Foam properties of proteins, low molecular weight surfactants and their complexes
Lech, F.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen; Peter Wierenga; Marcel Meinders. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576247 - 122 p.
surfactants - proteins - bovine serum albumin - beta-lactoglobulin - lysozyme - foams - chemical properties - stability - mixtures - food chemistry - oppervlaktespanningsverlagende stoffen - eiwitten - runderserumalbumine - bèta-lactoglobuline - lysozym - schuim - chemische eigenschappen - stabiliteit - mengsels - voedselchemie
This thesis shows the effects that the addition of low molecular weight surfactants (LWMS) to proteins has on the foam stability of the mixture. For this, the bulk, interfacial, thin liquid films and foam properties are determined for different protein-LWMS mixtures at different molar ratios (MR). It was shown that the MR as well as the charge of the protein and LMWS determine the foam stability of the mixtures. For all mixtures it was found that the proteins have a select number of high affinity binding sites. So, the concentration of free LMWS in the solution is 0 until a critical MR (MRcr), at which all high affinity binding sites are saturated. Above this MRcr, part of the LMWS binds to low affinity binding sites of the proteins. The low affinity binding sites have a binding ratio < 1, which determines the concentration of bound and free LMWS. For similarly charged protein-LMWS mixtures (i.e. b-lactoglobulin (BLG) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and SDS at pH 7) the foam stability typically decreases from the foam stability of the pure protein solution (MR 0) until MRcr is reached. At MR > MRcr the foam stability is dominated by the amount of free LMWS. For oppositely charged protein-LMWS mixtures, the binding of the LMWS to the proteins can be described in a similar way, although the number of high affinity sites and low affinity binding ratio are different. There is also a regime of MRs in which the protein-LMWS complexes form large aggregates. These aggregates were in some cases found to increase foam stability (lysozyme (LYS) and SDS and BLG-SDS at pH 3), while in another case (BLG and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)) they lead to decreased foam stability. Still, in all cases it was found that above MRD the aggregates dissociate and the foam stability becomes dominated by free surfactants, equivalent to what was observed for similarly charged protein-LMWS mixtures.
A multi-scale model was developed to describe the stability of thin liquid films in terms of rupture time and thickness. Initially, the model was used to predict the stability of surfactant free films of water and electrolyte solutions. Later, it was used to predict the foam stability in LYS-SDS mixtures. For that purpose, the model was combined with a foam drainage model to provide theoretical estimations of foam stability. This model is the basis to understand coalescence of bubbles in foam. Finally, the concept of the critical MRs and the free LMWS was introduced. Using this, the foam properties of protein-LMWS mixtures can partly be predicted by relative charge of the components and the binding to both high and low affinity binding sites.
Protein isolation using affinity chromatography
Besselink, T. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom, co-promotor(en): Anja Janssen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734266 - 146
eiwitextractie - isolatie - affiniteitschromatografie - harsen - liganden - runderserumalbumine - afvalverwerking - afvalhergebruik - industriële toepassingen - protein extraction - isolation - affinity chromatography - resins - ligands - bovine serum albumin - waste treatment - waste utilization - industrial applications
Many product or even waste streams in the food industry contain components that may have potential for e.g. functional foods. These streams are typically large in volume and the components of interest are only present at low concentrations. A robust and highly selective separation process should be developed for efficient isolation of the components. Affinity chromatography is such a selective method. Ligands immobilized to a stationary phase (e.g., a resin or membrane) are used to bind the component of interest. Affinity chromatography is, however, a costly process, due to the batch-wise operation, the large amount of solvents required and the high costs of the ligands and stationary phases. Therefore, its current use is mainly limited to lab-scale purifications and pharmaceutical applications.
The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of affinity chromatography for the isolation of minor protein in the food industry. The discovery of the VHH ligand, based on the binding domain of a llama antibody, has led to a new class of highly selective ligands, which can be produced on a large scale. We studied the chromatography process to measure productivity, but also to develop a rational protocol for decisions on suitable stationary phases and process configurations. The research presented in this thesis provides insights in the opportunities and challenges for large-scale affinity chromatography.
The isolation of protein using affinity chromatography requires several stages: adsorption, washing, and desorption. In Chapter 2, we studied these stages for the isolation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from pure BSA solutions with high and low concentration and from actual feedstock, in this case cheese whey. A small-scale packed bed column was used to investigate the yield and productivity. BSA was retrieved in highly pure and concentrated form in the desorption stage. Furthermore, we found that the productivity of the system strongly depended on the point at which the adsorption stage is terminated.
Acids or salts are commonly used to disrupt the bond between ligand and target protein during desorption. This results in the use of large quantities of chemicals, whilst the potential of other methods for desorption, such as an increase in temperature, is not fully explored. In Chapter 3 we measured the thermodynamics of the adsorption reaction between BSA and the VHH ligand with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Temperature and pH were varied to find other conditions for desorption. A buffer with high pH could be used for desorption, and an increase of temperature seemed to weaken the bond between protein and ligand. However, the acidic buffer would in this case still be most effective.
Apart from the bond between ligand and target protein, the stationary phase to which the ligand is immobilised plays a key role in the chromatography process. Many supports are available, of which we investigated a selection of resins for packed bed chromatography in Chapter 4. We found that some resins were unsuitable for our process due to their low adsorption capacity. A ranking and weighing method was presented to determine the optimal resin depending on the requirements of the process.
An important issue we found for all the resins investigated, was the low adsorption capacity compared to other types of adsorptive chromatography processes, such as ion exchange chromatography. Therefore, we studied the immobilization of the ligand to three resins in more detail in Chapter 5. The efficiency of ligand immobilization depended on the ligand concentration used in the immobilization procedure. However, only approximately one out of five immobilized ligands was able to bind to the target. Improvement of ligand immobilization is therefore a potential route to increase the feasibility of affinity chromatography for large-scale processes.
Eventually the lab-scale process has to be scaled-up to industrial scale. The commonly used axial flow column, essentially a cylinder filled with resin through which the feed flows in the axial direction, can have problems at scale-up, because of increased pressure drop as the column is lengthened. Therefore, scale-up usually takes place by widening the column. Another option is to use a radial flow column, in which the resin is confined between two concentric cylinders and liquid flows from the outside inwards or from the inside outwards. The radial flow column can be scaled up in height instead of width. In Chapter 6 we compared axial and radial flow affinity chromatography both experimentally and theoretically. We found that the differences in performance were minimal, because the process was limited by diffusion inside the resin particle. At a small process scale, radial flow columns are impractical in terms of size, but at a larger process scale they may compete with axial flow columns because of their smaller foot print and possibly lower construction costs.
The research in this thesis was focused on a defined ligand-protein system and commercially available resins in packed-bed configuration. The potential of other stationary phases, such as non-porous (magnetic) particles, membranes and monoliths was therefore discussed in Chapter 7. We found that currently the packed bed of porous resin beads still seems to be the most suitable configuration. A radial flow column with porous affinity resin is in theory capable of isolating a low-concentrated protein from a large feed of 10 m3/h. However, the relatively low capacity of the resin, the limited liquid velocity, as well as large buffer usage and the current costs remain important issues to resolve to further expand the opportunities of affinity chromatography for minor protein isolation.
Detailed characterization of adsorption-induced protein unfolding
Engel, M.F.M. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ton Visser; Sacco de Vries, co-promotor(en): Carlo van Mierlo. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085040019 - 125
runderserumalbumine - alfa-lactalbumine - moleculaire structuur - grensvlak - fysische eigenschappen - adsorptie - spectroscopie - bovine serum albumin - alpha-lactalbumin - molecular conformation - interface - physical properties - adsorption - spectroscopy
Properties of Fibrillar Protein Assemblies and their Percolating Networks
Veerman, C. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erik van der Linden, co-promotor(en): Leonard Sagis. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085040035 - 128
runderserumalbumine - bèta-lactoglobuline - ovalbumine - gelering - reologische eigenschappen - bovine serum albumin - beta-lactoglobulin - ovalbumin - gelation - rheological properties
Properties of Fibrillar Protein Assemblies and their Percolating Networks. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands Keywords: bovine serum albumin, complex fluids, excluded volume, fibrils, gels, innovation, b-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, percolation, proteins, rheology, rheo-optics, self-assembly, structure function relations. Abstract The objective of this thesis was to explore the assembly of food proteins into fibrils, and to describe the resulting percolating systems at rest and under shear flow, in terms of mesoscopic fibril properties. The effect of ionic strength on the percolation concentration for three different food proteins, namely b-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin is described. The dependence of ionic strength on the percolation concentration was explained using an adjusted random contact model, in which the percolation concentration is related to the average number of contacts per particle, and the excluded volume of the rod. Also the contour length, persistence length, and bending rigidity for these three protein assemblies were determined, as well as the phase behaviour of b-lactoglobulin at low pH. A new multistep Ca2+-induced cold gelation process is described to prepare b-lactoglobulin gels at very low protein concentrations (0.07%). The behaviour of fibrillar assemblies of ovalbumin under oscillatory shear, close to the critical percolation concentration, was probed with the use of rheo-optical measurements and Fourier transform rheology. Also the effect of shear flow on the critical percolation concentration for solutions of fibrillar protein assemblies was investigated. Results of viscosity measurements were analysed using percolation theory, where the effect of shear flow was taken into account. The experimental results were compared with our theoretical calculations for the percolation concentration versus shear, based on a random contact model for rodlike particles, making use of a shear dependent excluded volume per fibril. In conclusion conditions leading to gel formation, in terms of mesoscopic fibril properties, under non-flow conditions have been discussed. The observed critical gelation concentration was explained in terms of an excluded volume per fibril (at zero shear). The influence of shear flow on this critical gelation concentration was also described. Here, the critical percolation concentration versus shear flow could again be expressed in terms of an excluded volume per fibril, in this case as a function of shear.