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Predicting climate change impacts on native and invasive tree species using radial growth and twenty-first century climate scenarios
González-Muñoz, N. ; Linares, J.C. ; Castro-Díez, P. ; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W. - \ 2014
European Journal of Forest Research 133 (2014)6. - ISSN 1612-4669 - p. 1073 - 1086.
quercus-petraea - acacia-dealbata - environment interaction - pinus-halepensis - seedling growth - diameter growth - northwest spain - drought stress - responses - oak
The climatic conditions predicted for the twenty-first century may aggravate the extent and impacts of plant invasions, by favouring those invaders more adapted to altered conditions or by hampering the native flora. We aim to predict the fate of native and invasive tree species in the oak forests of Northwest Spain, where the exotic invaders Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus robur and Quercus pyrenaica and the naturalized Pinus pinaster. We selected adult, dominant trees of each species, collected increment cores, measured the ring width and estimated the basal area increment (BAI, cm2 year-1). Climate/growth models were built by using linear mixed-effect models, where the previous-year BAI and seasonal temperature and precipitation were the fixed factors and the individual the random factor. These models were run to project the fate of studied species in the A2 and B2 CO2 emission scenarios until 2100. The models explained over 50 % of BAI variance in all species but E. globulus, where growth probably occurs whenever a minimum environmental requirement is met. Warm autumns favoured BAI of both natives, probably due to an extension of leaf lifespan, but hampered A. dealbata and P. pinaster BAI, maybe because of water imbalance and/or the depletion of carbon reserves. The projections yielded a positive BAI trend for both Quercus along the twenty-first century, but negative for the invader A. dealbata and clearly declining for the naturalized P. pinaster. Our results disagree with previous literature pointing at climate change as a driver of invasive species’ success and call for further studies regarding the effect of climate change on co-occurring natives and invaders.
Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site
Eilmann, B. ; Sterck, F.J. ; Wegner, L. ; Vries, S.M.G. de; Arx, G. von; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W. - \ 2014
Tree Physiology 34 (2014)8. - ISSN 0829-318X - p. 882 - 893.
fagus-sylvatica l. - climate-change - european beech - scots pine - phenotypic plasticity - forest trees - drought tolerance - quercus-petraea - pubescent oak - norway spruce
Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial growth. Altogether, we conclude that the similarity in ring-width variation among provenances points to environmental control of this trait, whereas the differences encountered in wood-anatomical traits between the well-performing Bulgarian provenance and the other three provenances, as well as the consistent differences in flushing pattern over 3 years under various environmental conditions, support the hypothesis of genetic control of these features.
High rates of gene flow by pollen and seed in oak populations across Europe
Gerber, S. ; Chadoeuf, J. ; Gugerli, F. ; Lascoux, M. ; Buiteveld, J. ; Cottrell, J. ; Dounavi, A. ; Fineschi, S. ; Forrest, L. ; Fogelqvist, J. ; Goicoechea, P.G. ; Jensen, J.S. ; Salvini, D. ; Vendramin, G.G. ; Kremer, A. - \ 2014
PLoS One 9 (2014)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
torminalis l. crantz - quercus-petraea - paternity analysis - bur oak - reproductive success - parentage analysis - dispersal kernel - wildservice tree - forest trees - patterns
Gene flow is a key factor in the evolution of species, influencing effective population size, hybridisation and local adaptation. We analysed local gene flow in eight stands of white oak (mostly Quercus petraea and Q. robur, but also Q. pubescens and Q. faginea) distributed across Europe. Adult trees within a given area in each stand were exhaustively sampled (range [239, 754], mean 423), mapped, and acorns were collected ([17,147], 51) from several mother trees ([3,47], 23). Seedlings ([65,387], 178) were harvested and geo-referenced in six of the eight stands. Genetic information was obtained from screening distinct molecular markers spread across the genome, genotyping each tree, acorn or seedling. All samples were thus genotyped at 5–8 nuclear microsatellite loci. Fathers/parents were assigned to acorns and seedlings using likelihood methods. Mating success of male and female parents, pollen and seed dispersal curves, and also hybridisation rates were estimated in each stand and compared on a continental scale. On average, the percentage of the wind-borne pollen from outside the stand was 60%, with large variation among stands (21–88%). Mean seed immigration into the stand was 40%, a high value for oaks that are generally considered to have limited seed dispersal. However, this estimate varied greatly among stands (20–66%). Gene flow was mostly intraspecific, with large variation, as some trees and stands showed particularly high rates of hybridisation. Our results show that mating success was unevenly distributed among trees. The high levels of gene flow suggest that geographically remote oak stands are unlikely to be genetically isolated, questioning the static definition of gene reserves and seed stands.
Characterisation of volatile components of Pinotage wines using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC–TOFMS)
Weldegergis, B.T. ; Villiers, A. de; McNeish, C. ; Seethapathy, S. ; Mostafa, A. ; Górecki, T. ; Crouch, A.M. - \ 2011
Food Chemistry 129 (2011)1. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 188 - 199.
solid-phase microextraction - bar sorptive extraction - south-african wines - flavor compounds - alcoholic beverages - madeira wines - white wine - quercus-petraea - aroma compounds - grape variety
As part of the ongoing research into the chemical composition of the uniquely South African wine cultivar Pinotage, the volatile composition of nine young wines of this cultivar was investigated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) using a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fibre was used to extract the volatile compounds from the wine matrix. Extracts were analysed using an in-house developed GC × GC system equipped with a single jet, liquid nitrogen-based cryogenic modulator. In the current study, 206 compounds previously reported in wine and related matrices have been detected in nine Pinotage wines. Positive identification for 48 compounds was performed using authentic standards, while tentative identification of 158 compounds was based on deconvoluted mass spectra and comparison of linear retention indices (LRI) with literature values. Identified compounds included esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, acetals, furans and lactones, sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, terpenes, hydrocarbons, volatile phenols and pyrans. Volatile compounds potentially capable of influencing wine aroma are highlighted. Many of the compounds were common to all 9 wines, although volatile components unique to specific samples were also observed. The results represent the most detailed characterisation of volatile constituents of this cultivar reported to date.