Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Goede voeding voor het hart : zorg dat het klopt
Geleijnse, Marianne - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463430234 - 32
gezondheidsgedrag - voeding en gezondheid - hart- en vaatziekten - obesitas - roken - zout - levensstijl - health behaviour - nutrition and health - cardiovascular diseases - obesity - smoking - salt - lifestyle
Groen strooizout kan inboet door beheerders laten kelderen
Claassen, Pieternel - \ 2016
public green areas - pavements - roads - salt - salt injury - brine - salinization - biomass - biobased economy - agricultural research - biobased chemicals - environmental impact - pollution control

Strooizout is een goed dooimiddel, maar het veroorzaakt verzilting van de bodem, het afsterven van planten en het roesten van metalen in bruggen, viaducten en voertuigen. Onderzoeker Pieternel Claassen van Food & Biobased Research werkt aan ‘groen’ strooizout, gemaakt uit biomassa. Zouden we in de nabije toekomst afscheid kunnen nemen van de jaarlijkse hoge inboet van openbaar groen ten gevolge van schade door strooizout?

Public health impact of salt reduction
Hendriksen, M.A.H. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Hendriek Boshuizen, co-promotor(en): Joop van Raaij; Marianne Geleijnse. - Wageningen - ISBN 9789462575462 - 223
zout - jodiumhoudend zout - opname (intake) - reductie - gezondheid - voeding en gezondheid - modelleren - hart- en vaatziekten - hypertensie - europa - salt - iodized salt - intake - reduction - health - nutrition and health - modeling - cardiovascular diseases - hypertension - europe

The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended maximum level of intake, salt reduction may help to reduce cardiovascular disease incidence. However, the effect of salt reduction initiatives on intake levels and long-term health is largely unknown. The main aim of the research described in this thesis is to assess salt intake and the potential health impact of salt reduction in the Netherlands and in Europe. This is addressed by estimating the potential effect of salt reduction strategies on salt intake, by monitoring the effect of the ongoing salt reduction initiatives in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2010 on daily salt intake and by projecting the expected long-term health benefits of salt reduction in the Netherlands and Europe.

Firstly, we used data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 and the Dutch Food Composition Database 2010 to study the effect of two potential salt reduction scenarios on salt intake from processed foods. In the first scenario, sodium levels in processed foods were reduced towards their minimum feasible sodium level. In the second scenario, foods were substituted by a low-salt alternative within the same food category. This study demonstrated that daily salt intake from foods could be reduced below the recommended maximum intake of 6 g/d, provided these strategies are successfully implemented.

Secondly, the effect of the ongoing salt reduction initiatives in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2010 was evaluated. Dutch adults in two cross-sectional studies (n=317 in 2006 and n=342 in 2010) collected a single 24h urine sample. Despite the initiatives of the food industry to reduce sodium levels in processed foods, no statistically significant difference in daily salt intake was observed between 2006 (8.7 g/d) and 2010 (8.5 g/d).

Thirdly, the long-term health impact of salt reduction was assessed for the Netherlands using the RIVM Chronic Disease Model and for Europe using the Dynamic Model for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). A two-step approach was used: the effect of salt reduction on blood pressure was estimated, which was subsequently translated into occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Substantial changes in incident stroke (6.0%) and acute myocardial infarction (4.4%) can be expected in the Netherlands if sodium contents in processed foods were reduced to the minimum feasible level. The potential health impact of population-wide adherence to the salt intake guideline of the World Health Organization (maximum of 5 g/d) ranged for nine European countries between 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland for stroke, and between 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland for ischemic heart diseases.

Finally, a methodological comparison of seven population health models on salt reduction revealed that these models vary in underlying assumptions. We demonstrated that these differences in assumptions may substantially affect the health impact estimates.

In conclusion, technologically feasible salt reductions in processed foods or changes in dietary behaviour may, if implemented successfully, lead to a substantial lowering of daily salt intake, and thereby contribute to considerable health gain. Cross-country comparisons of health impact of salt reduction strategies might benefit from more transparency on the necessary assumptions in the various population health impact models for salt reduction used worldwide.

Effects of salinity on growth of plant species from terrestrializing fens
Stofberg, S.F. ; Klimkovska, A. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Witte, J.Ph.M. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2015
Aquatic Botany 121 (2015). - ISSN 0304-3770 - p. 83 - 90.
climate-change - water - tolerance - salt - nutrient - netherlands - macrophytes - competition - vegetation - diversity
Terrestrializing lowland fens may be temporarily exposed to elevated surface water salinity, which may have serious consequences for nature conservation. We investigated the response of five fresh water fen plant species to elevated salinity. In a controlled greenhouse experiment, these species were exposed to salt concentrations up to 3000 mg Cl- l-1. Total biomass of the five species together was significantly reduced for salinity levels from 200 mg Cl- l-1. Four individual species showed leaf death and relative growth rate reduction, with effects at 1000 mg Cl- l-1 for Succisa pratensis, Thelypteris palustris and Viola palustris, and 3000 mg Cl- l-1 for Myosotis scorpioides. Comarum palustre showed no significant (.05 level) sensitivity. Biomass distribution was investigated as well. Root-shoot ratio of four species was affected by salinity, which in at least two cases seemed to be related to leaf death. Differences in specific leaf area as a result of salinity were only observed for C. palustre. Dry matter content increased in four species as a result of salinity. Salinity tolerance did not correspond to the environmental distributions of the species, nor could species traits be related to tolerance. Surface water salinity may affect vegetation development in terrestrializing fens at low concentrations. A reduction of plant growth would cause reduced fitness of some species and may lead to reduced root mat growth. Exposure to higher concentrations could eventually lead to a decrease of species richness.
Zoektocht naar fermentatieprocessen voor producten met minder zout
Smid, E.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR
voedselmicrobiologie - fermentatie - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - voedseltechnologie - zout - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - food microbiology - fermentation - keeping quality - food technology - salt - taste - nutrition and health
De fermentatie van verse plantaardige of dierlijke producten geeft extra smaak aan voedsel en verlengt de houdbaarheid. Het proces vergt echter vaak veel zout en daarvan krijgt de westerling al veel te veel binnen. In zijn inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van het persoonlijk hoogleraarschap Levensmiddelenmicrobiologie aan Wageningen University gaat prof. Eddy Smid op zoek naar alternatieve, ‘natriumarme’ fermentatieprocessen die de gezondheid ten goede komen.
Taste enhancement in food gels: Effect of fracture properties on oral breakdown, bolus formation and sweetness intensity
Mosca, A.C. ; Velde, F. van de; Bult, J.H.F. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2015
Food Hydrocolloids 43 (2015). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 794 - 802.
spatial-distribution - saltiness enhancement - sensory integration - perception - texture - release - bread - flavor - model - salt
This study investigates the effects of fracture strain and fracture stress on oral breakdown, bolus formation and sweetness intensity of semi-solid food gels containing sucrose heterogeneously distributed in layers. The sweetness intensity of gels was mainly affected by the total surface area of gel fragments formed upon chewing. Gels with low values of fracture strain and fracture stress broke down into a large number of small fragments. These gels were perceived sweeter than gels with high values of fracture strain and fracture stress. Fracture strain had a larger impact on oral breakdown behavior and sweetness intensity than fracture stress. Results indicate that the oral breakdown behavior (i.e. formation of a large number of small fragments, which leads to an increase in the total surface area) is the driving factor for taste perception in semi-solid gels that have a heterogeneous distribution of sucrose. We suggest that the differences in sweetness intensity in gels containing sucrose heterogeneously distributed in layers and differing in fracture properties result from differences in the frequency of stimulation of taste receptors. An increase in the total surface area of fragments containing sucrose facilitates the release of tastants and increases the frequency of stimulation of taste receptors. Consequently, the taste intensity of gels is enhanced.
Hypertension in Vietnam: prevalence, risk groups and effects of salt substitution
Do, H.T.P. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Edith Feskens; Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Marianne Geleijnse. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571372 - 159
hypertensie - risicogroepen - risico - gezondheid - zout - vervangmiddelen - voeding - levensstijl - vietnam - hypertension - risk groups - risk - health - salt - substitutes - nutrition - lifestyle


Background: Over the past decades, the morbidity and mortality patterns have changed rapidly in Vietnam, with a reduction in infectious diseases in parallel with a rapid increase in non-communicable diseases (NCDs), leading to the so-called double burden. It was estimated that in 2008 NCDs accounted for 75% of all deaths in Vietnam, and cardiovascular diseases were the leading cause accounting for 40% of total mortality. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but information on the nationwide prevalence and main determinants is lacking. There is an urgent need for appropriate population-based interventions for hypertension control and prevention in Vietnam.

Methods and Results: Data of 17,213 adults aged 25-64 years from the nationally representative 2005 National Adult Obesity Survey were used to study the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension and their determinants. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 20.7% and the prevalence of prehypertension was 41.8%. Hypertension and prehypertension were more prevalent in men than in women (25.2% vs. 15.9%). Determinants of raised blood pressure including advancing age, overweight, alcohol use (among men), and living in rural areas (among women) were independently associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension, whereas higher levels of physical activity and education were inversely associated. Age, body mass index (BMI), and living in rural areas were independently associated with an increased prevalence of prehypertension. Among the hypertensives, only 25.9% were aware of having hypertension and 12.2% were treated. Among the treated hypertensives, 32.4% had their blood pressure controlled.

Overweight and obesity, important risk factors for hypertension, were investigated using data of 14,452 Vietnamese adults aged 25-64 years from the nationally representative 2000 National Nutrition Survey and data of 17,213 adults aged 25-64 years from the nationally representative 2005 National Adult Obesity Survey. The results showed that the distribution of BMI across the population and in population subgroups indicated a shift towards higher levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The nationwide prevalences of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were 6.6% and 0.4% respectively in 2005, almost twice the rates of 2000 (3.5% and 0.2%). Using the Asian BMI cut-off of 23 kg/m2 the overweight prevalence was 16.3% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2000. Women were more likely to be both underweight and overweight than men in both 2000 and 2005. Urban residents were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be underweight as compared to rural residents in both years. The shifts from underweight to overweight were more pronounced in those with higher food expenditure levels.

A survey on sodium intake among a rural community near Hanoi (n=121) showed that mean 24-hour sodium excretion was 188.6 ± 57.5 mmol (4.3g), which corresponds to an intake of salt (sodium chloride) of 10.8 ± 3.3 g/day. Men had a higher mean sodium excretion (196.8 ± 56.9 mmol/day or 4.5g/day) than women (181.1 ± 57.4 mmol/day or 4.2g/day); 97.5% of the men and women had a salt intake higher than the World Health Organization’s recommendation of < 5g/day. Subjects with complete urine collection had a salt excretion of 11.7 g/day. Sodium in condiments added during cooking or eating at the table accounted for 81% of sodium intake. Processed foods contributed 11.6% and natural foods 7.4%. Regarding the condiments, the largest source was the mixed seasoning (35.1% of total); 31.6% of total dietary sodium was provided by fish sauce, 7.4% by monosodium glutamate and 6.1% by table salt.

Sodium-reduced and potassium-enriched salt and ‘bot canh’, a traditional seasoning, were experimentally produced and underwent organoleptic testing, which showed high acceptance. An 8-week randomized double-blind trial was carried out in 173 men and women between 45 and 64 years of age with untreated (pre)hypertension in a rural Vietnamese community. The intervention group that received sodium-reduced and potassium-enriched condiments (salt and bot canh) experienced a median 24-hour sodium excretion decrease of 28.5 mmol/d (1.6 g/d salt) compared to the control group that received regular condiments for home food preparation and dining. The mean change in BP in the intervention compared to the control group was -2.6 mmHg (95% CI: -4.6 to -0.5, p = 0.013) for systolic BP and -1.6 mmHg (95% CI: -3.0 to -0.2, p= 0.024) for diastolic BP. The prevalence of iodine deficiency was significantly reduced in both groups (from 66% to 41% in the intervention group and from 72% to 36% in the controls).

Conclusion: Hypertension and prehypertension are prevalent in Vietnam, but awareness, treatment, and control are low. Lifestyle modifications, including the prevention of overweight, and the promotion of physical activity, particularly in urban areas, and the reduction of high alcohol consumption in men, may help to prevent hypertension in Vietnam. Between 2000 and 2005, BMI in the population shifted towards higher levels, especially in those with higher food expenditure levels, but under nutrition was also still prevalent in 2005. Most dietary sodium (81%) comes from adding salty condiments during food preparation or at the table. Therefore, limiting condiments added during cooking and at the table should be given priority. Alternatively, regular condiments may be replaced with sodium-reduced and potassium-enriched salt and ‘bot canh’ to lower BP in (pre)hypertensive Vietnamese adults. Salt iodization should be reconsidered to ensure adequate iodine intake of the population.


Chapter 1

General introduction

1 - 24

Chapter 2

National prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension and prehypertension among Vietnamese adults.

American Journal of Hypertension, Epub ahead of print 2014/05/28

25 - 44

Chapter 3

Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys.

BMC Public Health 2011, 11:62

45 - 66

Chapter 4

Sodium intake and its dietary sources in Vietnamese rural adults


67 - 80

Chapter 5

Sodium-reduced and potassium-enriched condiments reduce sodium intake and blood pressure in Vietnamese adults: a randomized controlled trial.


81 - 100

Chapter 6

General discussion

101 - 120


Summary in Dutch

Summary in Vietnamese


About the author

Effect of successive stimuli on sweetness intensity of gels and custards
Mosca, A.C. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Velde, F. van de; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 31 (2014). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 10 - 18.
pulsatile stimulation - spatial-distribution - saltiness enhancement - taste enhancement - perception - contrast - bread - salt
Variations of tastant concentration during the consumption of food products were shown to enhance taste intensity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the frequency at which tastant concentration is varied during the consumption of products and the occurrence of taste enhancement. For this purpose, the sweetness intensity of sequences of 4 successive sweet stimuli represented by cubes of a semi-solid gel or spoons of a model custard dessert was assessed. The intensity and the order of the stimuli within the sequences were varied to obtain 4 types of sucrose concentration profile (decreasing, increasing, middle peak and boundary peak) at 2 magnitudes of concentration differences (small and large). Sequences of 4 stimuli containing a constant sucrose concentration were used as a reference. The sweetness intensity of the sequences of successive stimuli was assessed using line scale and time-intensity ratings. Line scale ratings showed that the type of sequence had an effect on sweetness intensity. A sweetness enhancement relative to the reference was observed in sequences that ended with high-intensity stimuli, whereas sweetness suppression was observed in sequences that ended with low-intensity stimuli. The observed sweetness enhancement and suppression were attributed to serial position effects (i.e. recency effects). Time-intensity ratings indicated that each stimulus in the sequences was evaluated individually by the assessors. Sequential effects seem to have occurred during the continuous evaluation of successive stimuli, since preceding stimuli in the sequences affected the evaluation of posterior stimuli. Furthermore, the overall sweetness intensity of the different sequences was not enhanced in relation to the reference. The lack of taste enhancement in sequences exhibiting variations of sucrose concentration was attributed mainly to the long period at which sucrose concentration was varied during the evaluation of the sequences. It was confirmed that the frequency of variation of tastant concentration affects the occurrence of taste enhancement.
Effects of sodium reduction scenarios on fermentation and quality of sauerkraut
Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M. ; Thomas, S.M. ; Nout, M.J.R. - \ 2013
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 54 (2013)2. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 383 - 388.
white cabbage - vegetables - ascorbigen - storage - salt
Health authorities advocate the reduction of sodium intake because of its negative impact on health. The effect of sodium reduction on the natural fermentation in sauerkraut was investigated in terms of quality and safety. In addition to 15 g kg-1 NaCl control [A], two alternative sodium reduction scenarios were tested: [B] salt reduction (9 g kg-1 NaCl), and [C] 40% partial sodium replacement (9 g kg-1 NaCl, 4.5 g kg-1 KCl, 0.75 g kg-1 MgCl2, and 0.75 g kg-1 CaCl2). Microbiological safety was similarly assured in all samples, associated with low pH values (3.4–3.7) indicating an adequate lactic acid fermentation. PCR-DGGE and cloning revealed differences in microbial flora between treatments during first weeks of fermentation. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides dominated [A], [B] and [C], while [C] showed additional abundance of Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Lactobacillus curvatus. Treatment [B] did not meet industrial criteria for good quality; texture was too soft compared with [A] and [C]. Sensory evaluation showed that both [A] and [C] were equally acceptable as judged by an industrial panel for aroma, taste and texture. Partially replacing sodium salt can successfully maintain high product quality, and thus offers a promising approach to substantially reduce sodium in sauerkraut fermentation. Keywords Sodium reduction; Microbial ecology; Cabbage texture; Sensory; Osmotic effect
Biobest products : openbaar eindrapport : Technische Ontwikkeling voor de Productie van Acetaatzouten als Alternatief Strooimiddel : TOPAAS
Claassen, P.A.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food &amp; Biobased Research 1399) - ISBN 9789461736925 - 25
zout - zouten (activiteit) - acetaten (zouten) - productieprocessen - fermentatie - bioraffinage - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - salt - salting - acetates (salts) - production processes - fermentation - biorefinery - biobased chemicals
De technisch-economische evaluatie van een conceptueel calcium-magnesium-acetaat (CMA) productie proces op basis van biomassa leidt tot een minimale verkoopprijs van CMA die competitief is met de marktprijs van CMA dat uit fossiele grondstoffen is geproduceerd. Dit gunstige resultaat wordt veroorzaakt door de economische winst die verkregen wordt doordat in TOPAAS niet alleen CMA maar ook waterstof wordt geproduceerd. De geschiktheid van bermgras voor de productie van CMA en waterstof is, op kleine schaal, experimenteel bewezen. Er is een aanzet gemaakt voor de optimalisatie van de voorbehandeling. Diverse organische restfracties zoals overdatum-producten of restanten voedsel uit grootkeukens en voedingsmiddelenindustrie zijn geanalyseerd. De samenstelling ervan wijst op geschiktheid voor acetaatproductie. De fermentatieve productie van acetaat en waterstof is op continue schaal bewerkstelligd tot en met een aanvaardbare acetaat concentratie. TOPAAS is het acroniem van “Technische Ontwikkeling voor de Productie van Acetaatzouten als Alternatief Strooimiddel”.
Effect of spatial distribution of tastants on taste intensity, fluctuation of taste intensity and consumer preference of (semi-)solid food products
Mosca, A.C. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2013
Food Quality and Preference 28 (2013)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 182 - 187.
pulsatile stimulation - saltiness enhancement - ice-cream - salt - sugar - pleasantness - perception - contrast - bread - fat
Two sensory studies were carried out to compare the taste intensity, the perceived fluctuation of taste intensity and the consumer preference of food products with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of tastants using 2-alternative forced choice tests. The first study evaluated pairs of gels, breads and sausages (1 homogeneous product and 1 inhomogeneous product). The second study evaluated 4 types of gel and 4 types of sausage (1 homogeneous product and 3 inhomogeneous products varying in the magnitude of tastant concentration differences). In the first study, all products with an inhomogeneous distribution of tastants were perceived sweeter or saltier than the respective homogeneous products. Tastant concentration differences were perceived as fluctuations of taste intensity in inhomogeneous gels and breads, but not in inhomogeneous sausages. Inhomogeneous gels and sausages were more preferred than the homogeneous products, whereas inhomogeneous and homogeneous breads were equally preferred. In the second study, inhomogeneous gels with large tastant concentration differences were perceived sweeter than the homogeneous gel. The taste intensity of homogeneous and inhomogeneous sausages did not differ. Tastant concentration differences induced perceivable taste intensity fluctuations in inhomogeneous gels, but not in inhomogeneous sausages. The inhomogeneous gel with the largest tastant concentration difference was more preferred than the homogeneous gel. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous sausages were equally preferred. Results suggest that the enhancement of taste that is caused by tastant concentration differences does not require the conscious perception of taste intensity fluctuations. We conclude that products in which tastants are heterogeneously distributed are equally or more preferred than products in which tastants are homogeneously distributed. Therefore, the modulation of the spatial distribution of tastants might be used as a strategy to reduce sugar and salt in food products without compromising consumer preference.
Assessment of soil salinization risks under irrigation with brackish water in semiarid Tunesia
Bouksila, F. ; Bahrib, A. ; Berndtsson, R. ; Persson, M. ; Rozema, J. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2013
Environmental and Experimental Botany 92 (2013). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 176 - 185.
bodemchemie - verzilting - irrigatie - waterkwaliteit - brakwater - tunesië - soil chemistry - salinization - irrigation - water quality - brackish water - tunisia - salt - management - balance
The salinity problem is becoming increasingly widespread in arid countries. In semiarid Tunisia about 50% of the irrigated land is considered as highly sensitive to salinization. To avoid the risk of salinization, it is important to control the soil salinity and keep it below plant salinity tolerance thresholds. The objective of the present study was to provide farmers and rural development offices with a tool and methodology for predicting, monitoring of soil salinity for a better agronomical strategy. The experiments were carried out in the highly complex and heterogeneous semiarid Kalâat Landalous irrigated district of Tunisia. The field and laboratory measurements of soil and water properties were conducted in 1989 and 2006 at different observation scales (2900 ha, 1400 ha, 5200 m long transect, and soil profiles). Seventeen years of reclamation of a saline and waterlogged soil led to the reduction of average electrical conductivity of the soil saturated paste extract (ECe), measured at 5 soil depths (from 0 to 2 m) below the plant salt tolerance threshold and the dilution of groundwater salinity from 18.3 to 6.6 dS m-1. The variation in soil salt storage (¿Mss = Mss2006 - Mss1989) in the vadose zone was negative, equal to about -145 × 103 ton (˜-50 ton ha-1). During the same period, the salt balance (Siw–Sdw) estimated from the input dissolved salt brought by irrigation water (Siw) and output salts exported by the drainage network (Sdw) was equal to -685 × 106 kg and the Sdw was 945 × 106 kg. Under irrigation and efficient drainage, the soil salinization could be considered as a reversible process. At the transect scale, the high clay content and the exchangeable sodium percentage was negatively correlated to saturated hydraulic conductivity. The textural stratification, observed at soil profile scale, favors accumulation of salt in the soil. Based on the findings related to the multiscale assessment of soil salinity and groundwater properties, soil salinization factors were identified and a soil salinization risk map (SRU) was elaborated. The shallow groundwater constitutes the main risk of soil salinization. This map can be used by both land planners and farmers to make appropriate decisions related to crop production, and soil and water management.
Beheersing van roest in asperge : praktijkproeven 2008 - 2011
Evenhuis, A. ; Wilms, J.A.M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V., AGV - 35
tuinbouw - asparagus - folie - fusarium - zout - bemonsteren - veldproeven - gewasbescherming - vollegrondsgroenten - vollegrondsteelt - horticulture - foil - salt - sampling - field tests - plant protection - field vegetables - outdoor cropping
Roest in asperge is een kwaliteitsprobleem waarvan de oorzaak van het ontstaan niet precies bekend is. Naast het inzicht krijgen in de factoren die het optreden van roest in asperge beïnvloeden, wordt ook een voorstel ontwikkeld om het verkregen inzicht te toetsen in de praktijk indien bruikbare aanwijzingen over de oorzaak worden geïdentificeerd. Het project richt zich op de identificatie van het probleem en nog niet op het ontwikkelen van beheersmaatregelen.
Exploiting the spontaneous potential of the electrodes used in the capacitive mixing technique for the extraction of energy from salinity difference
Brogioli, D. ; Ziano, R. ; Rica, R.A. ; Salerno, D. ; Kozynchenko, O. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Mantegazza, F. - \ 2012
Energy & Environmental Science 5 (2012)12. - ISSN 1754-5692 - p. 9870 - 9880.
gradient power - water - desalination - adsorption - battery - supercapacitor - performance - storage - salt
The "capacitive mixing" (CAPMIX) technique is aimed at the extraction of energy from the salinity difference between the sea and rivers. It is based on the voltage rise that takes place at the electrodes when changing the salt concentration of the solution in which the two electrodes are dipped. In this paper, we focus on activated carbon electrodes, produced with various methods and treatments, and we measure their behaviour in CAPMIX experiments. We find that they behave as polarizable electrodes only on time scales of the order of minutes, while on longer time scales they tend to move to a specific "spontaneous" potential, likely due to chemical redox reactions. This analysis sheds light on the charge leakage, i.e. the loss of the stored charge due to undesired chemical reactions, which is one of the main hurdles of the CAPMIX technique when performed with activated carbon electrodes. We show that the leakage finds its origin in the tendency of the electrode to move to its spontaneous potential. Our investigation allows us to completely get rid of the leakage and demonstrates the striking result that CAPMIX cycles can be performed without an external power supply.
Minder zout in brood goed mogelijk (interview met Anke Janssen)
Rees, B. van; Janssen, A.M. - \ 2012
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 2012 (2012)14/15. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 24 - 25.
brood- en bakkerijproductenindustrie - zout - natriumchloride - zoutgehalte - inname - voeding en gezondheid - sensorische evaluatie - bakery industry - salt - sodium chloride - salinity - ingestion - nutrition and health - sensory evaluation
Terwijl minister Schippers de industrie het vuur aan de schenen legt om tot een stevige zoutreductie te komen, wisten de bakkers de afgelopen jaren het zoutgebruik al flink te beperken. Tijdens een workshop van Food & Nutrition Delta, RIVM, TNO en Wageningen UR bleek dat het zoutgebruik in brood nog verder is te verlagen. De meeste deelnemende bakkers zagen een verdere zoutreductie op termijn als een reële optie
Damp opzetten in water levert energie op en droge kaslucht (onderzoek van Marcel Raaphorst)
Bouwman-van Velden, P. ; Raaphorst, M.G.M. - \ 2012
Onder Glas 9 (2012)12. - p. 26 - 27.
glastuinbouw - luchtdroging - ontvochtiging - teelt onder bescherming - energiebesparing - kastechniek - zout - proeven - groenten - greenhouse horticulture - air drying - dehumidification - protected cultivation - energy saving - greenhouse technology - salt - trials - vegetables
Ontvochtigen, ofwel het drogen van kaslucht, kan door ventilatie of condensatie. Betrekkelijk nieuw in de tuinbouw is het drogen van lucht door middel van zout. In de Optimakas van Lans in Rilland ligt een oriënterende proef met deze methode. Als het lukt hier een werkzaam systeem van te maken, kan het een energiebesparing van 30% opleveren.
Minder zout in vleeswaren
Meer, T. van der; Janssen, A.M. - \ 2012
Eisma Voedingsmiddelenindustrie 2012 (2012)November. - p. 18 - 20.
natriumchloride - vleeswaren - zout - reductie - zoutgehalte - houding van consumenten - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - sodium chloride - meat products - salt - reduction - salinity - consumer attitudes - taste - nutrition and health
Het verlagen van zout in vleeswaren is lastig. Dit komt door de enorme variëteit aan producten en de verschillende rollen die zout hierin vervult. Dat bleek tijdens de workshop 'Zoutverlaging in vleeswaren. Het kan!' Minder zout is mogelijk. Nu de retail en de consument nog meekrijgen.
Levensmiddelenmicrobiologie en zout : zout als conserveermiddel in historisch perspectief: is veiligheid een belemmering om zout te verlagen
Zwietering, Marcel - \ 2012
salt - nutrition and health - food technology - food microbiology - food safety - sodium chloride - reduction
Evaluation of sodium chloride (NaCl) for potential prophylactic treatment and its short-term toxicity to African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) yolk-sac and swim-up fry
Magondu, E.W. ; Rasowo, J. ; Oyoo-Okoth, E. ; Charo-Karisa, H. - \ 2011
Aquaculture 319 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 307 - 310.
hydrogen-peroxide - fish - aquaculture - stress - growth - health - eggs - salt
Disease and parasite outbreaks cause mortality of fish, affecting mostly early stages of fish cycle. The outbreaks are usually prevented using a number of chemicals including salt (NaCl) for which protocols are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of NaCl as a potential prophylactic treatment and its short term toxicity on African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) yolk-sac and swim-up fry during a 24 h exposure period. Three-day-old yolk sac and six-day-old swim-up fry (n = 50 for each stage) were subjected to static bath dip treatment in increasing concentrations of NaCl (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 10.0 g/L) for 15, 30 and 60 min. Toxic ranges were tested by exposing the fry stages to concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.50 g/L NaCl for 24 h. Controls were not subjected to any concentration of NaCl. All experiments were executed in triplicate. Regardless of the concentrations and duration of exposure, survival of fish in NaCl treatment differed significantly (P <0.05) from the untreated controls. Effective concentration ranges of NaCl were 0.2–0.8 g/L and 0.2–1.0 g/L in the yolk sac and swim-up fry respectively at exposure duration of 15 min. No fry survival was recorded at a concentration of 10.0 g/L for either stage of development. The mean 24 h LC50 values for the yolk sac and swim-up fry were 0.61 and 0.70 g/L NaCl respectively. Sodium chloride may be used as prophylactic treatment in early stages of C. gariepinus but could be toxic at longer exposure times. However, empirical tests on efficacy of NaCl on pathogens are recommended.
Pre-desalination with electro-membranes for SWRO
Post, J.W. ; Huiting, H. ; Cornelissen, E.R. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. - \ 2011
Desalination and Water Treatment 31 (2011)1-3. - ISSN 1944-3994 - p. 296 - 304.
reverse-osmosis membranes - electrodialysis - water - salt
Although seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is currently the only non-thermal desalination process in practical use, its characteristics make it difficult to approach the ideal reversible process. SWRO has a low water recovery (determined by the osmotic pressure) and relatively high energy consumption. A breakthrough in development of SWRO membranes can not be expected; at maximum a recovery of 60% could be obtained with membranes that can stand ultra-high pressures. In our project, an alternative development of desalination is introduced in which the osmotic pressure difference is reduced prior to SWRO with the use of electro-membranes, as in electrodialysis (ED). ED has distinctive and complementary assets when compared to SWRO. ED enables an operation close to the reversible limit, at least to the first extent of the desalination process. ED is an ideal pre-desalination step as: (i) the water recovery is not limited by a driving force (e. g., pressure), (ii) the specific energy consumption is directly proportional to the salt removal, (iii) the process economy allows low ionic fluxes and thus low irreversible losses, (iv) the system can be operated with infinitesimal changes in salinity (a pre-requisite for reversibility), and (v) the pre-treatment efforts can be kept limited. In this paper we compare a hybrid ED-SWRO scheme with state-of-the-art desalination schemes with respect to costs and energy consumption.
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