Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Getting an Imported GM Crop Approved in China
Jin, Yan ; Drabik, Dušan ; Heerink, Nico ; Wesseler, Justus - \ 2019
Trends in Biotechnology 37 (2019)6. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 566 - 569.
approval - China - GM crops - regulation

What are the procedures and trends for obtaining approval for imported genetically modified (GM) crops in China, and how do approval dates and length of approval in China compare with those in other countries? The answers are crucial for current food security in China and the future of crops derived by gene editing.

Maximum vs minimum harmonization : what to expect from the institutional and legal battles in the EU on gene editing technologies
Purnhagen, Kai P. ; Wesseler, Justus H.H. - \ 2019
Pest Management Science (2019). - ISSN 1526-498X
approval costs - European Union - ex-ante regulation - ex-post liability - gene editing - investment - maximum harmonization - minimum harmonization - new plant breeding technologies - real options - regulation

New plant-breeding technologies (NPBTs), including gene editing, are widely used and drive the development of new crops. However, these new technologies are disputed, creating uncertainty in how their application for agricultural and food uses will be regulated. While in North America regulatory systems respond with a differentiated approach to NPBTs, the Court of Justice of the European Union (EU) has in effect made most if not all NPBT subject to the same regulatory regime as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This paper discusses from a law and economics point of view different options that are available for the EU's multi-level legal order. Using an ex-ante regulation versus ex-post liability framework allows the economic implications of different options to be addressed. The results show that under current conditions, some options are more expensive than others. The least costly option encompasses regulating new crops derived from NPBTs similar to those used in ‘conventional’ breeding. The current regulatory situation in the EU, namely making the use of NPBTs subject to the same conditions as GMOs, is the most costly option.

Gene-Edited Crops : Towards a Harmonized Safety Assessment
Kleter, Gijs A. ; Kuiper, Harry A. ; Kok, Esther J. - \ 2019
Trends in Biotechnology 37 (2019)5. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 443 - 447.
crop biotechnology - gene editing - genetically modified crops - international harmonization - novel plant breeding techniques - regulation - risk assessment - safety assessment

Gene editing and other innovative plant breeding techniques are transforming the field of crop biotechnology. Divergent national regulatory regimes worldwide apply to crops bred with these techniques. A plea is made for international harmonization of the premarket assessment of their safety. Such harmonization has previously been achieved for genetically modified (GM) crops.

Perspective: regulation of pest and disease control strategies and why (many) economists are concerned
Wesseler, Justus - \ 2019
Pest Management Science 75 (2019)3. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 578 - 582.
approval - economics - pest management strategies - policy - regulation

Pests and diseases are a continuous challenge in agriculture production. A wide range of control strategies have been and will continue to be developed. New control strategies are in almost all countries around the world assessed prior to approval for use in farmers' fields. This is rightly so to avoid and even reduce negative effects for human health and the environment. Over the past decades the approval processes have become increasingly politicized resulting in an increase in the direct approval costs and the length in approval time without increasing the safety of the final product. This reduces the development of control strategies and often has negative human health and environmental effects. Possibilities exist for improvements. They include reducing approval costs and approval time by streamlining the approval process and substituting approval requirements by strengthening ex-post liability.

A comparison of the EU and US regulatory frameworks for the active substance registration of microbial biological control agents
Frederiks, Coen ; Wesseler, Justus H.H. - \ 2019
Pest Management Science 75 (2019)1. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 87 - 103.
(M)BCA - (microbial) biocontrol agents - biopesticides - EU - registration - regulation - USA

Background: Microbial biological control agents (MBCA) are biopesticides based on living microbes. They have huge potential for the control of pests and diseases, but have trouble reaching the European Union (EU) market. According to several authors, this is caused by the regulatory regime, which is less supportive compared with that in the USA. The main objective of this paper is to present regulatory differences between the USA and the EU, and the resulting effects and developments of registration in both regions. Results: Results show that EU registration is more complex due to differences between EU- and Member State (MS)-level processes, large actor heterogeneity and low flexibility. As a result, EU registration takes, on average, ∼ 1.6 years longer than US registration. Regulatory amendments have improved EU-level processes and led to a significant contraction of procedural time spans, but processes at the MS level have not improved and have become a larger procedural obstacle. Conclusion: The results correspond with the idea that EU registration is complex and lengthy compared with that in the USA. To improve regulation, national-level processes should be targeted for amendment. To that end, the authors suggest various ways of expanding the registration capacity of MS.

The Plant Protection Products (PPP) Sector in the European Union : A Special View on Herbicides
Bonanno, Alessandro ; Materia, Valentina C. ; Venus, Thomas ; Wesseler, Justus - \ 2017
European Journal of Development Research 29 (2017)3. - ISSN 0957-8811 - p. 575 - 595.
agriculture - European Union - herbicides - market concentration - plant protection products - regulation
The policy debates on plant protection products (PPPs) in the European Union (EU) are dominated by the environmental implications of crop protection (in particular, the use of herbicides) and the concentration of the herbicide industry. This article aims at presenting an overview of the patterns herbicide usage over time between and within European countries, and an overview of the industry structure. Potential determinants driving some of these differences are discussed, such as the recent PPP policies adopted by the EU. Results show that herbicides are the most important input used in crop protection, but regional differences are substantial. The concentration of the industry is high, but below levels that would raise concerns by EU regulators. The sector is also highly regulated, which contributes to a high concentration and a consequent decline in innovations. This finding raises the possibility of substituting bans of active ingredients in herbicides with alternative solutions.
Actualisering ammoniak emissiefactoren pluimvee : advies voor aanpassing van ammoniak emissiefactoren van pluimvee in de Regeling ammoniak en veehouderij (Rav)
Ellen, H.H. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1015) - 60
pluimvee - pluimveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - regulatie - dierhouderij - poultry - poultry farming - ammonia emission - regulation - animal husbandry
Suitability of analytical methods to measure solubility for the purpose of nanoregulation
Tantra, Ratna ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Bolea, Eduardo ; Rey-Castro, Carlos ; David, Calin A. ; Dogné, Jean Michel ; Jarman, John ; Laborda, Francisco ; Laloy, Julie ; Robinson, Kenneth N. ; Undas, Anna K. ; Zande, Meike Van Der - \ 2016
Nanotoxicology 10 (2016)2. - ISSN 1743-5390 - p. 173 - 184.
Nanomaterials - regulation - solubility

Solubility is an important physicochemical parameter in nanoregulation. If nanomaterial is completely soluble, then from a risk assessment point of view, its disposal can be treated much in the same way as "ordinary" chemicals, which will simplify testing and characterisation regimes. This review assesses potential techniques for the measurement of nanomaterial solubility and evaluates the performance against a set of analytical criteria (based on satisfying the requirements as governed by the cosmetic regulation as well as the need to quantify the concentration of free (hydrated) ions). Our findings show that no universal method exists. A complementary approach is thus recommended, to comprise an atomic spectrometry-based method in conjunction with an electrochemical (or colorimetric) method. This article shows that although some techniques are more commonly used than others, a huge research gap remains, related with the need to ensure data reliability.

Pesticide use in Vietnamese vegetable production : a 10-year study
Hoi, P.V. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Oosterveer, Peter ; Brink, P.J. van den; Huong, P.T.M. - \ 2016
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability (2016). - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 325 - 338.
pesticides - Red River Delta - regulation - uses - vegetables

Vietnam has had varying success over the past decade with its pesticides policy. Some of the most toxic pesticides have been banned from the market. But while many countries have successfully decreased agricultural pesticide use per hectare, this has not (yet) happened in Vietnam. Due to insufficient pesticide management capacity of the Vietnamese government, pesticide types and quantities registered and distributed on the market have substantially increased in Vietnam over the last 10 years. A 10-year monitoring programme at farm level showed that pesticide use follows the increasing pesticide availability on the market, and many toxic and illegal pesticides are still being used. In an agricultural country dominated by millions of small-scale farmers and with limited state capacity for control at farm level, reduction of the use of the most toxic pesticides can best be achieved by more effective pesticide market control through stricter and more effective state regulations and implementation, aimed at eliminating illegal, low quality and counterfeit pesticides from the market. But even then, better state and private extension services, and greater state capacity for control and enforcement remain essential in enabling farmers to make better decisions about pesticide use.

Varieties of European Economic Law and Regulation : Liber Amicorum for Hans Micklitz
Purnhagen, K. ; Rott, P. - \ 2014
Cham : Springer (Studies in European Economic Law and Regulation 3) - ISBN 9783319049038 - 892
internationaal recht - recht - economie - regulatie - politicologie - publiek recht - burgerlijk recht - privaatrecht - europese unie - Europa - international law - law - economics - regulation - political science - public law - civil law - private law - european union - Europe
This is the first book to comprehensively analyze the work of Hans Micklitz, one of the leading scholars in the field of EU economic law. It brings together analysts, academic friends and critics of Hans Micklitz and results in a unique collection of essays that evaluate his work on European Economic Law and Regulation. The contributions discuss a wide range of Micklitz’ work: from his theoretical work on private law beyond party autonomy, with a special focus on its regulatory function, to the illustration of how his work has built the basis for current solutions such as used in solving the financial crisis. The book is divided into sections covering foundations of private law, regulatory law, competition and intellectual property law, product safety law, consumer contract law and the enforcement of law. This book clearly shows the enormous impact of Hans Micklitz' work on the EU legal system in both scholarship and practice.
Production nog affected by rate of heating up and cooling down (interview with Arie de Gelder and Anja Dieleman)
Arkesteijn, M. ; Gelder, A. de; Dieleman, J.A. - \ 2012
In Greenhouses : the international magazine for greenhouse growers 2012 (2012)1. - ISSN 2215-0633 - p. 42 - 43.
glastuinbouw - groenten - temperatuur - regulatie - teeltsystemen - vruchtgroenten - solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - landbouwkundig onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - temperature - regulation - cropping systems - fruit vegetables - tomatoes - agricultural research
Tomato growers tend to stick to a strict temperature strategy: a low temperature in the early morning to reach the day temperature, and rapid cooling down at the end of the day. According to recent research, this is not necessary. A gradual temperature rise in the morning and decrease in the evening gives the same results.
Strakke temperatuurstrategie is bij tomaat niet nodig: Snelheid opstoken en afkoelen heeft geen invloed op productie (interview met Anja Dieleman en Arie de Gelder)
Arkesteijn, M. ; Dieleman, J.A. ; Gelder, A. de - \ 2012
Onder Glas 9 (2012)5. - p. 52 - 53.
glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - temperatuur - regulatie - gewasteelt - landbouwkundig onderzoek - groenten - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables - temperature - regulation - crop management - agricultural research - vegetables
Veel tomatentelers houden een strak temperatuurregime aan: een lage temperatuur in de voornacht, opstoken naar de dag en aan het einde van de dag weer snel afkoelen tot de nachttemperatuur. Niet nodig blijkt uit de resultaten van het laatste onderzoeksjaar. ‘s Morgens langzaam de temperatuur op laten komen en deze ‘s avonds weer langzaam laten zakken, geeft dezelfde resultaten.
Literatuurstudie naar de moleculaire kennis rond de balans tussen vegetatieve-generatieve groei van aardbeiplanten
Bastiaan-Net, S. ; Doorn, W.G. van; Evenhuis, A. ; Mes, J.J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1303) - ISBN 9789461732552 - 76
plantenontwikkeling - aardbeien - bloei - groeistadia - fragaria - regulatie - genetische regulatie - genen - kleinfruit - plant development - strawberries - flowering - growth stages - regulation - genetic regulation - genes - small fruits
De situatie waarbij de aanleg van blad en bloem in goed evenwicht is, zodat de gewenste fysiologische en productieve stadia van de plant bereikt worden, is van groot belang voor de aardbeien sector. In opdracht van het Productschap Tuinbouw en onder begeleiding en advies van Plantum is een literatuurstudie uitgevoerd naar de moleculaire kennis op dit gebied bij planten in het algemeen en de vertaling ervan naar meerjarige aardbei planten. Recent onderzoek op dit gebied heeft geleid tot de identificatie van een aantal sleutelgenen die de regulatie van bloemaanleg en ontwikkeling bepalen.
Private food law : governing food chains through contracts law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes
Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food law series 1871-3483) - ISBN 9789086867301 - 435
voedsel - recht - privaatrecht - voedselketens - contracten - regulatie - kwaliteitsnormen - boekhoudcontrole - certificering - governance - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - food - law - private law - food chains - contracts - regulation - quality standards - auditing - certification - food legislation
Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private (voluntary) standards or schemes. Private standards are used to remedy flaws in legislation, in order to reach higher levels of consumer protection than the ones chosen by the EU legislature and to manage risks and liability beyond the traditional limits of food businesses. We see that litigation is no longer solely framed by legislative requirements, but ever more by private standards such as GlobalGAP, BRC, IFS, SQF and ISO. These private standards incorporate public law requirements thus embedding them in contractual relations and exporting them beyond the jurisdiction of public legislators. Other standards focus on corporate social responsibility or sustainability. This book also addresses how private religious standards such as Kosher and Halal play a role in defining specific markets of growing importance. It is noted that organic standards have found an interesting symbioses with public law. Another development on this topic is that food businesses are inspected more often by private auditors than by public inspectors. Effects in terms of receiving or being denied certification far outweigh public law sanctions. In short private law has changed an entire legal infrastructure for the food sector. It emerges as competing with the public law regulatory infrastructure.
Bewaring van lelieplantgoed : energiebesparing door vermindering van de circulatie
Wildschut, J. ; Gude, H. ; Braam, G. ; Vasen, R. ; Diepen, G. van - \ 2010
Lisse : PPO (PPO 32360 702 00) - 24
bloembollen - lilium - koelen - opslag met klimaatbeheersing - ventilatie - opslagkwaliteit - landbouwkundig onderzoek - kooldioxide - regulatie - ornamental bulbs - cooling - controlled atmosphere stores - ventilation - storage quality - agricultural research - carbon dioxide - regulation
De veruit belangrijkste energiepost bij de teelt van lelies is het elektraverbruik voor koeling en circulatie tijdens de bewaring van november t/m april. Lelieplantgoed wordt bewaard in palletkisten bij een temperatuur van 2-4 oC in de eerste weken na het rooien tot gemiddeld -0.5 oC in de laatste maanden. Enige ventilatie is nodig voor het afvoeren van CO2 , water en warmte die in de ademhaling geproduceerd worden. Tot enkele jaren geleden werd geadviseerd om één keer per dag de celdeur korte tijd open te zetten om op deze manier te ventileren. Tegenwoordig is in veel leliecellen een PVC-pijpje in de buurt van de verdamper aangebracht om wat verse lucht aan te zuigen. De ventilatiebehoefte van lelies is dus kennelijk erg laag vergeleken met die van tulpenbollen, maar niet exact bekend. Doel van de circulatie is het creëren van een over alle kisten gelijkmatig en gunstig bewaarklimaat tussen de bollen in termen van temperatuur, RV, en CO 2 -gehalte. Voor de circulatie worden in de praktijk normen gehanteerd variërend van 50 tot 300 m3 lucht/uur per m3 leliebollen. Groot nadeel van de circulatie is dat de warmteproductie van de systeemventilatoren ook teruggekoeld moet worden. Doel van dit onderzoek is om voor circulatie en ventilatie tot normen te komen waarmee maximaal op energie wordt bespaard zonder dat dit ten koste gaat van de kwaliteit van het lelieplantgoed. Voor de verminderde circulatie is hierbij ook een vergelijking gemaakt tussen de aan/uit regeling en de frequentieregeling.
Grenzen temperatuurintegratie alleen door uitproberen te vinden : bij temperatuurintegratie moet planttemperatuur leidend zijn
Kierkels, T. ; Heuvelink, E. - \ 2010
Onder Glas 7 (2010)12. - p. 28 - 29.
teelt onder bescherming - temperatuur - regulatie - plantenontwikkeling - plantkunde - glastuinbouw - protected cultivation - temperature - regulation - plant development - botany - greenhouse horticulture
De plant kan veel meer temperatuurschommelingen aan dan we vaak denken. Toch is theoretische achtergrond nuttig voor meer inzicht. Maar uitproberen – in onderzoek of praktijk – blijft toch de enige manier om de grenzen van de integratie te vinden
Strandvisserij met staande netten : actuele knelpunten
Quirijns, F.J. - \ 2010
visserij - kustwateren - vistuig - vis vangen - gebruik van ruimte - openluchtrecreatie - regulatie - fisheries - coastal water - fishing gear - fishing - space utilization - outdoor recreation - regulation
De afgelopen jaren zwemt er in de strandzone steeds meer dure zeebaars. Ook de kabeljauwstand neemt weer toe. Daarmee wordt de strandzone steeds interessanter voor de visserij. Dit geldt niet alleen voor de beroepsvisserij, maar ook voor de hengelsport en de stroperij met hengels en/of netten. Tegelijkertijd is ook de strandrecreatie geïntensiveerd. Alles bij elkaar leidt dit steeds vaker tot ruimteconflicten, waarbij, door het ontbreken van regelgeving en controle, moeilijk is na te gaan wie daarvan de veroorzaker is. Inmiddels is er een begin van regelgeving.
Ventilatievoud: de praktijk
Bontsema, J. ; Hemming, J. ; Budding, J. ; Steenbakkers, M. ; Rispens, S. ; Janssen, H.J.J. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw 294)
kassen - relatieve vochtigheid - luchttemperatuur - natuurlijke ventilatie - klimaatregeling - regulatie - prestatie van apparatuur - computeranalyse - toepassing - glastuinbouw - greenhouses - relative humidity - air temperature - natural ventilation - air conditioning - regulation - equipment performance - computer analysis - application - greenhouse horticulture
Eindrapport van het project 'ventilatievoud: de praktijk 1'. Dit project is een vervolg op het project 'Online-schatting van het ventilatievoud van kassen'. In dit rapport wordt beschreven hoe de ontwikkelde ventilatiemonitor in de praktijk gebruikt kan worden. De resultaten van de test bij verschillende tuinders worden beschreven, evenals de visie van een adviseur
Fean wetter buorkje II : Samenvattende rapportage praktijkproeven hoger zomerpeil Fries Veenweidegebied 2007-2008
Durksz, D.L. ; Visscher, J. ; Steenbruggen, T. ; Suilen, A. ; Hager, J. ; Essen, E. van; Berkum, J. ; Kooistra, K. - \ 2009
[S.l. : S.n. - 50
waterbeheer - regulatie - veengronden - bodemwater - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - monitoring - melkvee - waterstand - veenweiden - peilbeheer - friesland - water management - regulation - peat soils - soil water - farm management - dairy cattle - water level - peat grasslands - water level management
De provincie Fryslân en Wetterskip Fryslân zoeken naar een vorm van peilbeheer die de bodemdaling in het Friese veenweidegebied vertraagt, maar een sterke landbouw niet in de weg staat. De oplossing wordt gezocht in hoger zomerpeil. Daarbij is ’s zomers, wanneer vanwege de lagere grondwaterstanden en de hogere temperaturen 90% van de bodemdaling plaatsvindt, de drooglegging 60-70 cm, terwijl die ‘s winters 90 cm blijft.
Ammoniakemissiereductie : opties en condities voor zelfregulering
Ham, A. van den; Hagelaar, J.L.F. ; Frouws, J. - \ 2009
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 2, Sectoren en bedrijven ) - ISBN 9789086153121 - 76
ammoniak - emissie - veehouderij - regulatie - ammoniakemissie - ammonia - emission - livestock farming - regulation - ammonia emission
This study focuses on the policy side of the ammonia emission problem. The starting point in this is that in developing new policy options, the possibilities for aligning government measures with the business practice of cattle farmers occupy centre stage. To this end, the possibilities of self(regulation are examined as a counterpart for the current central hierarchical regulatory system. When working out the details of selfregulation, it is important to find a balance between the opportunities available for cattle farmers to take measures themselves and achieving the public objectives for which cattle farmers have to give account of themselves to the government: from 'government' to 'governance'
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