Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Omgevingskwaliteit als provinciale missie
Roncken, P.A. ; Beunen, R. - \ 2017
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 34 (2017)4. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 161 - 167.
ruimtelijke kwaliteit, landschap, decentralisatie, juridisering, integraliteit - landschap - ruimtelijke ordening - juridisering - provincies
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde (Journal)
Roncken, Paul - \ 2017
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde (2017). - ISSN 0169-6300
landschap - ecologie - ruimtelijke ordening
guest editorial 04/2017
Planning amid uncertainty : Adaptiveness for spatial interventions in delta areas
Zandvoort, Mark - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink, co-promotor(en): Maarten van der Vlist; F. Klijn. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437158 - 242
physical planning - deltas - climatic change - risk management - uncertainty - ruimtelijke ordening - delta's - klimaatverandering - risicobeheersing - onzekerheid

Planning for delta areas happens amid uncertainty, which may influence the location, type and form of interventions such as infrastructure, spatial strategies and design standards. Interventions, however, may fix the spatial configuration for decades, for which insight in the appropriate use of adaptiveness to account for uncertainty is essential. This thesis explores uncertainty and adaptiveness in spatial planning and studies their expression and empirical manifestation in planning approaches, planning tools and planning processes. Uncertainty’s characteristics are used to distill information about the (in)adequacy of specific interventions and are related to three domains of adaptiveness: adaptive management, adaptive capacity and adaptive planning. The thesis shows that while some uncertainties demand interventions aimed at ensuring the effectiveness of planning while anticipating future change, others require a focus on the planning process by the co-construction of knowledge, deliberating about values and increasing the adaptive capacity of actors and institutions.

Design in the planning arena : how regional designing influences strategic spatial planning
Kempenaar, Annet - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436335 - 178
physical planning - landscape architecture - regional planning - regional development - ruimtelijke ordening - landschapsarchitectuur - regionale planning - regionale ontwikkeling

Regional designing is a form of spatial design that engages with the future physical form and arrangement of regions, including its aesthetic appearances and how it can come about. As such it is closely entangled with spatial planning. This thesis studies the influence of regional designing on strategic spatial planning and how this influence is realized. From the case studies, four categories of influence emerge: regional designing influences 1) the aims, 2) the process and 3) the conditions of spatial planning, and it can impact 4) the planning and design disciplines. However, not every regional design effort has similar effects. Regional designing is highly responsive to its context. The expertise of the designer, the interaction with stakeholders, and the context in which regional designing is embedded, are critical factors, making the design process the breeding ground for the influence of regional designing.

Woningbouw Abbekerk : effect op weidevogelgrasland in open landschap
Schotman, A.G.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2732) - 23 p.
weidevogels - woningbouw - woningbouwbeleid - graslanden - ecologie - ruimtelijke ordening - landschapsecologie - noord-holland - grassland birds - house building - housing policy - grasslands - ecology - physical planning - landscape ecology
De gemeente Medemblik wil in Abbekerk woningbouw realiseren. Hiervoor zijn drie scenario’s met twee bouwfasen. Deze woningbouw is strijdig met de provinciale ruimtelijke verordening, artikel 25. Het te bebouwen gebied is op kaart gezet als ‘weidevogelleefgebied’. Een bestemmingsplan mag daar alleen woningbouw toelaten als er van ‘netto geen verstoord’ weidevogelgebied sprake is. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat in de eerste bouwfase van de drie scenario’s het netto verstoorde oppervlak varieert van 2,9 tot 9,4 ha en het aantal verstoorde gruttoterritoria (2014) daarin van 0 tot 4. Formeel is er dus netto-verstoring. In een inbreidingslocatie is dit niet het geval. Er worden argumenten aangevoerd dat er in ecologische zin geen sprake is van verstoring van het door het beleid beoogde weidevogelkerngebied, o.a. omdat de gebieden op de kaart in 2014 al niet voldeden aan de criteria en in 2016 ook niet.
Dealing with private property for public purposes : an interdisciplinary study of land transactions from a micro-scale perspective
Holtslag-Broekhof, S.M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Raoul Beunen; Ramona van Marwijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577398 - 205 p.
land policy - property - private ownership - land use - compulsory purchase - land ownership - government - land transfers - physical planning - case studies - netherlands - grondbeleid - bezit - particulier eigendom - landgebruik - onteigening - grondeigendom - regering - overdrachten van grond - ruimtelijke ordening - gevalsanalyse - nederland
Biodiversiteit werkt
Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Dekker, J.N.M. ; Dijk, J. van; Dorland, Esther ; Groenewoud-Groot, M. van het; Tooren, B.F. van - \ 2016
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 33 (2016)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 4 - 7.
biodiversiteit - landbouwkundig onderzoek - kennisvalorisatie - ecosystemen - natuurbeheer - ruimtelijke ordening - overheidsbeleid - biodiversity - agricultural research - knowledge exploitation - ecosystems - nature management - physical planning - government policy
In 2010 is het Onderzoeksprogramma Biodiversiteit werkt gestart. Zoals uit de titel al spreekt, moet de vergaarde kennis een doorwerking krijgen in beleid en praktijk. Toepasbaarheid is een belangrijk aandachtspunt. In dit nummer van LANDSCHAP worden de (voorlopige) onderzoeksresultaten gepresenteerd. Tevens komen enkele stakeholders aan het woord over die toepasbaarheid en geeft NWO haar visie daarop. In deze inleiding beschrijven we de context en opzet van Biodiversiteit werkt.
Tools voor klimaatbestendig inrichten van stedelijk gebied
Ven, Frans van der; Brolsma, R. ; Snep, R.P.H. ; Koole, S. - \ 2016
H2O online (2016)29 maart. - 7 p.
stedelijke gebieden - ruimtelijke ordening - waterbeheer - overstromingen - stedelijke planning - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - urban areas - physical planning - water management - floods - urban planning - climatic change - climate adaptation
Er zijn tools ontwikkeld waarmee ontwerpers, deskundigen en belanghebbenden samen conceptuele ontwerpen kunnen opstellen om te helpen de gebouwde omgeving waterrobuust en klimaatbestendig te maken. De Climate Adaptation App helpt deelnemers een long list van mogelijke maatregelen op te stellen. Vervolgens kan met de Adaptation Support Tool worden geschetst waar welke maatregelen getroffen kunnen worden en wordt direct berekend hoe doelmatig ze naar verwachting zullen zijn (rekenen en tekenen). Water- en klimaatopgaven worden op (kosten)effectieve wijze ingevuld en de toegevoegde waarde van ingrepen voor de leefbaarheid gemaximaliseerd. Deze werkwijze en tools zijn met succes toegepast in diverse ontwerpworkshops.
Volksdijk; de adaptieve dijk, studielocatie Grebbedijk : De adaptieve dijk; strategieën voor dijktransitie in de komende 100 jaar
Blokland, J. ; Ziegler, P. ; Aben, R. ; Vries, R. de; Broekhuizen, R.E. van; Agricola, H. ; Kuiper, E. - \ 2016
In: Volksdijk; de adaptieve dijk, studielocatie Grebbedijk BNA Onderzoek Amsterdam - p. 32 - 41.
dijken - veiligheid - hoogwaterbeheersing - waterbouwkunde - innovaties - ruimtelijke ordening - gebiedsontwikkeling - dykes - safety - flood control - hydraulic engineering - innovations - physical planning - area development
Hoe kan de dijk weer volwaardig onderdeel worden van de maatschappij, zonder daarbij de veiligheid aan te tasten? Kunnen we onze democratie –die een oorsprong heeft in de waterschappen- herijken en waarde geven? Hoe maken van de dijk als technisch kunstwerk ook een democratisch kunstwerk dat past bij 21ste eeuw? Hoe transformeren we de verkrampte en functioneel eenzijdige dijk in een adaptieve en veelzijdige dijk?
Programa Nacional de Agrologística : Informe 5: Análisis territorial preliminar
Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 80 p.
logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - geographical information systems - physical planning - data collection - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - geografische informatiesystemen - ruimtelijke ordening - gegevens verzamelen
National Agrologistics Program : report 5: Preliminary territorial analysis
Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 80 p.
logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - geographical information systems - physical planning - structural policy - data collection - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - geografische informatiesystemen - ruimtelijke ordening - structuurbeleid - gegevens verzamelen
Weinig verdriet bij afscheid rijkslandschapsbeleid
Dirkx, G.H.P. - \ 2015
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 32 (2015)4. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 189 - 193.
Rijkslandschapsbeleid, - landscape management - government policy - deregulation - regional policy - physical planning - provinces - national landscapes - landschapsbeheer - overheidsbeleid - deregulering - regionaal beleid - ruimtelijke ordening - provincies - nationale landschappen
Met de Structuurvisie Infrastructuur en Ruimte kwam er een einde aan grofweg een halve eeuw rijkslandschapsbeleid.
Hoewel dit tot de nodige commotie leidde, is het de vraag of er veel verloren is gegaan. Het
beleidsveld staat als zwak te boek. Dat is gezien de wijze waarop het was ingevuld, ook niet zo verwonderlijk.
Tijd voor een nieuwe aanpak?
New perspectives for urbanizing deltas : a complex adaptive systems approach to planning and design : Integrated Planning and Design in the Delta (IPDD)
Meyer, Han ; Bregt, A.K. ; Dammers, Ed ; Edelbos, Jurian ; Berg, Job van den; Born, Gert Jan van den; Broesi, R. ; Buuren, A. van; Burg, Leo van den; Duijn, Mike ; Heun, Gepke ; Marchand, M. ; Neumann, D. ; Nieuwenhuijze, L. ; Nijhuis, S. ; Pel, B. ; Pols, L. ; Pouderoijen, Michiel ; Rijken, Bart ; Roeleveld, Gerda ; Verkerk, Jitske ; Warmerdam, M. - \ 2015
Amsterdam : MUST Publishers - 233 p.
deltas - urbanization - regional planning - physical planning - integrated spatial planning policy - south-west netherlands - urban development - water management - delta's - urbanisatie - regionale planning - ruimtelijke ordening - gebiedsgericht beleid - zuidwest-nederland - stadsontwikkeling - waterbeheer
The delta region between Rotterdam and Antwerp is a prime example of an area where spatial developments face increasing complexity. Local initiatives for developing urban expansions, recreation areas, nature and industrial complexes must harmonize with measures such as adequate flood protection, sufficient freshwater supply, restoration of ecosystems and large-scale infrastructure over the long term. This complexity demans a new approach to spatial planning and design. This book is the result of a research project that aimed to develop such a new planning practice. The research was carried out in collaboration by a consortium of universities, centres of expertise, and engineering and design firms. The research conceived of the Southwest Delta of the Netherlands as a laboratory for the new approach, which has nonetheless also proven relevant to other regions dealing with a similar level of complexity.
De kustnatuur is slecht beschermd : Het ruimtelijke ordeningsrecht gaat toch in verregaande mate uit van het piepsysteem
Kistenkas, F.H. ; Nijhuis, L. ; Schönknecht-Vermeulen, Carla - \ 2015
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 12 (2015)119. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 6 - 6.
kustgebieden - kustbeheer - natuurbescherming - ruimtelijke ordening - landschapsbeheer - coastal areas - coastal management - nature conservation - physical planning - landscape management
Natuurlijk is de natuur in onze kustgebieden goed beschermd. Want we beschermen daar niet alleen natuur, maar ook het hele achterland. Dat moet goed zijn geregeld. Toch? Maar weten we er het fijne wel van? Wat zijn eigenlijk de garanties voor de bescherming? Niet iedereen is er van overtuigd dat de kustnatuur goed is beschermd.
Op weg naar een klimaatactieve regio : een verkenning van knelpunten en kansen voor een klimaatactief Arnhem, Lochem en Zutphen
Limbeek, M.C.E. ; Hagens, J.E. ; Hattum, T. van; Massop, H.T.L. ; Kemenade, M.J.J.M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2646) - 60
klimaatverandering - hoogwaterbeheersing - waterkwaliteit - stadsomgeving - steden - ruimtelijke ordening - stadsontwikkeling - waterverzadiging - gelderland - climatic change - flood control - water quality - urban environment - towns - physical planning - urban development - waterlogging
Klimaatverandering gaat leiden tot meer kans op wateroverlast, meer perioden van droogte, waterkwaliteitsproblemen en hittestress in stedelijke gebieden. Het is daarom van groot belang om bij planvorming van ruimtelijke ontwikkelingen tijdig en proactief rekening te houden met de effecten van klimaatverandering. Het concept ‘Klimaatactieve Stad’ geeft de waterschappen een handvat om op een goede manier om te gaan met klimaatverandering in de stad. Deze studie is uitgevoerd in WaterNexT-verband en is gezamenlijk uitgewerkt door waterschap Rijn en IJssel, Alterra en de Radboud Universiteit. In deze studie zijn voor de drie stedelijke gebieden van Arnhem-Noord, Lochem en Zutphen de klimaatknelpunten voor de aspecten waterveiligheid, wateroverlast, hitte, waterkwaliteit en watertekort geïnventariseerd. Daarnaast zijn in de gemeenten inloopsessies gehouden om ruimtelijke ontwikkelingen binnen de stedelijke gebieden te inventariseren. Vanuit de combinatie van knelpunten en ruimtelijke ontwikkelingen komen elf hotspots naar voren waar kansen liggen om op korte termijn innovatieve en/of klimaatmaatregelen te nemen. Daarnaast geeft het rapport een aantal aanbevelingen voor het realiseren van een klimaatactieve regio Arnhem-Zutphen-Lochem.
Op zoek naar het duurzame landschap, hoe wetenschap en praktijk van elkaar leren
Opdam, P.F.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 44
landschapsecologie - groene infrastructuur - ruimtelijke ordening - duurzame ontwikkeling - landschapsbeheer - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - netwerken - landschapsplanning - participatie - ecosysteemdiensten - governance - landscape ecology - green infrastructure - physical planning - sustainable development - landscape management - scientific research - networks - landscape planning - participation - ecosystem services
Binnen de wetenschap wordt vooruitgang vaak gestuurd door voort te bouwen op bestaande methoden. Dat betekent vaak innovatie met kleine stapjes binnen de eigen discipline. Een vraag uit de praktijk daarentegen daagt uit tot grote stappen en tot combineren van kennis uit allerlei wetenschappelijke disciplines. De auteur is vanuit zijn landschapsecologische basis op zoek gegaan naar raakpunten in de sociale wetenschappen, zoals de ruimtelijke planning en de bestuurskunde. Dit boekje is het verslag van die zoektocht, met verrassende ontdekkingen.
Nieuwe perspectieven voor een verstedelijkte delta: naar een methode van planvorming en ontwerp
Meyer, V.J. ; Bregt, A.K. ; Dammers, E. ; Edelenbos, J. - \ 2014
Amsterdam : MUST Publishers - ISBN 9789081445504 - 231
ruimtelijke ordening - delta - urbanisatie - ontwerp - recreatie - natuurgebieden - industrieterreinen - zuid-holland - zeeland - zuidwest-nederland - physical planning - deltas - urbanization - design - recreation - natural areas - industrial sites - south-west netherlands
Dit boek is een pleidooi voor een nieuwe aanpak van ruimtelijke planvorming in complexe stedelijke deltagebieden. Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd in de periode 2011-2013 door een consortium van drie universiteiten (Technische Universiteit Delft, Wageningen Universiteit en Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam), vier kennisinstituten (Deltares, TNO, PBL en Geodan) en vier adviesbureaus (MUST Stedebouw, H+N+S Landschaparchitecten, RoyalHaskoningDHV en HKV lijn in water). Het onderzoek richtte zich vooral op het gebied van de Zuidwestelijke delta tussen Rotterdam en Antwerpen.
Paradoxale modernisering : Ede, 1945-1995: groot geworden, herkenbaar gebleven
Bloembergen-Lukkes, J.R. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij, co-promotor(en): Anton Schuurman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571433 - 365
geschiedenis - modernisering - politiek - economie - demografie - cultuur - onderwijs - migratie - ruimtelijke ordening - sociologie van vrijetijdsbesteding - lokale geschiedenis - veluwe - nederland - history - modernization - politics - economics - demography - culture - education - migration - physical planning - sociology of leisure - local history - netherlands

Summary

Paradoxical Modernization

Ede, 1945-1995: Grew big, remained recognizable

After the Second World War, like many other municipalities in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the Western World, Ede experienced a period of rapid economic and population growth, of mobility, increase in scale, urbanization, better education, professionalization, individualization and democratization. Developments that may be summarized in the word modernization. I wondered if modernization is an exogenous process and did it more or less just happen, or is it a planned process or something in between. I decided that the best way to answer these questions was not to study the modernization process on a national level, but on a local level. There I hoped to find the answer on the question what possibilities people have to define their own community.

I choose the municipality of Ede as my case study for the next reasons. After 1945, the Ede municipal executive opted for growth: economic, population and employment growth. In 1962, the municipal executive formulated a goal to welcome its 100,000 resident by the year 2000, which represented a doubling of the population since the end of the war. Ede was to be transformed into the city of Ede. This milestone of 100,000 inhabitants was reached as early as 1996, 60,000 of whom lived in Ede town. In order to achieve this goal, action was needed on several fronts. The rapid growth achieved was not the result of a policy plan handed down by central government. Ede was not one of the designated development areas. Ede was not regarded as an underdeveloped area requiring a top- down targeted approach for accelerated industrialization and modernization. On the other hand, in 1945, Ede was still clearly a rural community and the town centre clearly showed characteristics of a village society. So the rapid growth meant changes in different policy sectors.

Ede easily attracted new residents and employment opportunities as a result of its strategic location in the middle of the Netherlands, its good infrastructure and sufficient space. What it did need, however, was the development of housing estates and industrial estates including the necessary infrastructure and the development and expansion of, for example, education facilities and leisure amenities. In a predominantly Protestant community, this raised questions about the persuasion of these types of amenities and led to debates on, if actually desirable, the type of socio-cultural policy most appropriate for local government. Rapid expansion of a community may be perceived as a threat to the characteristics of that society. This question made Ede an extra interesting subject for research. In the case of Ede it was justifiable to assume that tensions would have arisen between the rural and urban ambitions and between Christian and secular developments. The municipal authority is involved in the developments and decision-making process relating to all the elements of the public domain, which is why it was chosen as the focus for this research.

The policy decisions required in the different areas to facilitate growth are by their nature intertwined. The construction of housing estates and business premises conflict with the interests of the agricultural sector and nature conservation. The arrival of new residents can change the social, political and religious composition of the population, resulting in consequences for how society is organized and for the future local political constellation and vice versa. Every decision must take what has occurred in other areas into account and will, in turn, have consequences for adjacent domains. For these reasons a choice was made for modernization as theoretical concept. Chapter one contains a historiographical discussion of this concept and an elaboration of how this concept has been applied to this research. In line with Schuyt and Taverne, I have chosen not to provide modernization in advance with a specific interpretation by adding ‘controlled’, ‘contested’ or ‘reflexive’. For the research, four policy areas have been selected for further investigation: spatial planning, education, guest workers/migrants and leisure facilities. As an introduction to the chapters on the developments in Ede, chapter two contains a broad outline of the national developments in which the local developments took place. Subsequently, in chapter three I discuss the way in which the modernization process was made visible in the composition of the municipal executive, including its chairpersons over a period of fifty years. Politicians not only partly determine which choices are made in the modernization process, but are also subject to this process themselves both at party and individual level. In this sense, through its decisions the political establishment in no small way contributes to determining its own future and, in turn, the composition of the municipal council and executive. The choices for more or

less growth, for public-authority or private-authority schools , for providing public amenities or not, et cetera influence who will choose Ede as a place of residence and work. In this way, secularization manifests itself in changes in the population composition and the demand for specific amenities, as well as at the level of the political composition of the municipal council and the individual councillors. As a result of the population growth, by 1966 the newcomers held the majority of the seats on the council. However, the original population of Ede managed to control the executive positions for much longer. Democratization, individualization and secularization led to an increase in the number of political parties represented on the council and enhanced pluralism. Compared to politics at national level, both women’s emancipation and the professionalization of councillors clearly had a delayed start. As was the case at national level the larger parties lost ground, although the SGP (Reformed Political Party) formed an exception in Ede.

The main theme of chapter four is spatial planning. Ede has profited considerably from the migration of residents and employment opportunities from the Randstad. Ede’s central location put it in a strategic position to benefit from national developments on spatial planning. The size of the municipality ̶ Ede being one of the largest in the Netherlands ̶ , the good infrastructure and the presence of the Veluwe National Park made Ede a popular place of residence and business. This remained the case even after, from the start of the 1960s, the provincial and national governments tried to curb the drift to Ede. As a result of its many qualities, Ede was able to achieve its growth ambitions and disregard the limiting measures imposed by higher government levels. In relation to nature conservation, Ede stayed more in line because the municipal executive regarded the Veluwe National Park as one of the attractive aspects of living in Ede. In respect to agriculture, the municipal executive chose for, on the one hand, an uncompromising policy to develop housing and business premises at the expense of farmland, while, on the other hand, applying a non-interference policy for the agricultural sector and business operations. Both small farmers and the strong growth in intensive animal husbandry could count on an accommodating local government. It was the national government which, as a result of the high levels of environmental pollution, designated the Gelderland Valley as a Spatial Planning and Environment area (ensuring spatial planning was combined with the environmental aspects). This, in turn, forced the municipal authority to impose regulatory measures on the agricultural sector in its spatial planning policies.

The policy choices in relation to the educational facilities are discussed in chapter five. What is conspicuous here is the clear commitment on the part of the Christian political parties to maintain the Christian character of the education. In the 1950s, this commitment could also count on the support of the Christian councillors representing the PvdA (Labour Party). It was not until the early 1960s that all the PvdA councillors supported the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) in its struggle

to increase the number of public-authority schools. In the meantime, Protestant Ede had managed, under the leadership of the ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) aldermen, to establish broad, and partly above municipality level, private-authority denominational schools. In achieving this, the ARP (Anti- Revolutionary Party) politicians were able to make use of their extensive network, which included national politicians. It was only in the early 1980s that secular Ede achieved a long-cherished goal with the opening of a public-authority neutral secondary school. The presence of a broad range of Protestant-Christian educational facilities is one of the explanations why Ede’s expansion did not lead to a drop, in percentage terms, of the Orthodox-Christian share of the vote. These parties were, however, practically always kept outside the coalition. Nevertheless, they managed to profit from the educational policies implemented by the coalition parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party), and later by the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal). These parties were not, however, rewarded for this policy as they were confronted with continuous and steady losses at the polls. Illustrative of this development was also the establishment in the 1970s of a number of Protestant Reformed primary schools and the establishment of a Protestant-Christian School Advisory Service in 1984. The long-term opposition to a more secular organization of society was also expressed in the opposition until the start of the 1970s to abolishing the dismissal of married teachers.

Ede’s growth did not only bring an influx of new residents from the rest of the Netherlands to the Veluwe. The shortage of unskilled workers, which continued to increase during the 1960s in the Netherlands, also resulted in the arrival of guest workers in Ede. Chapter six discusses the attitude of the political establishment towards this population group, whose stay was initially expected to be only temporary. It quickly became apparent that their unfamiliarity with our country, language, customs and laws in combination with their low wages and, for the most part, low level of education gave rise to a need for social assistance and specific facilities. The municipal executive did not, however, make use of the possibility to participate in the Migrant Workers’ Assistance Foundation that was established in Gelderland in the 1960s and in which the municipal executives of Apeldoorn and Arnhem participated. The Ede municipal executive maintained the view, as did other places in the Netherlands, that the

reception of this population group and the facilitating or provision of specific facilities was not the task of government —and most certainly not in the area of religion. In relation to this last point, the constitutional separation of church and state was invariably used as argumentation. Although, in practice in the Netherlands, and this includes Ede, up to that point had not been so strictly adhered to as was preached in Ede. It was only at the end of the 1970s that the first careful steps were taken to arrange for the required facilities. The municipal executive disregarded an official report in 1977 by Ede’s own Sociographical Department, in which migrant workers were considered one of the minority groups in the Netherlands and in which specific mention was made of the role of government in the origination of the problems confronting this population group. The decision of the national government in 1984 to transfer policy on minorities to local government forced the municipal executive to set down its own policy. When social unrest occurred surrounding the desire of and initiatives by the Moroccan and Turkish communities for their own place of prayer, the municipal executive slowly changed its attitude from a wait-and-see approach into an active approach in which a reasonably acceptable solution was sought in consultation with all the parties involved. The strong position of the SGP (Reformed Political Party) in local politics could present an explanation for the fact that in this period the extreme right in Ede, in contrast to national level, never achieved the electoral threshold.

Growth also places demands on leisure facilities. In the previous topics, especially in relation to the educational facilities and the facilities for migrant workers, there was an ongoing discussion in the background about how big the role of government should be in society. In confessional circles, but also within the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy), an ideological preference prevailed for small government, meaning, where possible, the initiative should be left to the community or the individual respectively. Government spending on leisure activities was particularly sensitive in the Protestant-Christian parties. The SGP (Reformed Political Party), on principal, held the opinion that the government should not spend public money on these types of activities. The development of sport fields/sport halls and the accommodation of sports clubs could, however, count on the support of the majority of the council and certainly also of the municipal executive. In the 1950s and 1960s the aldermen of the PvdA (Labour Party), VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) were great sport enthusiasts. Subsidies for cultural activities were more sensitive as theatre and opera had been a taboo for a long time within segments of the Protestant- Christian parties and, particularly, within the SGP (Reformed Political Party). If it was, nevertheless, decided to provide funding to support organizations or initiatives, then it was chosen for a strong involvement by the municipality, for example through ownership and tenures. This was an attempt by the municipal executive to exercise more control over the operations and the use of subsidies. At the same time, the municipal executive had a preference for the commercial use of, for example, a swimming pool or a theatre because this presented the possibility of keeping the public funding to a minimum. Particularly this involvement in a commercial organization gave rise, once again, to criticism within the council and within the community because commercialism with the help of public money was considered inappropriate for government and unfair competition. Ultimately, in the middle of the 1980s, the municipal executive distanced itself from the commercial operations by awarding a fixed subsidy amount based on agreements relating to the services provided to the community.

Reflecting on the fifty year period researched, two cut-off points can be established in the modernization process in Ede. The first period runs from 1945 to 1966 and is characterized by growth and tradition. The prevailing philosophy was that despite the choice for growth the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality should and could be maintained. This is illustrated in the development of a broad and above municipal level provision of private-authority Protestant-Christian educational facilities, in the commitment to non-interference in the agricultural sector including keeping the peasants, and in the conservative policy on developing cultural activities for the leisure sector.

However, the growth did strengthened aspects such as secularization, professionalization, geographical and social mobility, individualization and democratization: the modernization process continually resulted in changes in society and in the population composition and was not solely restricted to what was desirable or planned.

The second period runs to 1978 and can be characterized with the terms: change and debate.

The municipal policy was examined more critically. For example, the city-forming plans were considered undesirable both by the original population and the newcomers. Maintaining the smallness and a more rural character proved to be attractive aspects for Ede. At the same time, the demand for a more pluralistic and broader provision of social and cultural activities increased. In this second period, the non-interference policy in relation to agricultural developments except in the case that agricultural lands were required for housing and business premises, encountered opposition when the negative effects of the continuous expansion in the intensive animal husbandry for the ecology and

environment became more apparent. In addition, the arrival of migrant workers and with them Islam

into this predominantly Protestant-Christian community became more problematic during this period. As a consequence of unemployment and family reunification, more pressure was put on the municipal authorities for assistance and the need for a place of prayer for the Muslim community strengthened.

The societal and economic changes led to a more pluralistic political landscape. The six parties were confronted with increasing competition from new political parties, including the Boerenpartij (Farmers’ Party) which was the first to profit from the discontent. Only the SGP

(Reformed Political Party) managed to hold onto its share of the vote. The third period is characterized by the development of a new political situation and the search for a new political balance. The municipal executive was forced by the national government to curb the intensive animal husbandry.

The ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) had to part with the education portfolio and, finally, Ede got a public-authority neutral secondary school, the Pallas Athene. It was a long journey, but the Muslim community also received its own place of prayer. At a time when societal opposition to the building of a mosque appeared to favour the national extreme-right political parties and movements, the municipal executive opted to work with the Muslim groups to find a solution acceptable to all parties. The municipality distanced itself from the business operations in how it financed organizations such as swimming pools, the theatre and events such as the Week of the Heather.

What are the answers to my questions I posed in the beginning: is modernization at the local level more of less an exogenous process, can it be planned, or have local politicians enough opportunities to make a difference? When compared to the national developments it holds true for Ede that the 1950s was certainly a dynamic period, but it is also true to say that a Protestant-Christian community such as Ede required more time to shape its growth ambition so that old and new, conservative and progressive, and religious and secular could achieve a new balance and compromise. The changes were neither imposed from outside nor according to plan. The paradoxical outcome of the modernization process is that it has led to the further convergence of the local with the national developments, but it has at the same time ensured the survival of local characteristics.

Partially, these are characteristics that have consciously been or were able to be preserved by politicians, such as the predominantly Protestant-Christian education facilities and a conservative policy towards the socio-cultural domain. This policy has not, per definition, turned out favourably for the supporting political parties. It was the SGP (Reformed Political Party) and not the governing parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) (and later the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal) that managed to hold onto its voters, even though the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality was the reason why a segment of the newcomers chose for Ede. Their votes did not strengthen the confessional parties at the centre of the political spectrum; it was precisely the orthodox element that benefitted, which was illustrated by the arrival of the RPF (Reformed Political Federation/GPV (Reformed Political Union). Other characteristic elements are independent of the local political policy and have ensured that Ede has become and remains a desirable place of residence and business. Its central location on the Veluwe, the good infrastructure, and the size of the municipality stimulated and made growth possible. Ede was a municipality with adequate facilities and the amenities it lacked could be found in the nearby Randstad and Arnhem.

The Veluwe National Park also forms a large, green and tranquil back garden.

Modernization was not imposed upon Ede, contrary to what Van Deursen notes in the case of Katwijk. Even so no controlled modernization for Ede, as Van Vegchel describes for Emmen. Like Zwemer states for Zeeland, local politics in Ede has been able to make a difference within the national developments and governmental guidelines. The national government only intervened and imposed their policy at the moment local political choices led to negative effects beyond the municipal boundaries. In accordance with the findings of Schuyt and Taverne the development in Ede was not the result of a ‘grand design’, not even of local politicians. Ede shows quite nice the paradox of modernization. Despite the creation of uniformity in the ongoing process of national integration and globalization, the paradox is that contradictory movements are possible that contribute to ensuring that the unique character of the area can be preserved, even if this characterization is also subject to change.

Understandig trust : longitudinal studies on trust dynamics in governance interactions
Vries, J.R. de - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Noelle Aarts; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Raoul Beunen; Anne Marike Lokhorst. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571013 - 152
overtuigingen - governance - longitudinaal onderzoek - natuurbeleid - samenwerking - ruimtelijke ordening - overheid - groepen - contracten - organisatie - beliefs - longitudinal studies - nature conservation policy - cooperation - physical planning - public authorities - groups - contracts - organization
Trust is generally perceived as an important concept in governance processes where people cooperate, as it enables people to take risks and deal with uncertainties, and it facilitates cooperation. These characteristics are seen as important in new and alternative ways of implementing public policies. These governance approaches focus more and more on network governance and on organising more horizontal interactions. In these contexts, trust is seen as a means to control and manage relations. It is therefore surprising that empirical studies on trust are lacking. Consequently, little is known about how trust emerges and develops in governance processes. This thesis addresses this gap and focuses on the question: How does trust emerge and develop in governance interactions? In answering this question, I take a dynamic perspective on trust. Here, trust is seen as a positive expectation about an actor’s ways of doing. This perspective in particular takes into account the dynamics of governance interactions. In this thesis, I focus on the field of spatial planning, as one of the fields of governance. In planning processes, four aspects are important. First, planning processes consist of a series of interactions that are organised in a certain way and have specific characteristics. Second, in these interactions, various policy instruments are used to guide the process and work towards a collective objective. Third, these interactions take place between groups and their members. These groups have their own identity and related roles and rules that influence the planning process. Fourth, in these interactions, people express trust and distrust to support their ideas, collaboration, or preferred choice. In studying trust dynamics, I focus in the subsequent chapters on these four aspects and how they influence and are influenced by trust dynamics.
Afstand veehouderij tot woningen
Os, J. van; Smidt, R.A. ; Jeurissen, L.J.J. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra - 5
veehouderij - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - woningen - intensieve veehouderij - ruimtelijke ordening - livestock farming - farm buildings - dwellings - intensive livestock farming - physical planning
Ter voorbereiding van het debat in de Tweede Kamer met staatssecretaris Dijksma over een initiatiefnota van de SP heeft het ministerie van EZ aan Alterra gevraagd om te bepalen hoeveel veehouderijbedrijven er liggen op een afstand van 250 m of minder van burgerwoningen. Daarbij blijven de agrarische bedrijfswoningen buiten beschouwing. In paragraaf 2 staat de aanpak vermeld, paragraaf 3 bevat de resultaten en de conclusie.
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