosysteemdiensten die insecten leveren is het verrassend hoe weinig aandacht er voor bescherming van insecten bestaat.
Verhalen van weer in de toekomst
Hazeleger, W. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461731616 - 20
klimaat - weersvoorspelling - openbare redes - climate - weather forecasting - public speeches
Weer is vaak het gesprek van de dag. Klimaat is het gemiddelde van het weer. Het klimaat is abstracter dan weer en klimaatveranderingen zijn subtiel. Het blijkt moeilijk om informatie over klimaatverandering effectief te gebruiken in sectoren die kwetsbaar zijn voor klimaatverandering. Er wordt voorgesteld een verhaallijn te ontwikkelen van veranderingen in weerfenomenen. Elementen daarin zijn analogen van verleden weerextremen, het plaatsen van huidige weerfenomenen in de context van veranderend klimaat en beschrijvingen van weercondities in een toekomstig klimaat
Verschillende kleuren, één meesterwerk. Lectorale rede 'Geintegreerd Natuur- en Landsschapsbeheer
Heide, C.M. van der; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2011
Velp : Van Hall Larenstein - 80
natuurbeheer - landschapsbeheer - ecosysteemdiensten - milieueconomie - biobased economy - openbare redes - economische analyse - nature management - landscape management - ecosystem services - environmental economics - public speeches - economic analysis
Natuur en landschap zijn menselijke maaksels. Dat betekent dat het beheer ervan uit meer moet bestaan dan louter ecologische kennis. Het vraagt om een soort co-productie van ecologie, economie, sociologie en cultuurhistorie, en dat alles is in de term geïntegreerd natuur- en landschapsbeheer vervat. Indien economen serieus genomen willen worden in de discussies over natuur en landschap, dan dient binnen het conventionele economische denken plaats gemaakt te worden voor een meer ecologisch-economisch denken. Tegelijkertijd vereist dit wel dat bestaande economische principes, bijvoorbeeld over de ‘marginale waarde’ van natuur (en niet de absolute waarde ervan), niet uit het oog verloren mogen worden.
Van de vette streken der aarde en overvloed van koren. Westhoff-lezing, uitgesproken op 27 mei 2010 door Louise Fresco
Born, R. van den; Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2011
Nijmegen : Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen - ISBN 9789050113830 - 47
biodiversiteit - voedselvoorziening - openbare redes - biodiversity - food supply - public speeches
Hoe verhoudt biologische diversiteit zich tot voedselvoorziening? Meer genetische diversiteit betekent niet automatisch een groter, beter of diverser voedselaanbod, in gematigde noch tropische gebieden. Gebieden met hoge variatie in rassen van voedselgewassen en agrarische landschappen, dus met hoge agrobiodiversiteit, zijn niet zonder meer de meest productieve gebieden op aarde. Ook is het onjuist dat hoge productiviteit altijd samen gaat met genetische of landschappelijke armoede.
Safari : a journey through tourism, conservation and development
Duim, V.R. van der - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085855828 - 46
toerisme - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ontwikkeling van toerisme - internationaal toerisme - openbare redes - tourism - sustainability - tourism development - international tourism - public speeches
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