Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Long-term impact of rainfed agricultural land abandonment on soil erosion in the Western Mediterranean basin
Cerdà, Artemi ; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús ; Novara, Agata ; Brevik, Eric Charles ; Vaezi, Ali Reza ; Pulido, Manuel ; Giménez-Morera, Antonio ; Keesstra, Saskia Deborah - \ 2018
Progress in Physical Geography 42 (2018)2. - ISSN 0309-1333 - p. 202 - 219.
Land use change - plots - rainfall - runoff - scale - sediment - Spain
Land abandonment is widespread in the Mediterranean mountains. The impact of agricultural abandonment results in a shift in ecosystem evolution due to changes in soil erosion, but little is known about long-term soil and water losses. This paper uses 11 years of measurements in two paired plots (abandoned vs control) with four subplots to determine how soil and water losses evolved after abandonment within an agricultural parcel. For two years (2004–2005) both plots were under tillage, and after 2006 one plot was abandoned. The monitored plots measured runoff and sediment concentration after each rainfall event. The results show that during the two years after abandonment there was an increase in sediment yield followed by a decrease. Once the field was abandoned, a sudden increase in runoff (× 2.1 times) and sediment concentration (× 1.2 times) was found due to the lack of vegetation and tillage. After one year, the sediment concentration and, after two years, the runoff rates were lower in the abandoned than in the tilled plots. This short transition period ended in contrasting responses between the control and abandoned plot as the impact of abandonment resulted in 21 times less sediment yield after nine years of abandonment. This occurred despite the fact that the year after the abandonment the abandoned plot had 2.9 times more erosion due to low vegetation recovery and the development of a soil crust. Agriculture land abandonment resulted in lower erosion rates over the long term, but showed an increase in soil and water losses over the short term (two years). Therefore, in the first two years after abandonment there is a particular need to apply nature-based soil and water conservation strategies to prevent soil erosion.
Maatgevende afvoer en maaiveldafvoer in waterschap Vechtstromen : beschouwing over de bruikbaarheid van afvoernormen voor bepaling van veranderingen in de waterhuishouding en het optreden van maaiveldafvoer
Massop, H.Th.L. ; Bakel, P.J.T. ; Louw, P.G.B. de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2839) - 71
drainage - waterbeheer - afvoer - oppervlakkige afvoer - klimaatverandering - nederland - water management - discharge - runoff - climatic change - netherlands
Dit rapport beschrijft (1) een evaluatie van de MA-methodiek (Maatgevende Afvoer) toegepast door harmonisatie van de legger van het waterschap Vechtstromen en brengt (2) de maaiveladafvoer voor het waterschapgebied in beeld.
Comparing Beerkan infiltration tests with rainfall simulation experiments for hydraulic characterization of a sandy-loam soil
Prima, Simone Di; Bagarello, Vincenzo ; Lassabatere, Laurent ; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael ; Bautista, Inmaculada ; Burguet, Maria ; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio ; Iovino, Massimo ; Prosdocimi, Massimo - \ 2017
Hydrological Processes 31 (2017)20. - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 3520 - 3532.
Beerkan infiltration - height of water application - rainfall simulation - runoff - saturated soil hydraulic conductivity

Saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks, data collected by ponding infiltrometer methods and usual experimental procedures could be unusable for interpreting field hydrological processes and particularly rainfall infiltration. The Ks values determined by an infiltrometer experiment carried out by applying water at a relatively large distance from the soil surface could however be more appropriate to explain surface runoff generation phenomena during intense rainfall events. In this study, a link between rainfall simulation and ponding infiltrometer experiments was established for a sandy-loam soil. The height of water pouring for the infiltrometer run was chosen, establishing a similarity between the gravitational potential energy of the applied water, Ep, and the rainfall kinetic energy, Ek. To test the soundness of this procedure, the soil was sampled with the Beerkan estimation of soil transfer parameters procedure of soil hydraulic characterization and two heights of water pouring (0.03 m, i.e., usual procedure, and 0.34 m, yielding Ep = Ek). Then, a comparison between experimental steady-state infiltration rates, isR, measured with rainfall simulation experiments determining runoff production and Ks values for the two water pouring heights was carried out in order to discriminate between theoretically possible (isR ≥ Ks) and impossible (isR < Ks) situations. Physically possible Ks values were only obtained by applying water at a relatively large distance from the soil surface, because isR was equal to 20.0 mm h−1 and Ks values were 146.2–163.9 and 15.2–18.7 mm h−1 for a height of water pouring of 0.03 and 0.34 m, respectively. This result suggested the consistency between Beerkan runs with a high height of water pouring and rainfall simulator experiments. Soil compaction and mechanical aggregate breakdown were the most plausible physical mechanisms determining reduction of Ks with height. This study demonstrated that the height from which water is poured onto the soil surface is a key parameter in infiltrometer experiments and can be adapted to mimic the effect of high intensity rain on soil hydraulic properties.

The TOXSWA model version 3.3 for pesticide behaviour in small surface waters : description of processes
Horst, M.M.S. ter; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Berg, F. van den - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 84) - 72
pesticides - surface water - models - modeling - aquatic ecosystems - drainage - runoff - pesticiden - oppervlaktewater - modellen - modelleren - aquatische ecosystemen - oppervlakkige afvoer
In the European Union (EU) the risk of plant protection products to aquatic organisms is assessed accordingto regulation 1107/2009. For this assessment the FOCUS Surface Water Scenarios have been developed. TheTOXSWA model is included in the FOCUS Surface Water Software tools to calculate the exposureconcentration in the water systems defined in those scenarios. At the national level the TOXSWA model isused to assess the exposure concentration in the water system defined in national scenarios. In this report adescription is given of the hydrology in the Dutch and EU water body systems and the fate of pesticides andtheir metabolites in water and sediment. The pesticide can enter the system by spray drift and/or drainageand run-off. The transport in the water system is described by advection, dispersion and diffusion. Theexchange at the water-sediment interface is described based on advection/diffusion. Other processes aresorption, volatilisation at the water – air interface and transformation in both the water layer and thesediment. The formation and transformation of metabolites in both compartments are described. The reportpresents an outlook on the improvements in the next version as well as on future developments.
Landbouw en de KRW-opgave voor nutriënten in regionale wateren : het aandeel van landbouw in de KRW-opgave, de kosten van enkele maatregelen en de effecten ervan op de uit- en afspoeling uit landbouwgronden
Groenendijk, Piet ; Boekel, Erwin van; Renaud, Leo ; Greijdanus, Auke ; Michels, Rolf ; Koeijer, Tanja de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2749) - 149
kaderrichtlijn water - voedingsstoffen - oppervlaktewater - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - stikstof - fosfaten - uitspoelen - landbouw - oppervlakkige afvoer - water framework directive - nutrients - surface water - surface water quality - nitrogen - phosphates - leaching - agriculture - runoff
Het doel van de Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water is duurzame bescherming van ecosystemen en watervoorraden. Een deel van de regionale waterlichamen voldoet nog niet aan de normen voor stikstof- en fosforconcentraties die behoren bij een goede ecologische toestand. Om af te wegen welke maatregelen kunnen bijdragen aan het realiseren van de KRW-doelen, is inzicht nodig in de herkomst van stikstof en fosfor in het oppervlaktewater. In dit onderzoek is het aandeel van de landbouw in de overschrijding van de normen voor de stikstof- en de fosforconcentratie in regionale waterlichamen berekend met modellen. In deze analyse zijn verschillende brontermen onderscheiden die niet afzonderlijk te meten zijn (kwel, nalevering bodem, na-ijling uit overschotten in het verleden) en alleen met modellen zijn te berekenen. Vervolgens zijn van een viertal maatregelen (vervanging uitspoelingsgevoelige gewassen in het zuidelijke zandgebied, bodemverbetering, verbetering nutriëntenbenutting en drainage) de effecten op de uit- en afspoeling van stikstof en fosfor geschat. Ook zijn gevolgen voor het gebiedsgemiddelde financieel saldo geschat. Om te voldoen aan de normen voor stikstof- en fosforconcentraties in regionale waterlichamen, moet de uit- en afspoeling uit landbouwgronden landelijk gemiddeld met respectievelijk 12─17% en 12–38% worden verminderd, afhankelijk van de wijze waarop de uit- en afspoeling wordt vertaald naar een aandeel in de overschrijding van de concentratienormen. Tussen regio’s doen zich grote verschillen voor. Door een combinatie van de doorgerekende maatregelen lijkt in de zandgebieden een groot deel van de opgave voor reductie van de stikstofuitspoeling gerealiseerd te kunnen worden, terwijl de opgave voor het reduceren van de uit- en afspoeling van fosfor slechts voor een klein deel gerealiseerd kan worden met deze maatregelen. Voor fosfor zijn andere en/of aanvullende maatregelen nodig die voorkomen dat de opgehoopte voorraad fosfaat in de bovengrond kan uitspoelen naar het oppervlaktewater en/of maatregelen met een zuiverende werking in het oppervlaktewater.
Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde
Santos Baptista Costa, I. Dos - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Coen Ritsema; Violette Geissen, co-promotor(en): Luuk Fleskens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577367 - 189 p.
water management - soil management - farming systems - dry farming - optimization - watershed management - watersheds - runoff - erosion control - cape verde - waterbeheer - bodembeheer - bedrijfssystemen - optimalisatie - beheer van waterbekkens - stroomgebieden - oppervlakkige afvoer - erosiebestrijding - kaapverdië

“Optimizing Soil and Water Management in Dryland Farming Systems in Cabo Verde”

Isaurinda Baptista

Summary

Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both people’s livelihood and the environment. Dryland food production in Cabo Verde faces steep slopes, inadequate practices, irregular intense rain, recurrent droughts, high runoff rates, severe soil erosion and declining soil fertility, leading to the inefficient use of rainwater. Despite the enormous investment in soil and water conservation measures (SWC), land degradation due to water erosion is still rife and dryland crop productivity remains low. Sustainable land management (SLM) techniques that reduce runoff, erosion and nutrient loss are the key to mitigating/preventing land degradation and assuring long-term soil productivity.

This thesis investigated soil and water management techniques for Cabo-Verdean dryland farming systems to increase the efficiency of rainwater and crop yield, combining traditional and scientific knowledge in a field-based participatory approach. Field experiments were conducted in different agro-ecological zones of the Santiago Island aiming to evaluate the effects of water conservation techniques (mulching of crop residue, soil surfactant and pigeon-pea hedges) combined with organic amendments (compost and animal or green manure) on runoff, erosion, soil nutrients and crop yield. The PESERA-DESMICE modelling approach allowed assessing the biophysical and socio-economic benefits of the promising SLM techniques against a local baseline condition and their potential application at larger scale, under climate variability.

Following the general introduction (chapter 1), chapter 2 of the thesis reviews the national strategies towards building resilience against the harsh environmental conditions, analyses the state of land degradation and its drivers, surveys the existing SWC measures, and assesses their effectiveness against land degradation and in supporting people’s livelihoods. The analysis allows inferring that the relative success of Cabo Verde in tackling desertification and rural poverty is due to an integrated governance strategy that comprises awareness raising, institutional framework development, financial resource allocation, capacity building, and active participation of rural communities. The chapter provides a panoramic view of the importance of SWC measures for Cabo Verde drylands and recommends further specific, science-based assessment of the biophysical and socioeconomic impact of SLM and potential for upscaling.

Chapter 3, first, discusses the participatory approach used in selecting the SLM techniques that are field-tested in this research and, then, evaluates the effects of the selected water conservation techniques combined with organic amendments on the generation of runoff and soil loss from rain-fed agricultural fields compared with traditional farmers’ practices. The chapter also discusses the main factors influencing runoff and soil loss in semiarid dryland hilly areas, including the degree of soil cover, rainfall amount and erosivity, slope and soil infiltration rate. Runoff was significantly reduced only with the treatments containing mulch on slopes >10% and in the treatment containing surfactant and organic amendment on slopes <10%. Observed soil erosion rates were highest for the silty-clay-loam soil, followed by the sandy-loam soil and the loamy-soil, reaching a maximum value of 17 Mg ha-1 in the traditional practice, but were reduced by more than 50% with the SLM techniques. Residue mulch and pigeon-pea combined with an organic amendment (T3) almost eliminated runoff and erosion from agricultural fields even on steep slopes, contributing to improved use of rainwater at the plot level. The chapter recommends that SLM techniques, such as T3, be advocated and promoted for the semiarid hillsides of Cabo Verde prone to erosion to increase rainwater-use and to prevent further soil degradation.

As soil erosion, runoff and related nutrient losses constitute a high risk to soil fertility in Cabo Verde drylands, chapter 4 focuses on the effects of the techniques tested in chapter 3 on erosion and runoff related nutrient losses (NO3-N and PO4-P) and on crop productivity. The traditional system lost significantly higher amounts of both NO3-N and PO4-P than the tested SLM techniques, with the T3 technology reducing soil loss, runoff and nutrient losses to nearly a 100%. Nutrient losses from the amended plots were low, while the significant losses from the traditional system could result in long-term nutrient depletion in the soil. The treatments did not consistently increase crop yield or biomass in all three sites, but the combination of organic amendment with soil surfactant increased both crop yield and biomass in some cases. T3 was the best treatment for steep slope areas, although it is crucial to manage the pigeon-pea hedges to achieve higher maize yield. For flatter areas with deeper soils, the combination of organic amendment with soil surfactant could be a less expensive and effective choice. The chapter identifies and recommends SLM techniques to prevent nutrient depletion, improve dryland crop yield and avoid further land degradation due to erosion by water, both in steep slope areas and flatter areas.

Given the potential of the SLM techniques, but also significant spatial-temporal yield variability, chapter 5 considers the PESERA-DESMICE modelling approach to capture a greater range of climatic conditions and evaluate the biophysical and socio-economic benefits of the promising SLM technique (residue mulch combined with pigeon-pea hedges and an organic amendment - T3) against the traditional baseline practice of maize-bean intercropping (T0). It also evaluates the potential for upscaling the selected technique at Island scale. From stations in semi-arid and sub humid climates, long-term historic rainfall statistics allowed construction of 50-year rainfall realizations providing a unique time-series of rainfall scenarios and an envelope of the potential biomass production. T3 elevates yield under both sub-humid and semi-arid climates with greater security for sub-humid areas even though risk of crop failure still exists. The T3 technology offered good potential to increase yields by 20% in 42% of the area and reduce erosion by 8.6 Mg ha-1, but in terms of cost effectiveness, it might be prohibitively expensive for farmers lacking inputs. Such findings can inform policy options or influence adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability of the Cabo Verde drylands and resilience to future climate change.

The thesis ends with a synthesis chapter (6) that presents the research findings, highlights the new contributions made to the current scientific debates on Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) technologies for sub-Saharan Africa, sustainable intensification and land degradation neutrality. The T3 technology can be a promising CSA practice that could be widely used by smallholder farmers in semiarid regions to maintain food production and secure farmers’ livelihoods, while contributing to ecosystem services by storing water in the soil. The synthesis concludes with policy recommendations for optimizing soil and water management on hilly drylands to prevent further degradation.

Hence, the thesis presents options to support moving from degrading and low yielding land management practices towards more sustainable land intensification in hilly drylands that reduce runoff and soil loss, increase crop nutrient and crop productivity, ultimately, contributing to the mitigation/adaptation of climate change, food security and land degradation neutrality in Cabo Verde.

Watermanagement: oppervlakkige afspoeling aanpakken
Noij, I.G.A.M. - \ 2015
Nieuwsbrief Koeien & Kansen (2015)43. - p. 2 - 2.
oppervlakkige afvoer - oppervlaktewater - nutriëntenuitspoeling - infiltratie - waterbeheer - bodemstructuur - runoff - surface water - nutrient leaching - infiltration - water management - soil structure
Oppervlakkige afspoeling zorgt voor nutriëntenverlies. Het is een hele specifieke emissie route, die slechts beperkt wordt aangepakt via de bekende maatregelen rondom mest manage ment. De waterschappen zijn erg geïnteresseerd in dit onderwerp, om de belasting van het oppervlaktewater terug te dringen. Flinke verbeteringen zijn nodig én mogelijk.
Interpreting characteristic drainage timescale variability across Kilombero Valley, Tanzania
Lyon, S.W. ; Koutsouris, A. ; Scheibler, F. ; Jarsjö, J. ; Mbanguka, R. ; Tumbo, M. ; Robert, K.K. ; Sharma, A.N. ; Velde, Y. van der - \ 2015
Hydrological Processes 29 (2015)8. - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 1912 - 1924.
blue nile - base-flow - ethiopia - soil - runoff - event - model
We explore seasonal variability and spatiotemporal patterns in characteristic drainage timescale (K) estimated from river discharge records across the Kilombero Valley in central Tanzania. K values were determined using streamflow recession analysis with a Brutsaert–Nieber solution to the linearized Boussinesq equation. Estimated K values were variable, comparing between wet and dry seasons for the relatively small catchments draining upland positions. For the larger catchments draining through valley bottoms, K values were typically longer and more consistent across seasons. Variations in K were compared with long-term averaged, Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-derived monthly evapotranspiration. Although the variations in K were potentially related to evapotranspiration, the influence of data quality and analysis procedure could not be discounted. As such, even though recession analysis offers a potential approach to explore aquifer release timescales and thereby gain insight to a region's hydrology to inform water resources management, care must be taken when interpreting spatiotemporal shifts in K in connection with process representation in regions like the Kilombero Valley.
Short- to mid-term impact of conservation agriculture on yield variability of upland rice: evidence from farmer's fields in Madagascar
Bruelle, G. ; Naudin, K. ; Scopel, E. ; Domas, R. ; Rabeharisoa, L. ; Tittonell, P.A. - \ 2015
Experimental Agriculture 51 (2015)1. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 66 - 84.
cropping systems - tillage systems - maize productivity - soil - erosion - africa - degradation - nigeria - surface - runoff
Family farming in the tropics suffers from low crop productivity mainly due to a combination of poor soil fertility, low investment capacity, and a variable climate. The Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar is no exception and rainfed production is particularly hard hit. To evaluate the agronomic benefits of conservation agriculture (CA) in a region of erratic rainfall, we analysed four years of yield, management and climatic data from 3803 upland rice fields cultivated by farmers and monitored by researchers. Fields located on rainfed lowlands and hillsides were cultivated with sole rice using conventional tillage (Cv) or rice sown with no-tillage on dead organic mulch and rotated with other cereal/legume combinations (CA) from 2006 to 2011. A first global comparison across seasons, locations and years of adoption showed significantly higher average yields under CA, with no change in variance (on lowland: 2.6 ± 0.9 t ha–1 Cv, 2.8 ± 0.9 t ha–1 CA; on hillside: 2.1 ± 0.8 t ha–1 Cv, 2.4 ± 0.8 t ha–1 CA). Grouping fields according to the number of years under CA (first to fourth) revealed that CA gradually increased average yields and reduced the coefficient of variation in the short and mid-term (on lowland: +0.2 t ha–1 and –6% coefficient of variation; on hillside: +0.7 t ha–1 and –13% coefficient of variation, over four to six years of successive CA cropping). The average yield increase under CA was not associated with an increase in mineral fertiliser use, as farmers used the same amounts of fertilisers (or none) under Cv and CA. The comparison Cv versus CA also highlighted a major benefit of CA regarding climate: it widened the window of possible sowing dates. A classification and regression tree analysis of the entire dataset revealed that rice yield was more affected by agro-environmental factors than management factors (fertilisation, Cv or CA), and extreme climate variability such as the severe drought of 2007–2008 could not be offset by CA. The hypothesis of yield penalties during the first years of implementation of CA cannot be verified with the evidence presented in this study.
The future for global water assessment
Harding, R.J. ; Weedon, G.P. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Clark, D.B. - \ 2014
Journal of Hydrology 518 (2014). - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 186 - 193.
multimodel ensemble - bias correction - climate - precipitation - model - runoff - impact - 20th-century - temperature - drought
The global water cycle is a fundamental component of our climate and Earth system. Many, if not the majority, of the impacts of climate change are water related. We have an imperfect description and understanding of components of the water cycle. This arises from an incomplete observation of some of the stores and fluxes in the water cycle (in particular: precipitation, evaporation, soil moisture and groundwater), problems with the simulation of precipitation by global climate models and the wide diversity of global hydrological models currently in use. This paper discusses these sources of errors and, in particular, explores the errors and advantages of bias correcting climate model outputs for hydrological models using a single large catchment as an example (the Rhine). One conclusion from this analysis is that bias correction is necessary and has an impact on the mean flows and their seasonal cycle. However choice of hydrological model has an equal, if not larger effect on the quality of the simulation. The paper highlights the importance of improving hydrological models, which run at a continental and global scale, and the importance of quantifying uncertainties in impact studies.
River flow regime and snow cover of the Pamir Alay (Central Asia) in a changing climate
Chevallier, P. ; Pouyaud, B. ; Mojaisky, M. ; Bolgov, M. ; Olsson, O. ; Bauer, M. ; Froebrich, J. - \ 2014
Hydrological Sciences Journal 59 (2014)8. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 1491 - 1506.
remote-sensing data - northern tien-shan - hydrological regime - water availability - glacier retreat - historical data - stereo imagery - aster imagery - mass balances - runoff
The Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers, main tributaries of the Amu Darya River in the mountainous region of the Pamir Alay, play an important role in the water resources of the Aral Sea basin (Central Asia). In this region, the glaciers and snow cover significantly influence the water cycle and flow regime, which could be strongly modified by climate change. The present study, part of a project funded by the European Commission, analyses the hydrological situation in six benchmark basins covering areas of between 1800 and 8400km(2), essentially located in Tajikistan, with a variety of topographical situations, precipitation amounts and glacierized areas. Four types of parameter are discussed: temperature, glaciation, snow cover and river flows. The study is based mainly on a long-time series that ended in the 1990s (with the collapse of the Soviet Union) and on field observations and data collection. In addition, a short, more recent period (May 2000 to May 2002) was examined to better understand the role of snow cover, using scarce monitored data and satellite information. The results confirm the overall homogeneous trend of temperature increase in the mountain range and its impacts on the surface water regime. Concerning the snow cover, significant differences are noted in the location, elevation, orientation and morphology of snow cover in the respective basins. The changes in the river flow regime are regulated by the combination of the snow cover dynamics and the increasing trend of the air temperature.
Mapping ecosystem services: The supply and demand of flood regulation services in Europe
Sturck, J. ; Poortinga, A. ; Verburg, P.H. - \ 2014
Ecological Indicators 38 (2014). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 198 - 211.
land-use changes - climate-change - changing climate - runoff - soil - protection - catchments - forests - areas - time
Ecosystem services (ES) feature highly distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of distribution, quantity, and flows. The flow of ecosystem goods and services to beneficiaries plays a decisive role in the valuation of ES and the successful implementation of the ES concept in environmental planning. This is particularly relevant to regulating services where demands emerge often spatially separated from supply. However, spatial patterns of both supply and demand are rarely incorporated in ES assessments on continental scales. In this paper, we present an ES modeling approach with low data demand, fit to be employed in scenario analysis and on multiple scales. We analyze flood regulation services at a European scale by explicitly addressing the spatial distribution of ES demand. A flood regulation supply indicator is developed based on scenario runs with a hydrological model in representative river catchments, incorporating detailed information on land, cover, land use and management. Land use sensitive flood damage estimates in the European Union (EU) are employed to develop a spatial indicator for flood regulation demand. Findings are transferred to the EU territory to create a map of the current supply of flood regulation and the potential supply under conditions of natural vegetation. Regions with a high capacity to provide flood regulation are mainly characterized by large patches of natural vegetation or extensive agriculture. The main factor limiting supply on a continental scale is a low water holding capacity of the soil. Flood regulation demand is highest in central Europe, at the foothills of the Alps and upstream of agglomerations. We were able to identify areas with a high potential capacity to provide flood regulation in conjunction with land use modifications. When combined with spatial patterns of current supply and demand, we could identify priority areas for investments in ES flood regulation supply through conservation and land use planning. We found that only in a fraction of the EU river catchments exhibiting a high demand, significant increases in flood regulation supply are achievable by means of land use modifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The contribution of plant uptake to nutrient removal by floating treatment wetlands
Keizer-Vlek, H.E. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Dekkers, T.B.M. - \ 2014
Ecological Engineering 73 (2014). - ISSN 0925-8574 - p. 684 - 690.
aquaculture waste-water - constructed wetlands - phosphorus - vegetation - runoff - system
Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) may provide an appealing alternative to the more conventional (sub) surface flow wetlands to solve problems associated with eutrophication in urban surface waters, because they do not claim additional land area. This study examined the contribution of plant uptake to overall removal capacity of FTWs. A batch mesocosm experiment was performed during the growing season using thirty 84 L polyethylene tanks covered with 0.28 m2 floating Styrofoam mats. Ten tanks served as a control (only Styrofoam cover), 10 tanks were planted with Iris pseudacorus, and 10 with Typha angustifolia. Nutrients were added weekly to keep total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) concentrations at approximately 4 mg N L-1 and 0.25 mg P L-1. Total removal of TN an TP from the treatment with Typha was relatively low, resulting from the limited increase in plant biomass during the experiment. Total removal of TN and TP from the tanks planted with Iris was 277 mg N m-2 d-1 and 9.32 mg P m-2 d-1 during the experiment. These values were significantly higher than the values for total removal from the control tanks, i.e., 54 times higher for TN removal and 10 times higher for TP removal. Plant uptake played a major role in the removal of nitrogen and phosphorous from the water by FTWs, i.e., 74% of TN removal and 60% of TP removal resulted from Iris uptake. These results suggest that FTWs planted with Iris can be applied in a temperate climate to overcome problems with excessive algae growth in surface waters.
Plassen op het land : een landsdekkende kaart van potentiële risicolocaties voor oppervlakkige afspoeling
Massop, H.T.L. ; Clement, J. ; Schuiling, C. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2546) - 85
landbouwgrond - bodemtypen - oppervlakkige afvoer - bodemwater - infiltratie - perceelsvorm (landbouwkundig) - monitoring - agricultural land - soil types - runoff - soil water - infiltration - field shape
Oppervlakkige afstroming over maaiveld draagt bij aan de belasting van het oppervlaktewater met nutriënten en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. De beschikbaarheid van een hoogtekaart met een hoge resolutie geeft de mogelijkheid potentiele risicolocaties op landbouwpercelen in kaart te brengen. Gebieden met het hoogste risico voor oppervlakkige afspoeling zijn de kleigebieden van Friesland en Groningen, het rivierengebied en de veengebieden, zoals het Utrechts-Hollands en het Friese veengebied.
Evaluating the hydrological component of the new catchment-scale sediment delivery model LAPSUS-D
Keesstra, S.D. ; Temme, A.J.A.M. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Visser, S.M. - \ 2014
Geomorphology 212 (2014). - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 97 - 107.
soil-erosion model - land-use change - landscape evolution - mesoscale catchment - sensitivity-analysis - simulation-model - drainage basins - single-event - runoff - water
Physically-based, catchment scale sediment delivery models have become increasingly complex, sophisticated and are suitable for a diverse range of environmental contexts. However, in their attempts to best represent the physical processes of erosion and deposition, these models require large and detailed input datasets. When such data are unavailable, annual sediment yield models are relied upon. However, in this class of models, widely available data such as daily precipitation and discharge are disregarded resulting in a reduction in temporal accuracy. To fill this scientific and management gap, the landscape evolution model LAPSUS was adapted (LAPSUS-D) for a meso-scale catchment to model sediment yield on a daily resolution. The water balance component within the model enables the calibration of the model in terms of water discharge with measured daily discharge at the outlet. This methodology is especially important when modeling sediment yield from catchments which are ungaged catchments in terms of sediment, but where hydrological data are available. As the simulation of sediment yield was the main objective of the study, the calibration focused on peak discharge. The focus on peak discharge provides insight into the capability of the model to generate, route and deliver sediment at the outlet of a meso-scale catchment. LAPSUS-D has daily temporal resolution and requires a 10 to 30 m pixel size DEM, soil map, land-use map and daily hydrological records (precipitation and discharge). In this paper we present the first assessment of the hydrological model performance and an analysis of the sensitivity of the model to input parameters. Our study site is a 23-km2 catchment in Upper Nysa Szalona, southwest Poland with temperate climate. Results show that the model can reliably predict peak discharge, which is expected in future studies to allow reliable estimates of sediment transport capacity, redistribution and yield.
PLEASE: a simple model to determine P losses by leaching
Schoumans, O.F. ; Salm, C. van der; Groenendijk, P. - \ 2013
Soil Use and Management 29 (2013). - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 138 - 146.
relating soil-phosphorus - phosphate-sorption - water-quality - united-states - runoff - eutrophication - netherlands - kinetics - surface - management
Non-point phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural land to streams is caused mainly by overland flow and leaching. In many countries P-index methods are used to identify areas at risk of P loss to streams. In flat areas with shallow groundwater levels, where losses by leaching are important, these index methods have their limitations as leaching is often not described in detail. This study presents a simple model to predict P loss by leaching at the field scale. This model called Phosphorus LEAching from Soils to the Environment (PLEASE) is based on the well-known kinetics of P in soils and lateral water flux from soils to surface waters. PLEASE was applied using readily available information to a small catchment; and a sensitivity analysis and comparison with two soil P indicators were carried out (soil P test and the phosphate saturation degree). The model predicted a total P load of 4187kg P in the Schuitenbeek catchment. The result was also a predicted P discharge at the catchment outlet of 2973kg P corrected by independent assessment of P retention in streams in the catchment (29%). This is comparable to the measured outflow (2770kg P). The calculated P losses by leaching are highly sensitive to the soil Langmuir parameters, which means that it is important to determine the adsorption isotherm to obtain reliable estimated losses. The PLEASE approach has particular value compared to other soil P indicators for estimating actual P losses by leaching from agricultural land to surface water. These results suggest that PLEASE is a promising method for quantifying differences in P loss by leaching between fields within a catchment.
Oppervlakkige afstroming en diepte van modelprofielen : invloed op N- en P- vrachten in STONE2.3
Jansen, P.C. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Groenendijk, P. ; Renaud, L.V. ; Hendriks, R.F.A. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2464) - 85
oppervlaktewater - stikstof - fosfor - voedingsstoffen - oppervlakkige afvoer - mestbeleid - simulatiemodellen - surface water - nitrogen - phosphorus - nutrients - runoff - manure policy - simulation models
STONE is een simulatiemodel dat door RIVM, RIZA en Wageningen UR is ontwikkeld. Het bestaat uit een reeks deelmodellen die gebruikt worden om de gevolgen van het mestbeleid voor de emissie van stikstof en fosfaat naar het grondwater en het oppervlaktewater te evalueren. Voor het model is Nederland opgedeeld in hydro-eenheden die uniek zijn qua bodem, landgebruik en mestregime. Parallel aan de toepassing van STONE worden onderdelen van het model getoetst op relevantie, gevoeligheid en betrouwbaarheid. In dit rapport worden aspecten nader onderzocht die betrekking hebben op oppervlakkige afstroming en op de diepte van de modelprofielen.
Assessment of terrestrial laser scanning technology for obtaining high-resolution DEMs of soils
Barneveld, R.J. ; Seeger, M. ; Maalen-Johansen, I. - \ 2013
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38 (2013)1. - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 90 - 94.
digital terrain models - surface-roughness - depression-storage - overland-flow - rainfall - microtopography - photogrammetry - accuracy - erosion - runoff
Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) provide a non-contact method to measure soil microtopography of relatively large surface areas. The appropriateness of the technology in relatation to the derived Digital Elevation Models (DEM) however has not been reported. The suitability of TLS for soil microtopography measurements was tested on-field for three large soil surface areas in agricultural fields. The acquired point clouds were filtered with a custom cloud import algorithm, and converted into digital elevation models (DEM) of different resolutions. To assess DEM quality, point clouds measured from different viewpoints were statistically compared. The statistical fit between point clouds from different viewpoints depends on spatial resolution of the DEM. The best results were obtained at the higher resolutions (0.02 to 0.04¿cm), where less than 5 % of the grid cells showed significant differences between one viewpoint and the next (p¿
Sensitivity analysis and calibration of the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) for the upper Malewa Catchment, Kenya
Odongo, V.O. ; Onyando, J.O. ; Mutua, B.M. ; Oel, P.R. van; Becht, R. - \ 2013
International Journal of Sediment Research 28 (2013)3. - ISSN 1001-6279 - p. 368 - 383.
sediment rating curves - uncertainty analysis - hydrologic-models - river catchment - erosion - yield - delivery - runoff - validation - greece
Simulation models are widely used for studying physical processes such as surface runoff, sediment transport and sediment yield in catchments. Most models need case-specific empirical data for parameterization before being applied especially in regions other than the ones they have been developed. Sensitivity analysis is usually performed to determine the most influential factors of a model so that they can be prioritized for optimization. In this way uncertainties in model outputs can be reduced considerably. This study evaluates the commonly used modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) model used for sediment yield simulation for the case of the upper Malewa catchment in Kenya. The conceptual factors of the model are assessed relative to the hydrological factors in the model. Also, the sensitivity of the model to the choice of the objective function in calibration is tested. The Sobol' sensitivity analysis method was used for evaluating the degree of sensitivity of the conceptual and hydrological factors for sediment yield simulations using the MUSLE model. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and the modified Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSEm) are used to test the sensitivity of the model to the choice of the objective function and robustness of model performance with sediment data measured from upper Malewa catchment, Kenya. The results indicate that the conceptual factors are the most sensitive factors of the MUSLE model contributing about 66% of the variability in the output sediment yield. Increased variability of sediment yield output was also observed. This was attributed to interactions of input factors. For the upper Malewa catchment calibration of the MUSLE model indicates that the use of NSEm as an objective function provides stable results, which indicates that the model can satisfactorily be applied for sediment yield simulations.
Snowmelt contributions to discharge of the Ganges
Siderius, C. ; Biemans, H. ; Wilthshire, A. ; Rao, S. ; Franssen, W.H.P. ; Kumar, P. ; Gosain, A.K. ; Vliet, A. van; Collins, D.N. - \ 2013
Science of the Total Environment 468-469 (2013)Suppl.. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. S93 - S101.
climate-change - water availability - glaciers - hydrology - balance - basins - runoff - india
Himalayan headwaters supply large quantities of runoff derived from snowmelt and monsoon rainfall to the Ganges River. Actual snowmelt contribution to discharge in the Ganges remains conjectural under both present and future climatic conditions. As snowmelt is likely to be perturbed through climatic warming, four hydrological models, VIC, JULES, LPJmL and SWAT, appropriate for coupling with regional climate models, were used to provide a baseline estimate of snowmelt contribution to flow at seasonal and annual timescales. The models constrain estimates of snowmelt contributions to between 1% and 5% of overall basin runoff. Snowmelt is, however, significant in spring months, a period in which other sources of runoff are scarce
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