Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Planning amid uncertainty : Adaptiveness for spatial interventions in delta areas
Zandvoort, Mark - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink, co-promotor(en): Maarten van der Vlist; F. Klijn. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437158 - 242
physical planning - deltas - climatic change - risk management - uncertainty - ruimtelijke ordening - delta's - klimaatverandering - risicobeheersing - onzekerheid

Planning for delta areas happens amid uncertainty, which may influence the location, type and form of interventions such as infrastructure, spatial strategies and design standards. Interventions, however, may fix the spatial configuration for decades, for which insight in the appropriate use of adaptiveness to account for uncertainty is essential. This thesis explores uncertainty and adaptiveness in spatial planning and studies their expression and empirical manifestation in planning approaches, planning tools and planning processes. Uncertainty’s characteristics are used to distill information about the (in)adequacy of specific interventions and are related to three domains of adaptiveness: adaptive management, adaptive capacity and adaptive planning. The thesis shows that while some uncertainties demand interventions aimed at ensuring the effectiveness of planning while anticipating future change, others require a focus on the planning process by the co-construction of knowledge, deliberating about values and increasing the adaptive capacity of actors and institutions.

ESBL Evaluation framework
Bondt, N. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Bergevoet, R.H.M. - \ 2016
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-020) - ISBN 9789462578517 - 45 p.
extended spectrum beta-lactamases - livestock - epidemiology - animal welfare - animal health - public health - food safety - risk management - verbreed spectrum bèta-lactamases - vee - epidemiologie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - volksgezondheid - voedselveiligheid - risicobeheersing
Extended-spectrum bèta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria have become increasingly common in animals and humans. The goal of the presented ESBL evaluation framework is to help policy makers to evaluate the effectiveness of possible interventions aimed to reduce ESBL levels in livestock. An objective-driven ESBL policy approach (i.e., setting more clear and stringent objectives, for example maximum ESBL prevalence on national level) is preferable since much is unknown about other potential relevant measures and moreover the accountability of individual agents is hampered, which are both requisites for a measure-driven policy approach. In addition, for the nearby future, an additional measure is to extend the ban on some other antibiotics that are related to ESBLs.
Shrimp quality and safety management along the supply chain in Benin
Dabade, D.S. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering; D.J. Hounhouigan, co-promotor(en): Heidy den Besten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574205 - 158
garnalen - penaeus - penaeus monodon - voedselkwaliteit - voedselveiligheid - bacteriëntelling - kwaliteitscontroles - kwaliteitszorg - benin - microbiologie - risicobeheersing - risicoanalyse - kwantitatieve methoden - shrimps - food quality - food safety - bacterial counting - quality controls - quality management - microbiology - risk management - risk analysis - quantitative methods

Abstract

This thesis focuses on quality and safety management of tropical shrimp (Penaeus spp.) using Benin (West Africa) as an example of a shrimp exporting country. The entire supply chain, from fishing areas (brackish waters) to shrimp processing plants, was investigated. The steps of the chain prior to shrimp processing at the freezer plants were critical for shrimp quality and safety because of prevailing temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. Combining culture-dependent (plate counts) and culture independent (DGGE, clone libraries analysis) approaches, it was found that bacterial concentration in shrimps was higher than that of their surrounding water and sediment. Conversely, bacterial diversity was higher in water or sediment than in shrimps. At species level, distinct bacterial communities were associated with sediment, water or shrimp samples. Spoilage evaluation of shrimps showed that during storage at 0ºC, Pseudomonas spp. were dominant, whereas at 7ºC and 28ºC, H2S-producing bacteria were the dominant group of microorganisms. An empirical model predicting shrimp shelf-life as a function of constant storage temperature was developed. Isolates producing strong off-odor were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae at 28ºC or 7ºC and Pseudomonas spp. and LAB (Carnobacterium maltaromaticum) at 0ºC. The fastest growing isolates namely, Pseudomonas psychrophila and C. maltaromaticum were selected for their spoilage activity and for modeling studies. P. psychrophila had a higher growth rate and a higher spoilage activity at 0 to 15ºC, while at 28ºC, C. maltaromaticum had a higher growth rate. Models predicting the growth of pseudomonads in shrimps as a function of temperature were constructed. These models were validated under dynamic storage temperatures simulating actual temperature fluctuation in the supply chain. Using different risk classification approaches, the main foodborne pathogen risks identified were Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella. The management of the risks posed by the main pathogens was addressed using different scenarios to meet the set food safety objectives. Based on quantitative and ecological studies, this thesis developed tools that can be used in decision-making regarding tropical shrimp quality and safety management.

A review of damage-reducing measures to manage fluvial flood risks in a changing climate
Kreibich, H. ; Bubeck, Ph. ; Vliet, M. van; Moel, H. de - \ 2015
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 20 (2015)6. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 967 - 989.
klimaatverandering - landgebruiksplanning - overstromingen - risicobeheersing - ontwikkelingslanden - climatic change - land use planning - floods - risk management - developing countries
Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepares for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning and private damage reduction, e.g. via building precautionary measures, and disaster response. However, knowledge about damage-reducing measures is scarce and often fragmented since based on case studies. For instance, it is believed that private precautionary measures, like shielding with water shutters or building fortification, are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels. However, some of these measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during the extreme flood event in 2002 in Germany. This review analyses potentials of land-use planning and private flood precautionary measures as components of adaptation strategies for global change. Focus is on their implementation, their damage-reducing effects and their potential contribution to address projected changes in flood risk, particularly in developed countries.
Economic optimization of surveillance in livestock production chains
Guo, X. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Helmut Saatkamp; Frits Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572485 - 180
agrarische economie - optimalisatie - dierziekten - risico - risicobeheersing - gevaren - economie van de veehouderij - vee- en vleesindustrie - agro-industriële ketens - nederland - vee - agricultural economics - optimization - animal diseases - risk - risk management - hazards - livestock economics - meat and livestock industry - agro-industrial chains - netherlands - livestock

Abstract

Hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is an essential activity that is usually conducted by surveillance organizations. Its importance has been highlighted by the major crises that occurred in the field of livestock production and food safety during the last decades. Although extensive research has been conducted to achieve surveillance improvement in livestock production chains, they have limitations in terms of coverage of economic aspects and in the level of detail in modelling the interactions between hazard dynamics and surveillance activities. Hence, the dissertation aims to (1) improve the understanding of hazard surveillance in livestock production chains from an economic perspective, and (2) to apply the obtained knowledge for better model-based in-depth analysis of livestock hazard surveillance.

In this thesis, we first presents a conceptual framework for the economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems in livestock production chains which differs from most of the previous research focusing on the technical aspect of livestock hazard surveillance. We conclude that that the conceptual approach is scientifically credible for economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems and that the applicability of the approach critically depends on data availability. Then we present a conceptual framework for the economic optimization of a surveillance- portfolio consisting of multiple livestock hazards to survey. This framework applies the portfolio perspective to investigate the surveillance resource allocation problem, which is beyond the state of art that mainly focuses on single hazard surveillance analyses. The credibility and practicability of the framework were also checked.

To demonstrate the usefulness of the developed frameworks, two case studies are conducted. We applied the single-hazard surveillance framework to conduct a comprehensive economic analysis of classical swine fever (CSF) surveillance in the Netherlands. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance setups with “PCR on rendered animals” are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the surveillance setups with “routine serology in slaughterhouses” or “routine serology on sow farms” are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the moderately virulent CSF strain indicate that the current surveillance system in the Netherlands is adequate. From an economic perspective, there is little to be gained from intensifying surveillance. We also applied the surveillance-portfolio analysis framework to conduct economic optimization of a pig-hazard surveillance-portfolio, consisting of five pig-related hazards, in a Dutch food company. We draw the conclusion that surveillance organizations need to use a portfolio perspective to guide their surveillance resource allocation. This is because the case clearly shows that arbitrarily allocating surveillance resource can cause efficiency losses (either in terms of higher surveillance costs or low SP performance).

Carbon debt : inzichtelijk maken van maatschappelijke risico's van het opnemen van carbon debt vereisten
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Croezen, H. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2525)
koolstof - kooldioxide - koolstofvastlegging - schuld - biomassa - hout - bio-energie - risicobeheersing - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - energiecentrales - biobased economy - carbon - carbon dioxide - carbon sequestration - debt - biomass - wood - bioenergy - risk management - sustainability - power industry
In het Energieakkoord is afgesproken dat meestook van biomassa in kolencentrales niet meer wordt dan 25 PetaJoule. Als onderdeel van de totale biomassa is zo’n 3,5 miljoen ton hout nodig. De mee te stoken biomassa zal aanvullend op de NTA8080-eisen moeten voldoen aan ‘duurzaamheidseisen voor koolstofschuld, indirecte landgebruikseffecten (ILUC) en duurzaam bosbeheer (FSC)’. In dit rapport wordt verkend, in hoeverre de duurzaamheidseisen genoemd in het Energieakkoord, risico’s op een carbon debt al uitsluiten en welke biomassa-stromen additioneel uitgesloten worden door een carbon debt eis. Ook zijn mogelijke procesrisico’s geïdentificeerd die discussie over carbon debt kan opleveren voor de verdere uitwerking van de afspraken uit het Energieakkoord.
Risk analysis of exotic fish species included in the Dutch Fisheries Act and their hybrids
Schiphouwer, M.E. ; Kessel, N. van; Matthews, J. ; Leuven, R.S.E.W. ; Koppel, S. ; Kranenbarg, J. ; Haenen, O.L.M. ; Lenders, H.J.R. ; Nagelkerke, L.A.J. ; Velde, G. van der; Crombaghs, B. ; Zollinger, R. - \ 2014
Nijmegen : Nederlands Expertise Centrum Exoten (Report 2013.068) - 207
vissen - fauna - verspreiding - risicobeheersing - invasieve exoten - inventarisaties - fishes - dispersal - risk management - invasive alien species - inventories
In dit rapport worden de risico’s geanalyseerd van exotische vissoorten die zijn opgenomen in de Visserijwet en hun hybriden. De volgende soorten en één specifieke hybride zijn in de analyse meegenomen: beekridder (Salvelinus alpinus); roofblei (Leuciscus aspius); karper (Cyprinus carpio); Amerikaanse hondsvis (Umbra pygmaea); graskarper (Ctenopharyngodon idella); hybride ‘kruiskarper’ (Cyprinus carpio X Carassius spp.); snoekbaars (Sander lucioperca); giebel (Carassius gibelio) en kleine marene (Coregonus albula). Hoewel zeeforel (Salmo trutta trutta) was opgenomen in de initiële selectie van exotische soorten, is in consensus met experts besloten deze soort als inheems te beschouwen. Op basis van dit rapport worden de volgende maatregelen aanbevolen: - Het uitzetten van exoten, met name karper, giebel, snoekbaars, graskarper en vruchtbare hybriden (kruiskarper), moet gestopt of gereguleerd worden om verdere verspreiding en nieuwe introducties te voorkomen. - Het screenen van nationale en international vistransporten en maatregelen te nemen om de verspreiding van ziekten en andere meeliftende exoten te voorkomen.
Assessing and communicating climate change uncertainties : case of the Rhine basin
Pelt, S.C. van - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Pavel Kabat; Bas Arts; B.J.J.M. van den Hurk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738332 - 200
waterbeheer - klimaatverandering - onzekerheid - communicatie - risicobeheersing - simulatiemodellen - neerslag - hoogwaterbeheersing - risicoschatting - stroomgebieden - rijn - water management - climatic change - uncertainty - communication - risk management - simulation models - precipitation - flood control - risk assessment - watersheds - river rhine
The main aim of this thesis is to analyse the climate change uncertainties that are important to take into account for long term water management and to explore the communication of these uncertainties. The study design combines natural and social scientific theories and methods and consists of three different elements: 1) an assessment of the dominant uncertainty for changes in mean and extreme precipitation over the Rhine basin; 2) an assessment of the impact of the main uncertainties on changes in flood risk and associated damage in the Rhine basin and 3) an exploration of the use of simulation gaming to communicate about climate change uncertainties to water managers.
Evaluating the effect of flood damage-reducing measures: a case study of the unembanked area of Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Moel, H. de; Vliet, M. van; Aerts, J.C.J.H. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 895 - 908.
overstromingen - hoogwaterbeheersing - schade - risicovermindering - risicobeheersing - klimaatverandering - rotterdam - stedelijke gebieden - floods - flood control - damage - risk reduction - risk management - climatic change - urban areas - model - uncertainty - households - insurance - sector - meuse
Empirical evidence of increasing flood damages and the prospect of climatic change has initiated discussions in the flood management community on how to effectively manage flood risks. In the Netherlands, the framework of multi-layer safety (MLS) has been introduced to support this risk-based approach. The MLS framework consists of three layers: (i) prevention, (ii) spatial planning and (iii) evacuation. This paper presents a methodology to evaluate measures in the second layer, such as wet proofing, dry proofing or elevating buildings. The methodology uses detailed land-use data for the area around the city of Rotterdam (up to building level) that has recently become available. The vulnerability of these detailed land-use classes to flooding is assessed using the stage–damage curves from different international models. The methodology is demonstrated using a case study in the unembanked area of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, as measures from the second layer may be particularly effective there. The results show that the flood risk in the region is considerable: EUR 36 million p.a. A large part (almost 60 %) of this risk results from industrial land use, emphasising the need to give this category more attention in flood risk assessments. It was found that building level measures could substantially reduce flood risks in the region because of the relatively low inundation levels of buildings. Risk to residential buildings would be reduced by 40 % if all buildings would be wet-proofed, by 89 % if all buildings would be dry-proofed and elevating buildings over 100 cm would render the risk almost zero. While climate change could double the risk in 2100, such building level measures could easily nullify this effect. Despite the high potential of such measures, actual implementation is still limited. This is partly caused by the lack of knowledge regarding these measures by most Dutch companies and the legal impossibility for municipalities to enforce most of these measures as they would go beyond the building codes established at the national level.
Reactive versus anticipative adaptive management of Deltas: The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Rhine-Meuse Delta compared
Vlieg, T.J. ; Zandvoort, M. - \ 2013
Water Governance 2013 (2013)05-06. - ISSN 2211-0224 - p. 52 - 57.
waterbeheer - onzekerheidsanalyse - risicobeheersing - governance - nederland - californië - vergelijkingen - water management - uncertainty analysis - risk management - netherlands - california - comparisons
In this paper Californian Adaptive Management (AM) and Dutch Adaptive Delta Management (ADM) are compared. The concepts are introduced in a policy context to deal with prevailing types of uncertainty in water management in the Californian Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Dutch Rhine-Meuse Delta respectively. While having the same objective, we show that adaptive management in these Deltas differs considerably, because the concepts address different uncertainties. Californian AM is primarily applied to ecosystem management while Dutch ADM is primarily developed for flood risk management and fresh water supply purposes. Californian AM is based on modeling the performance of different actions. It emphasizes that, once management actions are selected, formal and continuous learning is required to deal with uncertain effects and effectiveness of management actions. Thus it reacts on present states in a continuous fashion as adequately and flexible as possible. In contrary Dutch ADM anticipates on possible futures through projections of climate change and socio-economic circumstances. Different sets of measures to avoid or postpone projected problems are developed. In ADM uncertainty in projections is recognized, and possible rejection of projections over time is acknowledged. For climatic and socio-economic circumstances ADM aims to ensure that alternative adaptation pathways can still be opted. We argue that good Delta management should be based on long term projections, as in Dutch ADM, and scientific learning from implemented actions, as in Californian AM. A hybrid of both concepts can thus be created in order to strengthen adaptive management practice in the face of future uncertainty.
Garantstelling Marktintroductie Innovatie land- en tuinbouw; Verkenning naar toepassing in de praktijk
Blokland, P.W. ; Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Dijken, E. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 13-088) - 28
landbouwsector - financiële instellingen - kredietbeleid - systeeminnovatie - garantiesubsidies - innovaties - ondernemingen - risicobeheersing - agricultural sector - financial institutions - credit policy - system innovation - deficiency payments - innovations - enterprises - risk management
Vanuit kredietinstellingen bestaat de behoefte aan een garantstelling die de introductie van duurzame (systeem)innovaties vergemakkelijkt. De beoogde regeling Garantstelling Marktintroductie Innovaties van het ministerie van EZ kan in deze behoefte voorzien. Zeker als deze regeling het kapitaalrisico dat innovatieve ondernemers lopen, ondervangt. Kredietinstellingen zijn door het economisch klimaat en aangescherpte voorwaarden op het verstrekken van kredieten kritisch en geneigd risico’s te mijden.
Adaptief vermogen van bedrijven in buitendijks gebied : inventarisatie van strategieën voor hoog water bij buitendijks gevestigde bedrijven in het Waddengebied
Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Koperberg, Y. ; Smale, A. ; Slager, K. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2444) - 154
hoogwaterbeheersing - overstromingen - klimaatverandering - bedrijventerreinen - havens - veiligheid - risicobeheersing - groningen - friesland - waddenzee - flood control - floods - climatic change - business parks - harbours - safety - risk management - wadden sea
Buitendijks gevestigde bedrijven zijn zelf verantwoordelijk voor hun veiligheid en het voorkomen van schade door een overstroming. Door klimaatverandering kan de kans op een overstroming toenemen. Daarom is in opdracht van het Deltaprogramma Waddengebied onderzoek gedaan naar de ‘vulnerability’ en ‘adaptive capacity’ van buitendijks gevestigde bedrijven. Het betreft de havens van Delfzijl, Eemshaven en Den Helder. En de veerdam Holwerd, Nes en Ballumerbocht (Ameland). In dit onderzoek is aan de bedrijven gevraagd welke strategieën ze hebben om met overstromingen om te gaan. Ook is gekeken naar de rol van de overheid en is geprobeerd de potentiële schade in buitendijkse gebieden te berekenen. Er is geen reden voor paniek. Alleen in zeer extreme gevallen zullen de buitendijkse gebieden overstromen, en in die gevallen kunnen bedrijven het zien aankomen. Bovendien beschikken veel bedrijven in de haven zelf over de middelen om te handelen in geval van een overstroming. Daarvoor is wel een betere bewustwording noodzakelijk en betere informatie. Met name in de informatievoorziening hebben de overheden een rol; ook al zijn buitendijkse bedrijven formeel zelf verantwoordelijk voor hun veiligheid. De bedrijven zelf zouden geen overstroming moeten afwachten voordat ze over dit risico gaan nadenken. Preventie is vrijwel altijd goedkoper dan de schade die een (onverwachte) overstroming oplevert.
The Emerging Geopolitics of Food: A Strategic Response to Supply Risks of Critical Imports for the Dutch Agro-Food Sector
Ridder, M. de; Jong, S. de; Selleslaghs, J. ; Achterbosch, T.J. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Berkhout, P. ; Heide, M. van der - \ 2013
The Hague : The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies (HCSS) & LEI, WUR (Rapport 19 | 02 | 13) - ISBN 9789491040764 - 70
voedsel - landbouwproducten - ruwe grondstoffen - vraag - overheidsbeleid - voedselzekerheid - handelspolitiek - internationale economie - politieke conflicten - risicobeheersing - strategisch management - food - agricultural products - raw materials - demand - government policy - food security - trade policy - international economy - political conflicts - risk management - strategic management
Interdependencies in the field of food, agriculture, and raw materials are growing. Global population growth, rising prosperity, and changing consumption patterns in emerging economies have increased the demand for all three. Geopolitical trends shape global markets for food, agriculture, and raw materials and carry consequences for the Dutch agro-food sector. Critical sectors of the Dutch agricultural complex are dependent on imported raw materials from the rest of the world and are therefore vulnerable to supply disruptions resulting from geopolitical developments. This report explores how the Dutch government could strengthen the resilience of the Dutch agro-food system and mitigate risks to the supply of critical raw material imports.
Risicobeheer in de land- en tuinbouw; Het belang van bewustwording en preventie
Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Verstegen, J.A.A.M. - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota : Onderzoeksveld Sector & ondernemerschap ) - 52
landbouw - tuinbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - risicobeheersing - gewasbescherming - dierziekten - weer - marktprijzen - overheidsbeleid - agriculture - horticulture - farm management - risk management - plant protection - animal diseases - weather - market prices - government policy
Het ministerie van EZ wil de komende jaren naar een vorm van integraal risicobeheer met aandacht voor risicobewustwording en preventie. Hiermee wordt de vraag relevant hoe de overheid in wisselwerking met bedrijfsleven, belangenbehartiging en onderwijs het gedrag van ondernemers kan beïnvloeden, zodat ze zich meer bewust zijn van de risico's en meer aan risicopreventie doen om schade te voorkomen. Bewustwording van risico's bij agrarische ondernemers moet verbeteren voor de vier onderzochte risicogebieden: fytosanitair, veterinair, weer, en markt en prijs.
Community-Managed Disaster Risk Reduction : Investing in Resilience. A report prepared for Cordaid
Gordon, A.N. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation - 81
risicovermindering - droogteresistentie - droogte - ethiopië - kenya - oost-afrika - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - natuurrampen - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - plattelandsgemeenschappen - noodhulp - risicobeheersing - risk reduction - drought resistance - drought - ethiopia - east africa - community involvement - natural disasters - community development - rural communities - emergency relief - risk management
Cordaid has been supporting community-managed disaster risk reduction (CMDRR) and drought cycle management (DCM) in the Horn of Africa for eight years. Many evaluations have pointed to successful outcomes but quantitative data are scarce. The aim of this study was to verify the extent to which Cordaid’s CMDRR/DCM work has contributed to building more resilient communities. Cordaid wanted to know more precisely what its added value is, compared to relief assistance. This was considered particularly timely given the recent (severe) drought situation in the Horn of Africa. This report is based on work undertaken in Kenya and Ethiopia in late 2011 and early 2012. A wealth of largely qualitative evidence is presented to support the finding that CMDRR can indeed build resilience. Importantly, many CMDRR communities themselves attest to being more resilient as a result of CMDRR. However, measuring those results is difficult. In common with other approaches, CMDRR helps communities strengthen physical assets for resilience (water development, pastures, animal health care etc.) but its “edge” may be in the emphasis it places on intangible assets (capacity-building in “soft” skills such as representative process for community organisation and planning) – as the means by which to ensure that interventions are demand-led, well-managed by the community and hence sustainable. Measuring the potentially far-reaching impacts of those “process” assets requires the development of robust monitoring systems to follow communities over a number of years.
Risk assessment of Sika deer Cervus nippon in the Netherlands
Lammertsma, D.R. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Griffioen, A.J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2295)
cervus nippon - invasieve soorten - risicoschatting - ecologische risicoschatting - risicobeheersing - bosschade - oogstschade - concurrentie tussen dieren - geïntroduceerde soorten - nederland - invasive species - risk assessment - ecological risk assessment - risk management - forest damage - crop damage - animal competition - introduced species - netherlands
Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) is considered an invasive alien species in Europe. They were introduced in the 19th and 20th century in Europe and have established self-sustaining populations in various countries. Main concerns for Sika, without preventive measures taken and without population control, are about damage to forestry (silviculture, timber production), agriculture, Natura 2000 areas, competition with native ungulates and hybridization and introgression with native Red Deer. Risk assessment for Sika Deer in this study was done using two methods assuming no human intervention (no preventive measures, no population control).
Aardappelketen discusseert over risico's
Haverkort, Anton ; Huirne, Ruud - \ 2012
potatoes - farm management - risk - risk analysis - risk management - arable farming - business economics
Chain-wide consequences of transaction risks and their contractual solutions : managing interdependencies in differentiated agri-food supply chains
Wever, M. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jacques Trienekens; Nel Wognum. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732408 - 202
agro-industriële ketens - ketenmanagement - voedselvoorziening - risicoschatting - risicoanalyse - risicovermindering - risicobeheersing - europese unie - brazilië - agro-industrial chains - supply chain management - food supply - risk assessment - risk analysis - risk reduction - risk management - european union - brazil
Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the formula used to calculate the price in a farmer-processor transaction, may reduce incentives for farmers to produce high quality products. This can increase the risks that low quality products are exchanged in the processor-retailer transaction. The present thesis has examined the challenges which companies face in managing such interdependencies and associated transaction risks.More specifically, it has examined: (1), how risks arise in the supply chain as a result of the interdependencies between the various transactions making up the supply chain; and (2), what types of governance solutions are suitable for supply chain companies to implement in order to reduce or eliminate their exposure to these risks. Mainly economic risks resulting from conflicts of interests between the supply chain companies have been considered. Both a theoretical and an empirical approach have been used in the thesis. The theoretical approach is largely grounded within Transaction Cost Economic (TCE) literature. Empirical research has been conducted in a specific sub-section of the agri-food sector: the pork meat industry. Transactions have been examined between the companies operating in pork supply chains in various EU countries as well as in Brazil. Based on the analyses presented in the four studies of the thesis, various types of strategies have been identified which managers can use to minimize, alter, transfer or share their exposure to risk in the supply chain. These strategies include: (1), the use of specific provisions in contracts with suppliers or buyers (e.g., to fix prices or not); (2), the balancing of supply and demand side contract provisions; (3), the use of risk pooling vehicles, like jointly managed quality management systems or collective brands. Furthermore, the conditions under which these strategies should be employed have been identified. Compared to previous research, this thesis discusses more detailed strategies and considers the consequences of their use for the whole supply chain.
KvK governance of adaptation in de Zuidwestelijke Delta
Huntjens, Patrick - \ 2011
climatic change - water quality - governance - risk management - decision making - south-west netherlands
Risk management in organic coffee supply chains : testing the usefulness of critical risk models
Brusselaers, J.F. ; Benninga, J. ; Hennen, W.H.G.J. - \ 2011
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 17
ketenmanagement - risicobeheersing - koffie - besmetting - biologische voedingsmiddelen - koffie-industrie - kwaliteitscontroles - simulatiemodellen - uganda - nederland - supply chain management - risk management - coffee - contamination - organic foods - coffee industry - quality controls - simulation models - netherlands
This report documents the findings of the analysis of the supply chain of organic coffee from Uganda to the Netherlands using a Chain Risk Model (CRM). The CRM considers contamination of organic coffee with chemicals as a threat for the supply chain, and analyses the consequences of contamination in one stage of the supply chain for the subsequent stages. Next to this, CRM also analyses the effectiveness and efficiency of measures to avoid or detect contamination. In a subsequent phase of this research, the CRM can also be used to analyse the consequences of fraud (= mixing of organic coffee and non-organic coffee) and measures to tackle fraud.
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