Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Food online : PhD thesis on food legal and civil law requirements for digital contracts regarding food purchases by consumers in the Netherlands
Veer, Lomme C. van der - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bernd van der Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437127 - 125
food - food consumption - food costs - food marketing - food merchandising - food prices - food legislation - consumers - product liability - regulations - law - internet - netherlands - food purchasing - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - kosten voor voedsel - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - consumenten - productaansprakelijkheid - regelingen - recht - nederland - voedselinkoop

In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law requirements on food labelling. In four research Chapters (chapters 2-5) the relevant topics are addressed.

In Chapter 1 the legal context to the research is presented leading up to the formulation of the central problem statement and the research questions. The Chapter also provides the theoretical framework and the in this research applied methodology.

Chapter 2 ‘'Real Food from Virtual Shops: the situation before 2014’ reports on research performed before the entry into force of the national implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive and of the Food Information Regulation. This chapter provides the historical baseline to this research. The research in this chapter shows that the instruments handed to the consumers to compensate their weakened position as online buyers, cannot function as intended in case the merchandise is food. It is argued that consumers derive more bite from general provisions of contract law than from the provisions specifically addressing distance contracts.

In Chapter 3, ‘Food Online, Radical Changes to the Digital Shop Window after 2014’ the argument is continued by addressing in detail the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in the Netherlands and the entry into force of the Food Information Regulation. The differences become visible between civil law and public food legislation in the manner in which they envisage to protect the consumer. Civil law turns out to be rather scarce in requiring information provision to consumers. In his attempt to ensure that consumers are only bound to purchase contracts they actually want, the European legislator has chosen a far more draconic instrument. The consumer has been given the right to withdraw from the contract altogether after the etailer has already fulfilled his side of the agreement. The legislature has preferred this instrument over elaborate information requirements regarding the product to be purchased. The available data do not show that the legislature balanced these two instruments.

Whatever these reasons have been, they seem to have been less compelling in the case of food products. The vast majority of foods is exempted from the consumers' right to withdraw. This leaves a considerable gap in the civil law protection of consumers of food online. This gap has recently been filled by the Food Information Regulation. This regulation does put in place a considerable obligation to supply the consumer online with information prior to the purchase decision. The etailer has to provide online all the information which the producer is required to provide on the food label. In one small provision the entire and complex burden the Food Information Regulation places on the food industry, is placed with the etailer as well.

In Chapter 4 ‘Product Liability for Online Food Suppliers’ the increased risks for the etailer of foods to become product liable is addressed. Due to the wide scope of the definition of ‘producer’ in product liability law, the risk for the etailer to be considered the liable producer is rather high. Due to the Consumer Rights Directive and its implementation in national law, of all the players in the chain the etailer is easiest to identify for the consumer. Etailers have to push their claims further up the hill without any recourse to facilities regarding burden of proof or liability. Both the Consumer Rights Directive and the Food Information Regulation have been designed to reinforce the consumers’ position with a view to ensuring that consumers will no longer be the weakest link in the value chain.

In Chapter 5 'The Lucky Bag for Meals' the emerging market for food-boxes is discussed. Food-boxes embody the dream of every etailer. Not the consumers decide what they buy, but the retailers decide what they supply. Business economic advantages of this model in terms of stock management, logistics and marketing are obviously enormous. Apparently an important marketing proposition in this modern day ‘lucky bag’ is the surprise. It appears that consumers want to be surprised. Despite all requirements regarding transparency and information provision imposed by legislators upon the etailer with a view to protecting consumers, a part of the market seems to prefer to be kept uninformed. The chapter shows that a relevant group of consumers is actually willing to pay a price premium to businesses for infringing upon their legal obligations and for being kept out of their rights.

In Chapter 6 the findings of the research are presented. Besides the answers to the research questions a new series of questions emerge. These openings to further exploration show how the legal field of food online in legal development and legal scholarship is just as young as the technology that sparked its emergence.

Coexistence of GMO production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interaction
Venus, Thomas Johann - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Justus Wesseler, co-promotor(en): Dusan Drabik; M.J. Punt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436670 - 148
genetically engineered organisms - food products - nutrition labeling - labelling - crops - plant breeding - germany - european union - regulations - markets - businesses - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - voedselproducten - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - etiketteren - gewassen - plantenveredeling - duitsland - europese unie - regelingen - markten - bedrijven

This dissertation analyzes the market effects of the coexistence of genetically modified organism (GMO) and conventional production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interactions through vertical product differentiation. Although we focus on GMOs, the applied frameworks can be adopted and extended to other differentiated products where similar concepts apply.

The main body of the dissertation consists of four chapters. In the first chapter, we estimate the perceived costs of legal requirements (‘coexistence measures’) for growing genetically modified (GM) Bt maize in Germany using a choice experiment. The costs of the evaluated ex-ante and ex-post coexistence measures range from zero to more than 300 euros per hectare per measure, and most of them are greater than the extra revenue the farmers in our survey expect from growing Bt maize or than the estimates in the literature. The cost estimates for temporal separation, which were the highest in our evaluation, imply that the exclusion of this measure in Germany is justified. The costliest measures that are currently applied in Germany are joint and strict liability for all damages. Our results further show that neighbors do not cause a problem and that opportunities for reducing costs through agreements with them exist. Finally, we find that farmers’ attitudes toward genetically modified crops affect the probability of adoption of Bt maize. Our results imply that strict liability will deter the cultivation of Bt maize in Germany unless liability issues can be addressed through other means, for example, through neighbor agreements.

The coexistence costs have implications for the supply of products in which GMOs are excluded from the production process (i.e., non-GM labeling). This is the topic of the second chapter. In that chapter, we discuss and illustrate the complexity of non-GM food labeling in Germany. We show how a multi-stakeholder organization that sets a voluntary private production and certification standard can combine the opposing and agreeing interests of its members. This cohesion reduces the fears of retailers of NGO pressure in the case of mislabeling. Whereas non-GM labeling in Germany started as a niche for farmer-to-consumer direct marketing and small processors, it was further driven by anti-GMO organizations. Today, retail chains label some of their store brands and are now the drivers. We also discuss how informing consumers through non-GM labeling addresses imperfect information, but at the same time, can create new information imperfections if consumers are not well informed about the labeling system itself.

Non-GM labeling, together with the EU-wide mandatory labeling of GMOs and their requirements on coexistence, have implications for the potential regulation of crops derived by new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs). In the third chapter, we analyze the market and welfare effects of regulating crops derived by NPBTs as genetically modified or conventional products. We consider the mandatory scheme for labeling GM products and a voluntary non-GM scheme for labeling livestock products derived from non-GM feed. We develop a partial equilibrium model that explicitly takes into account both the coexistence costs at the farm level and the segregation and identity preservation costs at the downstream level. By applying the model to EU rapeseed, we find that regulating NPBTs as GM (as compared to non-GM) in combination with mandatory and voluntary labeling increases prices and therefore makes producers better off. We also show that higher coexistence costs make the price increasing effect even stronger. Voluntary non-GM labeling applied to feed makes consumers in this sector overall worse off, but it benefits farmers and rapeseed oil consumers overall as long as segregation costs are low. Consumers of biodiesel and industrial products, such as lubricants produced from GM rapeseed, benefit from high segregation costs. We show that the effects of farm-level coexistence costs largely differ from the effects of downstream market segregation costs.

In the last of the four chapters, we consider the effects of market power and analyze the decision of investing in quality updating when high-quality product demand is growing. We model a decision of a duopoly that initially offers a product perceived as lower quality (e.g., GM product) to invest in an emerging high-quality (e.g., labeled non-GM) product. We investigate whether the smaller or the larger firm invests first. Either preemption or a war of attrition can result, depending on demand and cost factors. For each case, we derive the unique Nash equilibrium. We show that a firm’s timing to invest in high-quality production (e.g., implement a voluntary production standard) depends on several factors, such as the difference in firm size between competing firms and the level of vertical differentiation, growth and discount rate, demand parameters, and per-unit production costs. We show that institutions, which set private or public certification standards, can affect firms’ investment in differentiated products because the standard stringency affects the production and compliance costs as well as the level of product differentiation. Hence, through the setting of these standards, private and governmental institutions can impact the market structure as well as the growth of an emerging market. Finally, we discuss policy implications and how an adjustment of the EU-regulatory framework from a process- to a product-based system can make several issues discussed in this thesis problems of the past.

Protocol beoordeling stoffen Meststoffenwet : versie 3.2
Commissie Deskundigen Meststoffenwet, - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 71) - 70
kunstmeststoffen - afval - wetgeving - protocollen - regelingen - bijproducten - fertilizers - wastes - legislation - protocols - regulations - byproducts
The Fertiliser Act regulates the trade in and use of fertilisers in the Netherlands. Only designated fertiliserscan be traded freely. In general, the Act prohibits the use of wastes and by-products as fertilisers, assecondary raw materials for fertiliser production or for the production, via co-digestion in a biogas productionplant, of digestate destined for use as fertiliser. However, a statutory provision has been adopted thatpermits the use of approved and designated wastes and by-products as fertilisers or as secondary rawmaterials for fertiliser or digestate production. Before wastes and by-products may be designated, they arereviewed to assess their fertilisation value and any environmental risks associated with these uses. Theassessment criteria and evaluation procedures are described in detail in a protocol. The protocol alsodescribes the administrative procedure and summarises the data needed for the review and assessment
Actualisering geuremissiefactor vleeskuikens
Ogink, N.W.M. ; Ellen, H. ; Mosquera, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 960) - 25
vleeskuikens - pluimveehouderij - stankemissie - regelingen - nederland - broilers - poultry farming - odour emission - regulations - netherlands
The aim of this study was to advice on the update of the odour emission factor for broiler houses that is used in the national regulation to control nuisance from odour from livestock (Rgv) in the Netherlands. The update was based a statistical analysis of odour emission data from field studies carried on 28 broiler barns between 1996 en 2014. The main conclusion drawn from this analysis was that the odour emission under current management conditions is higher than the so far used odour emission factor in the Rgv-regulation. The current odour emission factor in the Rgv assigned to broiler houses without additional air cleaning techniques amounts 0.24 OUE/s per placed bird. It is advised to adjust this factor to 0.33 OUE/s per placed bird.
Effect afzet mestverwerkingsproducten bij wettelijke status kunstmest of EG-meststof
Luesink, H.H. ; Postma, R. ; Smits, M.J.W. ; Schöll, L. van; Koeijer, T.J. de - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-034) - ISBN 9789462577787
regelingen - agrarisch recht - mest - kunstmeststoffen - mestverwerking - nederland - europese unie - europa - regulations - agricultural law - manures - fertilizers - manure treatment - netherlands - european union - europe
Research of the LEI Wageningen UR and NMI (Nutriënten Management Instituut) how the market for reclaimed nutrients would develop if harmonised product specifications were to apply to organic fertilisers and if substitutes for artificial fertilisers made from animal manure were to be considered legally equivalent to artificial fertiliser. The influence of the scrapping of such regulations is limited. The scale of the processing of manure into mineral concentrates will increase a little, the costs of exporting manure products will be a little lower, and the gate fees for manure processers could decline by 1-2 euros per tonne of manure (5-10%).
Blauwe groei: duurzame bedrijvigheid opde Noordzee : perspectieven uit een scenarioanalyse
Burg, S.W.K. van den; Bolman, B.C. ; Borgstein, M.H. ; Valk, O.M.C. van der; Vos, B.I. de; Selnes, T. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-017) - 25 p.
energievoorraden - duurzame energie - aquacultuur - noordzee - toerisme - natuurbescherming - milieubeleid - beleid - regelingen - energy resources - sustainable energy - aquaculture - north sea - tourism - nature conservation - environmental policy - policy - regulations
Door een groeiend belang van nieuwe maritieme sectoren neemt de bestuurlijke drukte op zee toe. In dit project is een kwalitatieve scenarioanalyse uitgevoerd om te beschrijven hoe de gebeurtenissen zich in de toekomst kunnen ontvouwen, om risico’s te identificeren en om zo beslissers in staat te stellen over verschillende ontwikkelrichtingen te oordelen. De ontwikkelingen in de sectoren energie, aquacultuur en toerisme zijn ook van invloed op de (on)mogelijkheden voor natuurbeleid op zee. De mariene natuur zal zich moeten schikken naar deze ontwikkelingen. De trend van wet- en regelgeving voor individuele sectoren naar een meer geïntegreerde aanpak van alle sectoren, inclusief natuurbescherming, zet zich door.
Making government more reflexive : the role of regulatory impact assessment
Hertin, J. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Peter Feindt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576384 - 160 p.
administrative law - administration - european union - sustainability - policy - sustainable development - eu regulations - regulations - bestuursrecht - bestuur - europese unie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - beleid - duurzame ontwikkeling - eu regelingen - regelingen

The thesis explores whether and how analytical activities during the policy formulation process - typically referred to as Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) - contribute to a reorientation of policy-making towards the goals of sustainable development. During the 1990s and the 2000s, many OECD countries introduced, extended or formalised proce-dures for RIA. Many of these reforms also stated to aim at giving more regard to sus-tainability issues. In the political science literature on environmental policy integration, such appraisal procedures have been considered as an important instrument to ensure that environmental effects of new measures play a more prominent role in decision-making processes.

Based on extensive empirical analysis involving a review of all RIA procedures in the EU as well as 59 case studies of individual assessments, the research aims to establish to what extent and under what conditions these procedures contribute to sustainable de-velopment in practice.

The research finds that RIA offers opportunities to give more prominence to ecological concerns in sectoral policy-making practice, but also contains a considerable risk that narrow assessment practices contribute to sidelining sustainable development. The re-search observes not only a large implementation gap, but reveals that even in cases where a substantial RIA is undertaken, the process functions very differently from what has been envisioned both in guidance documents and in the environmental policy inte-gration literature. After analysing the actual roles of assessment knowledge in policy processes, the study concludes that the positivist perspective underlying both theory and practice of policy appraisal is inadequate to account for its political and practical uses.

The thesis then moves on to adopt the more post-positivist perspective of reflexive gov-ernance which implies a fundamentally different set of expectations about the uses and effects of policy appraisal. By reinterpreting the empirical material from this theoretical lens, the study finds considerable potential for RIA to serve as a reflexive governance arrangement, but also identifies a number of structural limitations. Five approaches for making RIA more reflexive are identified: focusing on the function of opening up rather than closing down decision-making; increasing participation; defining process rather than material standards; extending the appraisal towards frame reflexivity; and understanding RIA as boundary work. The thesis concludes with the argument that the reflexive gov-ernance literature should not only develop and study new government arrangements outside the core institutions of representative democracies, but undertake more efforts to identify opportunities to reshape the working of the classical-modernist institutions in more reflexive ways to foster more integrative and sustainable policy-making/to improve environmental governance.

Zaadzetting en chemische bestrijding wilde haver. Studie in het kader van actualisatie van het teeltvoorschrift wilde haver
Riemens, M.M. ; Huiting, H.F. ; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (WUR rapport 616) - 20
akkerbouw - gewasbescherming - onkruidbestrijding - arrhenatherum elatius - chemische bestrijding - pesticiden - regelingen - nederland - zaadzetting - arable farming - plant protection - weed control - chemical control - pesticides - regulations - netherlands - seed set
Wilde haver is een lastig te bestrijden onkruid door zijn snelle vermeerdering en levensduur van het zaad. Om vermeerdering en verspreiding te voorkomen is een teeltvoorschrift van kracht. Dit teeltvoorschrift valt met het opheffen van de productschappen onder het ministerie EZ. Dit document beschrijft het resultaat van een bureaustudie in opdracht van het ministerie EZ, project “BO-20-003-030 Teeltvoorschriften akker- en tuinbouw”. In deze literatuurstudie werd 1. het effect van de temperatuurstijging op de levenscyclus van wilde haver in relatie tot de bestrijdingsdata van 1 en 15 juli onderzocht; 2. de effectiviteit van beschikbare herbiciden die een mogelijke werking hebben op wilde haver geïnventariseerd.
Goed mineralenmanagement loont : AMvB grondgebonden groei
Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2015
V-focus 12 (2015)3. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 40 - 42.
melkveehouderij - wetgeving - regelingen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - mest - landbouwgrond - mineralen - mestverwerking - dairy farming - legislation - regulations - farm management - manures - agricultural land - minerals - manure treatment
Op 29 maart 2015 heeft staatssecretaris Sharon Dijksma voorstellen voor de Algemene Maatregel van Bestuur (AmvB) grondgebonden groei melkveehouderij aan de Eerste Kamer aangeboden. Voor de Koeien & Kansenbedrijven is verkend wat dit voor hen betekent. Op basis van resultaten van 2014 en forfaitaire productie en plaatsingsruimte moet circa 88 procent van de bedrijven extra grond verwerven bij groei. Gebruik maken van BEX en BEP levert deze bedrijven gemiddeld een groeiruimte op van 25 koeien voordat extra grond nodig is.
Roadmap naar een positieflijst voor vogels en voor reptielen
Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Neijenhuis, F. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 851) - 53
dierenwelzijn - gezelschapsdieren - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - reptielen - vogels - wetgeving - regelingen - animal welfare - pets - animal housing - animal behaviour - reptiles - birds - legislation - regulations
Commissioned by the Ministry of Economic Affairs a study is conducted on drawing up a roadmap for drafting ‘positive lists’ for birds and reptiles which are Andibel-proof and can count on support in the field. Through interviews insights are gathered into the views of a selection of stakeholders from the birds and reptiles sector on positive lists in general, on the (assessment) system which one stands for, on possibilities for the clustering of species and other points of interest related to positive lists. Based on the findings, the research team distilled a roadmap which could serve as a starting point for further elaboration of positive lists for birds and reptiles with all relevant stakeholders.
Punishment and compliance: Exploring scenarios to improve the legitimacy of small-scale fisheries management rules on the Brazilian coast
Karper, M.A.M. ; Lopes, P.P.M. - \ 2014
Marine Policy 44 (2014). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 457 - 464.
marine protected areas - resource-management - crime - enforcement - regulations - impacts - ocean - age
This study investigated the effects of legal and societal punishment on fishermen's compliance behaviour, according to fishermen's age and level of dependency on fisheries, through the use of interviews and scenarios. Ninety-five fishermen living in a coastal park (Ponta do Tubardo Sustainable Development Reserve) in the Brazilian northeast, where controlled exploitation of natural resources is allowed, took part in this study. The results showed that age alone would not affect compliance, regardless of the level of enforcement. However, it was noticed that the fishermen who claimed to depend on the money provided by fisheries, regardless of their age, were more likely to say that they would not comply, even if enforcement were stricter. The scenario analysis showed that increased monitoring and punishment (including societal pressure) could enhance compliance, especially among younger fishermen, who claimed not to depend solely on fisheries. Therefore, fisheries management should also consider differences in social groups, and not focus solely on the enforcement and punishment mechanisms, assuring that livelihood options that consider different social needs are provided. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Computergestuurde Circulatie : regelingen in de praktijk
Wildschut, J. ; Janssen, H.J.J. - \ 2014
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving BBF - 32
bloembollen - opslag - ventilatie - klimaatregeling - tests - regelingen - energiebesparing - meting - sensors - computer software - bedrijfsapplicaties - ornamental bulbs - storage - ventilation - air conditioning - regulations - energy saving - measurement - business software
In tegenstelling tot computergestuurde ventilatie wordt de circulatie handmatig ingesteld. In de praktijk betekent dit dat gedurende het bewaarseizoen het toerental van de circulatieventilator slechts zelden wordt aangepast aan het aantal kisten voor de wand en/of aan de kistinhoud (bolmaat en vulling). Een regeling waarbij het toerental van de ventilator op basis van debietmeting door de klimaatcomputer gestuurd wordt, zodat er gemiddeld altijd exact het door de teler ingestelde debiet door de kisten stroomt, kan echter heel veel elektra besparen en zo de kosten verlagen. Doelstelling van dit project is het ontwikkelen en testen van dergelijke regelingen die bij de bewaring van alle bolgewassen toepasbaar zijn. Op sectorniveau zal hiermee zeer veel energie bespaard kunnen worden. Er zijn verschillende regelingen mogelijk, gebaseerd op kistentelling en/of debietmeting. In samenwerking met Agratechniek BV heeft Automated4u een interface gecreëerd tussen de Bulb Store Manager en de ABC klimaatcomputer van Agratechniek BV. Voor een systeem gebaseerd op uitsluitend kistentelling is door Automated4u een interface gecreëerd met de Sercom klimaatcomputer. Systemen voor computergestuurde circulatie, die gebaseerd zijn op sensortechnieken voor positiedetectie van kuubskisten, gecombineerd met debietmeting, worden nu (nog) door fabrikanten van klimaatcomputers en installateurs als te duur gezien om de ontwikkeling ervan op te starten. Op drie bloembollenbedrijven zijn de gerealiseerde regelingen getest en zijn bewaarwanden doorgemeten op debiet als functie van het aantal kisten voor de wand. Met systemen die uitsluitend gebaseerd zijn op kistentelling blijkt ook veel energie te besparen. De ventilator wordt dan teruggetoerd op basis van een formule. De simpelste formule regelt de ventilatorstand in procenten evenredig met het aantal kisten voor de wand. Nadeel van deze regeling is dat als er weinig kisten voor de wand staan, en er sprake is van frequentiegeregelde ventilatoren begrensd op een minimum van 15 – 25 Hz, de kisten toch een overmaat aan lucht krijgen. Bij gelijkstroomventilatoren die tot bijna 0% teruggetoerd kunnen worden, is er dan echter het risico dat met de simpele formule juist te weinig lucht per kist wordt gegeven, omdat bij weinig kisten voor de wand de weerstand groter is en het totale debiet dus kleiner. Een terugtoerformule kan hiermee rekening houden, maar voor het verschil in debiet tussen kisten met bolmaat 3/4 en bv. bolmaat 7/9, zal de formule weer aangepast moeten worden. Met systemen waarbij het debiet door luchtsnelheidssensoren in de ventilator wordt bepaald, wordt fors meer energie bespaard, vooral wanneer de eerste stapels weggehaald worden. Bij de begrensde frequentiegeregelde ventilatoren neemt de energiebesparing niet meer toe wanneer er wat debiet betreft verder dan de begrenzing teruggetoerd had kunnen worden. Het debiet per kist wordt daarbij dus ook niet constant gehouden worden. Bij de gelijkstroomventilatoren kan het debiet wel constant gehouden worden en kan de energiebesparing tot boven de 90% oplopen. De pitotbuis in de ventilatorring gecombineerd met een drukverschilmeter blijkt een goede sensor om de dynamische druk te meten en hieruit kan eenvoudig het debiet worden afgeleid. De buis waarmee de statische druk wordt gemeten is in principe ook geschikt, zeker bij niet al te hoge weerstand. Nadeel is dat het verband tussen statische druk en luchtsnelheid in de ventilatorring voor elk ventilatortype anders is. De pitotbuis heeft dit nadeel niet en is daarom direct geschikt voor elke ventilator. Wanneer er twee rijen kisten voor één ventilator staan is het debiet bij asymmetrische stapeling ongelijk over de rijen verdeeld. Terugtoeren op grond van een formule of debietmeting in de ventilatorring leidt er dan toe dat er voor de rij waar per kist de meeste lucht door gaat onvoldoende wordt teruggetoerd en waar het minst door gaat teveel wordt teruggetoerd. Als beste systeem is aan te bevelen om de pitotbuis (plus differentiële drukmeter) te combineren met de gelijkstroom ventilator. Dan wordt maximaal energie besparen gecombineerd met optimaal (dwz. niet te veel en niet te weinig) circuleren. Het gewenste gemiddelde debiet kan altijd nauwkeurig ingesteld worden. Een goedkope oplossing is het gebruik van de simpele formule in bewaarsystemen met begrensde frequentiegeregelde ventilatoren. Hoewel het gemiddelde debiet hiermee niet constant gehouden wordt, maar bij ontstapelen toeneemt, wordt toch flink op energie bespaard
Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas
Rietberg, P.I. ; Gevers, H. ; Hospes, O. - \ 2014
The Hague : Cordaid - 45
zaaizaadindustrie - zaadproductie - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - streekgebonden producten - voedselveiligheid - kleine landbouwbedrijven - regelingen - richtlijnen (guidelines) - seed industry - seed production - development cooperation - regional specialty products - food safety - small farms - regulations - guidelines
Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food security. There is, however, considerable debate about the most appropriate type and strategic level of intervention to enhance smallholders’ seed security in conflict and post-conflict areas. Given the co-existence of different types of interventions and agencies directed at providing seed security, the governance of seed security has become very relevant, questioning what collaborative arrangements between government, business and civil society can help to effectively address seed insecurity. Donors and development practitioners often prefer certified or improved seed to seed from the informal sector. However, farmers’ evaluation criteria can differ from criteria developed by breeders or those setting seed certification standards, and the agro-ecological conditions under which varieties are selected may differ from those on-farm, thus affecting crop performance.
Advies voor aanpassing in de Regeling ammoniak en veehouderij
Groenestein, C.M. ; Bokma, S. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 778) - 25
landbouw en milieu - veehouderij - emissiereductie - luchtverontreiniging - vleeskalveren - regelingen - ammoniakemissie - agriculture and environment - livestock farming - emission reduction - air pollution - veal calves - regulations - ammonia emission
Dit rapport geeft advies over de aanpassing van de emissiefactor voor vleeskalveren in de Regeling ammoniak en veehouderij (Rav). Dit wordt gedaan aan de hand van ontwikkelingen in de vleeskalverhouderij sinds de invoering van de huidige emissiefactor in 1998 en nieuwe inzichten over de vorming en de vervluchtiging van ammoniak
Governance innovation networks for sustainable tuna
Miller, A.M.M. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Simon Bush. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570252 - 194
tonijn - zeevisserij - governance - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - regelingen - netwerken - innovaties - milieubeleid - tuna - marine fisheries - sustainability - regulations - networks - innovations - environmental policy

Governance Innovation Networks for Sustainable Tuna

Alice M.M. Miller

Tuna fisheries are among the most highly capitalised and valuable fisheries in the world and their exploitation will continue for the foreseeable future. This means the sustainability of tuna stocks is a pressing global issue that has received attention from a wide range of societal actors. The analysis presented in this thesis investigates governance innovation networks to understand how interdependent governance arrangements for production and consumption in the tuna global production networks, steer and shape processes of sustainability innovation.

The question this research seeks to answer is how do different market- and state-led governance innovations advance the governance of sustainable tuna? Using the analytical lens of global production networks, four different governance innovations for sustainability in tuna fisheries in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, targeting European and North American markets are examined. More specifically: state-led governance innovations in the West and Central Pacific Ocean both through regional bodies and through the interaction between the EU and the Pacific Islands countries; and market-led innovations through the implementation of private standards for certifying tuna fisheries and the firm-NGO development and implementation of consumer-facing traceability systems.

The cases in this thesis indicate that the state- and market-led distinction is inadequate for understanding sustainability governance in the tuna global production network. Instead, different efforts to both frame and deal with issues surrounding sustainability in the tuna global production network sees actors produce innovative instruments to influence production and consumption practices and that these instruments interact with each other and with different actors to form actor-instrument arrangements. This interaction leads to a reclassification of actor roles away from their assignation as standard state, market and NGO and in turn, this reclassification presents us with the need to form different concepts of power. Therefore, through governance innovation networks we can understand how the interaction between actors and instruments is reconfiguring global production networks when sustainability moves to the fore.

Winnen of verzanden : een studie naar de gevolgen van ontgrondingen
Haaften, M.A. van; Rietveld, M.P. ; Heijman, W.J.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 307) - ISBN 9789461738783 - 49
landschapsplanning - landschap - belevingswaarde - zandafgravingen - regionale planning - publieke participatie - regelingen - land van maas en waal - Nederland - landscape planning - landscape - experiential value - sand pits - regional planning - public participation - regulations - Netherlands
De winning van delfstoffen uit de oppervlakte, het ontgronden, veroorzaakt een onomkeerbare verandering van het landschap. Naast het winnen van zand (ontzanden) kan het daarbij gaan om klei, grind, mergel en schelpen. Het proces om tot een ontgronding te komen is een langdurig traject waarbij verschillende belangen van ontgronder, gemeente en bewoners tegen elkaar dienen te worden afgewogen. Een groep inwoners in Deest maakt zich zorgen om de ontgrondingen bij Deest: de Ganzenkuil (gerealiseerd), de Uivermeertjes (deels gerealiseerd deels in bedrijf) en de voorgenomen planvorming omtrent de Deesterkaap, Geertjesgolf en voorhaven. Deze bewoners verenigd in de ‘Stichting Goeie Gronde’ en de ontgronder Sagrex zijn betrokken geweest bij verschillende procedures bij de Raad van State met betrekking tot ontgrondingen, met wisselende uitkomsten. De Stichting Goeie Gronde heeft de Wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR gevraagd onderzoek te doen naar de gevolgen van ontgrondingen in Deest voor de omgeving en haar bewoners.
Governing nano foods : Principles-Based Responsive Regulation
Meulen, B.M.J. van der; Bremmers, H.J. ; Purnhagen, K. ; Gupta, N. ; Bouwmeester, H. ; Geyer, L. - \ 2014
Amsterdam, Boston, Heidelberg, London, New York, Oxford, Paris, San Diego, San Francisco, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo : Academic Press (EFFoST Critical Reviews 3) - ISBN 9780124201569 - 100
nanotechnologie - voedselvoorziening - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - wetgeving - risicoschatting - regelingen - nanotechnology - food supply - food legislation - legislation - risk assessment - regulations
Food which nanotechnology has impacted or to which nanotechnology is applied is referred to as nanofood. From treatment of the soil in which a crop plant is grown to the caring of a food, nanotechnology is a growing factor in the food supply. At this point, however, there is no definitive, effective global method for regulating the use of nanotechnology as it relates to the food suply. Legislation on nanotechnologies is still evolving, as is understanding what data is needed for effective, efficient and appropriate risk assessment associated with nanotechnology impacted foods. Due to the emerging nature of nanotechnology and its role in the food supply, case-by-case studies are the current norm, but the need for wide-scale testing and broad-based regulatory standards is urgent. This project is based on an EFFoST study designed to provide a comparative study of nanofood regulations in order to guide regulation development in this rapidly expanding market.
Wijzer met groen in de stad; Van bestaansvoorwaarde naar verdienmodel. Achtergronddocument
Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Blaeij, A.T. de; Polman, N.B.P. ; Michels, R. ; Ballemans, M. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI Wageningen UR 14-070) - 21
openbaar groen - stedelijke gebieden - bedrijfsvoering - omgevingsverrijking - regelingen - budgetten - publiek-private samenwerking - public green areas - urban areas - management - environmental enrichment - regulations - budgets - public-private cooperation
Het mkb-bedrijf heeft continu te maken met nieuwe ontwikkelingen, die zowel van invloed zijn op het bedrijf als p de omgeving. Deze hebben ook effect op het groen in de stedelijke omgeving. Om de meerwaarde van groen voor een bedrijf te kunnen bepalen is het van belang deze ontwikkelingen hierin mee te nemen.
Hergebruik van recirculatiewater in de aardbei stellingteelt
Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Broek, R.C.F.M. van den - \ 2013
fragaria - aardbeien - teeltsystemen - hergebruik van water - waterkwaliteit - desinfecteren - regelingen - waterzuivering - Nederland - strawberries - cropping systems - water reuse - water quality - disinfestation - regulations - water treatment - Netherlands
Het meeste water dat in de aardbeienteelt gebruikt wordt voor de opkweek van trayplanten en voor de teelt van aardbeien op stellingen moet worden hergebruikt. Voor de stellingenteelt is lozen van het drainwater in de bodem alleen nog toegestaan bij het gebruik van langzaam werkende meststoffen. Per 1 januari 2013 gaat de regelgeving voor het gebruik van water vallen onder het Activiteitenbesluit Landbouw. Dit betekent dat er strenger wordt gecontroleerd op de naleving. Het overtollige drain en/of gietwater moet worden opgevangen en hergebruikt. De eenvoudigste en goedkoopste methode is dit water op te vangen en te gebruiken in een ander gewas (bijvoorbeeld gras, maïs, prei of fruitteelt). Wordt het water opnieuw gebruikt in de aardbeienteelt dan is het zinvol om het te ontsmetten o m de kans op verspreiding van ziekten te voorkomen . Vanuit de glastuinbouw zijn een groot aantal technieken bekend om dit water te ontsmetten zoals : langzame zandfiltratie, UV ontsmetting. verhitting, waterstofperoxide en ozon. In de boomteelt worden ook moerasfilters gebruikt. Elk systeem heeft zijn voor- en nadelen waardoor de keuze lastig is. De geschiktheid an de systemen voor de aardbeienteelt worden kort besproken. Vervolgens zijn een aantal ontsmettingstechnieken getest op Xanthomonas fragariae.
Colour-encoded paramagnetic microbead-based direct inhibition triplex flow cytometric immunoassay for ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone in cereals and cereal-based feed
Peters, J. ; Thomas, D. ; Boers, E.A.M. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Berthiller, F. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405 (2013)24. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 7783 - 7794.
linked-immunosorbent-assay - surface-plasmon resonance - mycotoxin analysis - natural occurrence - food - b-1 - products - maize - corn - regulations
A combined (triplex) immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of three mycotoxins in grains was developed with superparamagnetic colour-encoded microbeads, in combination with two bead-dedicated flow cytometers. Monoclonal antibodies were coupled to the beads, and the amounts of bound mycotoxins were inversely related to the amounts of bound fluorescent labelled mycotoxins (inhibition immunoassay format). The selected monoclonal antibodies were tested for their target mycotoxins and for cross-reactivity with relevant metabolites and masked mycotoxins. In the triplex format, low levels of cross-interactions between the assays occurred at irrelevant high levels only. All three assays were influenced by the sample matrix of cereal extracts to some extent, and matrix-matched calibrations are recommended for quantitative screening purposes. In a preliminary in-house validation, the triplex assay was found to be reproducible, sensitive and sufficiently accurate for the quantitative screening at ML level. The triplex assay was critically compared to liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry using reference materials and fortified blank material. Results for the quantification of ochratoxin A and zearalenone were in good agreement. However, the fumonisin assay was, due to overestimation, only suitable for qualitative judgements. Both flow cytometer platforms (Luminex 100 and FLEXMAP 3D) performed similar with respect to sensitivity with the advantages of a higher sample throughput and response range of the FLEXMAP 3D and lower cost of the Luminex 100.
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