Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Inventarisatie en analyse zouttolerantie van landbouwgewassen op basis van bestaande gegevens
Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Blom-Zandstra, M. ; Kselik, R.A.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2739) - 157
veldgewassen - gewassen - zouttolerantie - verzilting - zoet water - waterbeheer - watervoorziening - field crops - crops - salt tolerance - salinization - fresh water - water management - water supply
In het Deltaprogramma Zoetwater is het lastig gebleken economische analyses te maken voor de programmering van maatregelen en/of de beleidsmatige afweging rond waterbeschikbaarheid. Een van de knelpunten is het gemis aan inzicht in de droogte- en zoutschade in landbouw en natuur. De zoutschade aan landbouwgewassen is nog niet goed in beeld; er zijn veel getallen in omloop, maar de manier waarop deze tot stand zijn gekomen en/of gerapporteerd is niet eenduidig. Daarom is de tussen 1950 en 2015 in Nederland beschikbaar gekomen informatie geanalyseerd. Het resultaat is specificatie van zouttolerantiedrempels voor 35 gewassen en gewasgroepen, gekoppeld aan het zoutgehalte van beregeningswater.
Supplementary data: Combined biotic and abiotic stress resistance in tomato
Kissoudis, C. ; Chowdhury, Rawnaq ; Heusden, A.W. van; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Finkers, H.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Bai, Y. ; Linden, C.G. van der - \ 2016
solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - disease resistance - stress tolerance - defence mechanisms - plant diseases - abiotic injuries - stress response - phenotypic variation - genetic analysisplant breeding - salt tolerance
Abiotic and biotic stress factors are the major constrains for the realization of crop yield potential. As climate change progresses, the spread and intensity of abiotic as well as biotic stressors is expected to increase, with increased probability of crops being exposed to both types of stress. Shielding crops from combinatorial stress requires a better understanding of the plant’s response and its genetic architecture. In this study, we evaluated resistance to salt stress, powdery mildew and to both stresses combined in tomato, using the S. habrochaites LYC4 introgression line (IL) population. The IL population segregated for both salt stress tolerance and powdery mildew resistance. Using SNP array marker data, QTLs were identified for salt tolerance as well as Na+ and Cl- accumulation. Salt stress increased the susceptibility of the population to powdery mildew in an additive manner. Phenotypic variation for disease resistance was reduced under combined stress as indicated by the coefficient of variation (CV). No correlation was found between disease resistance and Na+ and Cl- accumulation under combined stress Most genetic loci were specific for either salt stress tolerance or powdery mildew resistance. These findings increase our understanding of the genetic regulation of responses to abiotic and biotic stress combinations and can provide leads to more efficiently breeding for tomatoes and other crops with a high level of disease resistance while maintaining their performance in combination with abiotic stress.
Supplementary data: Responses to combined abiotic and biotic stress in tomato are governed by stress intensity and mechanism of resistance
Kissoudis, C. ; Sri Sunarti, Sri ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Visser, R.G.F. ; Linden, C.G. van der; Bai, Y. - \ 2016
solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - disease resistance - stress tolerance - defence mechanisms - plant diseases - abiotic injuries - stress response - phenotypic variation - genetic analysisplant breeding - salt tolerance
Stress conditions in agricultural ecosystems can occur in variable intensities. Different resistance mechanisms to abiotic stress and pathogens are deployed by plants. Thus, it is important to examine plant responses to stress combinations under different scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effect of different levels of salt stress ranging from mild to severe (50, 100 and 150mM NaCl) on powdery mildew (PM) resistance and overall performance of tomato introgression lines with contrasting levels of partial resistance, as well as isogenic lines carrying the PM resistance genes Ol-1 (associated with slow Hypersensitivity Response; HR), ol-2 (a mlo mutant associated with papilla formation) and Ol-4 (a R gene associated with fast HR). PM resistance was affected by salt stress in a genotype and stress intensity dependent manner. In susceptible and partial resistant lines, increased susceptibility was observed under mild salt stress (50mM) which was accompanied with accelerated cell death-like senescence. On the contrary, severe salt stress (150mM) reduced disease symptoms. Na+ and Cl- accumulation in the leaves was linearly related to the decreased pathogen growth under severe stress, suggesting a more direct role for the salt in suppressing PM growth. In contrast, complete resistance mediated by ol-2 and Ol-4 was unaffected under all treatment combinations, and was associated with a decreased growth penalty. Increased susceptibility and senescence under combined stress of the variety Moneymaker (MM) and the NIL Ol-1 was associated with the induction of ethylene and jasmonic acid pathway genes as well as of the cell wall invertase gene LIN6. These results highlight the significance of stress severity and resistance type on the plant’s performance under abiotic and biotic stress combination.
Supplementary data: Hormone signalling regulation of tomato response to combined biotic and abiotic stress
Kissoudis, C. ; Sri Sunarti, Sri ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Visser, R.G.F. ; Linden, C.G. van der; Bai, Y. - \ 2016
solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - disease resistance - stress tolerance - defence mechanisms - plant diseases - abiotic injuries - stress response - phenotypic variation - genetic analysisplant breeding - salt tolerance
Plant hormones are paramount to plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions and interactions with microorganisms. There is currently limited knowledge on their significance in the response to stress combination. Using near isogenic lines (NILs) that carry the Ol-1, ol-2 and Ol-4 gene for resistance to tomato powdery mildew caused by Oidium neolycopersici, this study focused on the responses of these NILs to powdery mildew and salt stress combination. In these NILs, marker genes for monitoring hormonal pathways showed differential expression pattern upon powdery mildew infection. Further by crossing these NILs with tomato mutants notabilis (ABA-deficient), defenseless1 (JA-deficient) and epinastic (ET overproducer) the cross-talk among hormonal pathways was further investigated. Among the mutants, epinastic resulted in increased susceptibility of NIL-Ol-1 and breakdown of NIL-ol-2 resistance, accompanied by reduced callose deposition, effects that were more pronounced under combination with salt stress. On the other hand notabilis, resulting in H2O2 overproduction greatly reduced susceptibility of NIL-Ol-1 under combined stress accompanied however by heightened sensitivity to salt stress. Callose deposition reduction led to partial resistance breakdown in NIL-ol-2 which was reversed under combined stress. NIL-Ol-4 resistance remained robust across all mutant and treatment combinations. We discuss the critical role that hormone signalling appears to have for the outcome of combined stress and powdery mildew in terms of resistance and plant fitness integrating observations from physiological, histochemical and gene expression analyses. These significant insights obtained extend our understanding of hormonal regulation of combined stress responses and can aid in narrowing down targets for improving crop performance under stress combinations.
Supplementary data: Roles and contribution of tomato WRKY genes to salt stress and powdery mildew resistance
Kissoudis, C. ; Gao, D. ; Pramanik, Dewi ; Birhanu, Mengistu ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Visser, R.G.F. ; Bai, Y. ; Linden, C.G. van der - \ 2016
solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - disease resistance - stress tolerance - defence mechanisms - plant diseases - abiotic injuries - stress response - phenotypic variation - genetic analysisplant breeding - salt tolerance
WRKY is a transcription factor family unique to plants with diverse functions in defense pathways, abiotic stress tolerance and developmental programs. Family members are characterized by the conserved WRKY domain and significant sequence variation in the remainder of the protein, which is translated into distinct functions even for closely related genes. We utilized the extensive functional characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY family to identify tomato homologues of Arabidopsis WRKY genes that are involved in defense responses (AtWRKY 11, 29, 48, 70 and 72). In total 13 tomato WRKY homologues were identified for these genes, of which 9 were successfully over-expressed, and 12 stably silenced via RNAi in transgenic tomato lines. The transgenic lines were evaluated for their response to salt stress, powdery mildew resistance and the combination of these stresses. Lines overexpressing SlWRKY11 and SlWRKY23, and RNAi lines of SlWRKY7 and SlWRKY9 showed both increased biomass and improved salt tolerance. For SlWRKY11 and SlWRKY23 overexpression (OE) lines, this was accompanied by a moderate increase in oxidative stress tolerance. The SlWRKY6-OE line showed strongly improved salt stress tolerance, but a growth penalty under control conditions. Exceptional phenotypes were observed for the SlWRKY10-OE line (stunted growth) and the RNAi line SlWRKY23-RNAi (necrotic symptoms), but these phenotypes were partly restored to normal under salt stress. Both these lines exhibited increased resistance to powdery mildew, but this was compromised when the plants were put under salt-stress as well. Important functions for tomato WRKY genes were revealed in both the abiotic and biotic stress response and several genes should be further explored to elucidate their downstream regulatory functions that lead to increased stress tolerance.
Genetics and regulation of combined abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in tomato
Kissoudis, C. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Gerard van der Linden; Yuling Bai. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576568 - 212 p.
solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - disease resistance - stress tolerance - defence mechanisms - plant diseases - abiotic injuries - stress response - phenotypic variation - genetic analysis - plant breeding - salt tolerance - tomaten - ziekteresistentie - stresstolerantie - verdedigingsmechanismen - plantenziekten - abiotische beschadigingen - stressreactie - fenotypische variatie - genetische analyse - plantenveredeling - zouttolerantie

Projections on the impact of climate change on agricultural productivity foresee prolonged and/or increased stress intensities and enlargement of a significant number of pathogens habitats. This significantly raises the occurrence probability of (new) abiotic and biotic stress combinations. With stress tolerance research being mostly focused on responses to individual stresses, our understanding of plants’ ability to adapt to combined stresses is limited.

In an attempt to bridge this knowledge gap, we hierarchized in chapter 1 existing information on individual abiotic or biotic stress adaptation mechanisms taking into consideration different anatomical, physiological and molecular layers of plant stress tolerance and defense. We identified potentially crucial regulatory intersections between abiotic and biotic stress signalling pathways following the pathogenesis timeline, and emphasized the importance of subcellular to whole plant level interactions by successfully dissecting the phenotypic response to combined stress. We considered both explicit and shared adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stress, which included amongst others R-gene and systemic acquired resistance as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS), redox and hormone signalling, and proposed breeding targets and strategies.

In chapter 3 we focused on salt stress and powdery mildew combination in tomato, a vegetable crop with a wealth of genetic resources, and started with a genetic study. S. habrochaites LYC4 was found to exhibit resistance to both salt stress and powdery mildew. A LYC4 introgression line (IL) population segregated for both salt stress tolerance and powdery mildew resistance. Introgressions contributing to salt tolerance, including Na+ and Cl- accumulation, and powdery mildew resistance were precisely pinpointed with the aid of SNP marker genotyping. Salt stress (100mM NaCl) combined with powdery mildew infection increased the susceptibility of the population to powdery mildew in an additive manner, while decreasing the phenotypic variation for this trait. Only a few overlapping QTLs for disease resistance and salt stress tolerance were identified (one on a short region at the top of Chromosome 9 where numerous receptor-like kinases reside). Most genetic loci were specific for either salt stress tolerance or powdery mildew resistance indicating distinct genetic architectures. This enables genetic pyramiding approaches to build up combined stress tolerance.

Considering that abiotic stress in nature can be of variable intensities, we evaluated selected ILs under combined stress with salinity ranging from mild to severe (50, 100 and 150mM NaCl) in chapter 4. Mild salt stress (50mM) increased powdery mildew susceptibility and was accompanied by accelerated cell death-like senescence. On the contrary, severe salt stress (150mM) reduced the disease symptoms and this correlated with leaf Na+ and Cl- content in the leaves. The effects of salt stress on powdery mildew resistance may be dependent on resistance type and mechanisms. Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) that carry different PM resistance genes (Ol-1 (associated with slow hypersensitivity response, HR), ol-2 (an mlo mutant associated with papilla formation) and Ol-4 (an R gene associated with fast HR) indeed exhibited differential responses to combined stress. NIL-Ol-1 resembled the LYC4 ILs response, while NIL-ol-2 and NIL-Ol-4 maintained robust resistance and exhibited no senescence symptoms across all combinations, despite the observed reduction in callose deposition in NIL-ol-2. Increased susceptibility, senescence and fitness cost of NIL-Ol-1 under combined stress coincided with high induction of ethylene and jasmonate biosynthesis and response pathways, highly induced expression of cell wall invertase LsLIN6, and a reduction in the expression of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes. These observations underlined the significance of stress intensity and mechanism of resistance to the outcome of salt stress and powdery mildew combination, underscoring the involvement of ethylene signalling to the susceptibility response under combined stress.

To examine the significance of hormone signalling in combined stress responses we evaluated crosses of tomato hormone mutants notabilis (ABA-deficient), defenseless1 (JA-deficient) and epinastic (ET overproducer) with NIL-Ol-1, NIL-ol-2 and NIL-Ol-4 in chapter 5. The highly pleiotropic epinastic mutant increased susceptibility of NIL-Ol-1, but decreased the senescence response under combined stress, and resulted in partial breakdown of NIL-ol-2 resistance, accompanied by reduced callose deposition. The effects of ET overproduction on susceptibility were more pronounced under combined stress. ABA deficiency in notabilis on the other hand greatly reduced susceptibility of NIL-Ol-1under combined stress at the expense of stronger growth reduction, and induced ROS overproduction. Partial resistance breakdown in the ol-2xnotabilis mutant accompanied by reduced callose deposition was observed, and this was restored under combined stress. Jasmonic acid deficiency phenotypic effects in defenseless mutants were subtle with modest increase in susceptibility for NIL-Ol-1 and NIL-ol-2. For NIL-ol-2 this increased susceptibility was reverted under combined stress. NIL-Ol-4 resistance remained robust across all mutant and treatment combinations. These results highlight the catalytic role of ET and ABA signalling on susceptibility and senescence under combined stress, accentuating concomitantly the importance of signalling fine tuning to minimize pleiotropic effects.

The potential of exploiting transcription factors to enhance tolerance to multiple stress factors and their combination was investigated in chapter 6 through the identification and functional characterization of tomato homologues of AtWRKYs 11, 29, 48, 70 and 72. Thirteen tomato WRKY homologues were identified, of which 9 were overexpressed (using transformation with A. tumefaciens) and 12 stably silenced via RNAi in tomato cultivar Money Maker (MM). SlWRKY11-OE and SlWRKY23-OE overexpressors and RNAi lines of SlWRKY7 and SlWRKY9 showed both increased biomass and relative salt tolerance. SlWRKY6-OE exhibited the highest relative salt stress tolerance, but had strongly decreased growth under control conditions. Exceptional phenotypes under control conditions were observed for SlWRKY10-OE (stunted growth) and SlWRKY23-RNAi (necrotic symptoms). These phenotypes were significantly restored under salt stress, and accompanied by decreased ROS production. Both lines exhibited increased resistance to powdery mildew, but this resistance was compromised under salt stress combination, indicating that these genes have important functions at the intersection of abiotic and biotic stress adaptation. SlWRKY23 appears to have a key regulatory role in the control of abiotic stress/defense and cell death control.

Experimental observations are critically discussed in the General Discussion with emphasis on potential distinctive responses in different pathosystems and abiotic and biotic stress resistance mechanisms as well as genetic manipulations for effectively achieving combined stress tolerance. This includes deployment of individual common regulators as well as pyramiding of non-(negatively) interacting components such as R-genes with abiotic stress resistance genes, and their translation potential for other abiotic and biotic stress combinations. Understanding and improving plant tolerance to stress combinations can greatly contribute to accelerating crop improvement towards sustained or even increased productivity under stress.

Beter systeem voor bepalen waterschade
Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D. ; Kroes, J.G. ; Bartholomeus, R. ; Dam, J.C. van; Bakel, J. van - \ 2015
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 2015 (2015)oktober. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 43 - 46.
waterbeheer - irrigatie - irrigatiebehoeften - oogstschade - regenschade - modellen - scenario-analyse - landbouw - zouttolerantie - water management - irrigation - irrigation requirements - crop damage - rain damage - models - scenario analysis - agriculture - salt tolerance
Een nieuw instrument voor het bepalen van schade bij landbouwgewassen als gevolg van te veel water, te weinig water of te veel zout: hoe moet dat er uitzien? En kan zo’n instrument bruikbaar zijn voor het doorrekenen van klimaatscenario’s? De Waterwijzer Landbouw moet het antwoord worden op deze vragen.
Is de landbouw echt zo gevoelig voor zout water?
Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Kielen, N. ; Ruijtenberg, R. - \ 2015
Water Matters : Kenniskatern voor Waterprofessionals - Dutch edition (2015)maart. - p. 39 - 42.
watervoorziening - brakwater - landbouw - zouttolerantie - gewassen - zuidwest-nederland - water supply - brackish water - agriculture - salt tolerance - crops - south-west netherlands
Hoe goed kunnen landbouwgewassen tegen brak water? Waterbeheerders hanteren in overleg met de landbouw al decennialang conservatieve normen voor zouttolerantie. Er zijn echter steeds meer aanwijzingen dat met name vollegrondsteelten (veel) beter tegen zout kunnen dan de normen suggereren. Er liggen grote kansen om het waterbeheer flexibeler en goedkoper te maken.
groeien op zout water
Hoog, A. van 't; Linden, C.G. van der; Blom, M. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)1. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 18 - 21.
akkerbouw - verzilting - zouttolerantie - veldgewassen - brakwater - beregening - rassenkeuze (gewassen) - tuinbouw - arable farming - salinization - salt tolerance - field crops - brackish water - overhead irrigation - choice of varieties - horticulture
Wereldwijd kampen boeren met oprukkende verzilting. Aanpassing van gewassen en teeltsystemen hieraan is een belangrijke opdracht voor de landbouwwetenschap. Water hergebruiken, planten aan zout laten wennen en nieuwe rassen bieden perspectief. ‘We krijgen steeds meer verzoeken voor onderzoek naar irrigatie met brak water.’
Combined biotic and abiotic stress resistance in tomato
Kissoudis, C. ; Chowdhury, R. ; Heusden, A.W. van; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Finkers, H.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Bai, Y. ; Linden, C.G. van der - \ 2015
Euphytica 202 (2015)2. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 317 - 332.
salt tolerance - oidium-neolycopersici - salinity tolerance - botrytis-cinerea - powdery mildew - abscisic-acid - plant-disease - phenotypic plasticity - solanum-lycopersicon - climate-change
Abiotic and biotic stress factors are the major constrains for the realization of crop yield potential. As climate change progresses, the spread and intensity of abiotic as well as biotic stressors is expected to increase, with increased probability of crops being exposed to both types of stress. Shielding crops from combinatorial stress requires a better understanding of the plant’s response and its genetic architecture. In this study, we evaluated resistance to salt stress, powdery mildew and to both stresses combined in tomato, using the Solanum habrochaites LYC4 introgression line (IL) population. The IL population segregated for both salt stress tolerance and powdery mildew resistance. Using SNP array marker data, QTLs were identified for salt tolerance as well as Na+ and Cl- accumulation. Salt stress increased the susceptibility of the population to powdery mildew in an additive manner. Phenotypic variation for disease resistance was reduced under combined stress as indicated by the coefficient of variation. No correlation was found between disease resistance and Na+ and Cl- accumulation under combined stress Most genetic loci were specific for either salt stress tolerance or powdery mildew resistance. These findings increase our understanding of the genetic regulation of responses to abiotic and biotic stress combinations and can provide leads to more efficiently breeding tomatoes and other crops with a high level of disease resistance while maintaining their performance in combination with abiotic stress.
Effects of Nutrient and NaCl Salinity on Growth, Yield, Quality and Composition of Pepper Grown in Soilless Closed System
Giuffrida, F. ; Graziani, G. ; Fogliano, V. ; Scuderia, D. ; Romano, D. ; Leonardi, C. - \ 2014
Journal of Plant Nutrition 37 (2014)9. - ISSN 0190-4167 - p. 1455 - 1474.
blossom-end rot - antioxidant activity - fruit-quality - sodium-chloride - water relations - sweet-pepper - horticultural crops - mineral-nutrition - salt tolerance - plants
The effects of nutrient or sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity on pepper grown in closed soilless culture systems were studied. A control (2 dS m-1) and two saline nutrient solutions (4 dS m-1) differing in the salt sources (fertilizers or NaCl) were studied. Shoot biomass production as well as total and marketable yield were more affected by NaCl than nutrient salinity. Fruit dry matter and total soluble solids increased in both salinity treatments compared to the control. Total phenol content rose slightly (10%) with NaCl salinity, while the concentration of carotenoids was enhanced by 40% with NaCl compared to the control and nutrient salinity. The results showed that the response of pepper to salinity is both osmotic and ion specific, but a more negative effect was recorded under NaCl stress. Moreover, the highest content of antioxidant compounds in NaCl treated fruits may indicate that NaCl caused more stressful conditions than nutrient salinity.
Potential sensitivity of fen plant species to salinity
Stofberg, S.F. ; Klimkowska, A. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Witte, J.P.M. - \ 2014
Utrecht : Knowledge for Climate Programme Office - 57
vegetatietypen - zouttolerantie - bodem-plant relaties - standplaatsfactoren - waterkwaliteit - ecohydrologie - vegetation types - salt tolerance - soil plant relationships - site factors - water quality - ecohydrology
Het is te verwachten dat laagveen plantensoorten verschillend kunnen reageren als gevolg van een blootstelling aan zout. In dit rapport worden verschillende typen informatie vergeleken, waaronder verspreidingsdata, indicatiegetallen en experimentele data. Een aantal soorten (13–18% van totaal aantal soorten, vooral wijdverspreide soorten) tolereren brakke condities, terwijl 41 andere (minder wijdverspreide) soorten mogelijk gevoelig zijn voor chlorideconcentraties boven 100 à 200 mg/L, maar er blijven onzekerheden. Verspreidingsdata geven een beperkt inzicht in de tolerantiegrenzen, maar gevoeligheid hangt niet altijd samen met verspreiding. Daarnaast kan de blootstelling in de wortelzone verschillen van het zoutgehalte in het oppervlaktewater. Experimentele gegevens zouden meer inzicht kunnen bieden, maar op dit moment is er weinig informatie beschikbaar van experimenteel onderzoek naar wilde plantensoorten.
Mogelijke effecten van actualisatie van zoutschadefuncties van grondgebonden, beregende landbouwgewassen
Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Schuiling, C. ; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Massop, H.T.L. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Faneca Sanchez, M. ; Velstra, J. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Vos, A.C. de - \ 2014
Utrecht : Programmabureau Kennis voor Klimaat - 23
zouttolerantie - beregening - waterkwaliteit - veldgewassen - gewasopbrengst - veldproeven - salt tolerance - overhead irrigation - water quality - field crops - crop yield - field tests
De derving van de fysieke opbrengst van grondgebonden teelten die kunnen worden beregend wordt deels bepaald door het zoutgehalte van het beregeningswater. De kennis op grond waarvan deze opbrengstderving wordt berekend is gebaseerd op veelal buitenlands onderzoek uit de jaren vijftig van de vorige eeuw in andere klimaatzones. Deze methodiek blijkt op basis van recente resultaten van veldproeven en praktijkervaringen niet toepasbaar op de Nederlandse situatie, maar dat gebeurt desondanks nog wel. Recente resultaten van Nederlandse veldproeven en praktijkervaringen tonen aan dat de zouttolerantie van gewassen als aardappelen, suikerbieten en gras aanzienlijk groter is dan gedacht op basis van buitenlands onderzoek. Dit zou moeten leiden tot bijgestelde zouttolerantiefuncties voor deze - en wellicht ook andere - gewassen. Om een indruk te geven wat de effecten van een bijstelling van de zouttolerantie-functies op de berekende opbrengst zouden kunnen zijn heeft een consortium, bestaande uit Alterra, De Bakelse Stroom, Deltares, Acacia Water, LEI en het Zilt Proefbedrijf Texel hiernaar een ruimtelijke verkenning uitgevoerd. Gewasopbrengten zijn per waterschap/regio in laag Nederland berekend met de anno 2013 gehanteerde, en met bijgestelde (lees: ‘tolerantere’) zouttolerantiefuncties. In de analyse is de berekende derving van de gewasopbrengst alleen bepaald door zout in beregeningswater. Voor laag Nederland werd het 10% droge jaar 1989 doorgetrokken naar ‘warm’ 2050 (W+). Op basis hiervan is een eerste schatting gemaakt van de verandering van de modelmatige opbrengst (i.c. een toename) van €60 miljoen/jaar. Dit resultaat geeft aan dat er sprake is van handelingsruimte in het (toekomstige) zoetwaterbeheer. Geadviseerd wordt om de zouttolerantiefuncties van landbouwgewassen te actualiseren, en om te kijken naar mogelijke consequenties voor de inrichting en het beheer van onze zoetwateraanvoersystemen.
Zilte zuiverende moerassen in Nederland : verkenning toepassingsmogelijkheden zouttolerante planten
Lange, H.J. de; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. - \ 2014
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 31 (2014)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 161 - 163.
waterzuivering - vegetatie - halofyten - zouttolerantie - proefprojecten - biologische filtratie - water treatment - vegetation - halophytes - salt tolerance - pilot projects - biological filtration
In brakke delen van het zeekleigebied (Nederland) en in laaggelegen kustgebieden (elders) kunnen zilte zuiverende moerassen water reinigen, analoog aan zoete helofytenfilters. De beschikbare praktijkkennis uit (sub)tropische gebieden is echter moeilijk toepasbaar in Nederland. Daarom zijn experimenten uitgevoerd met drie zouttolerante plantensoorten.
Perspectives for the growth of salt tolerant cash crops : a case study with potato
Blom-Zandstra, M. ; Wolters, W. ; Heinen, M. ; Roest, C.W.J. ; Smit, A.A.M.F.R. ; Smit, A.L. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosystems Research (Report / Plant Research International 572) - 36
gevalsanalyse - akkerbouw - zouttolerantie - aardappelen - marktgewassen - brakwater - zoutwaterlandbouw - irrigatiewater - voedselgewassen - teeltsystemen - case studies - arable farming - salt tolerance - potatoes - cash crops - brackish water - saline agriculture - irrigation water - food crops - cropping systems
Aardappel, een zouttolerant voedselgewas, is als testgewas gebruikt om te onderzoeken of productie met beregening met brak- of zoutwater mogelijk is en de invloed op de opbrengst.
Safety aspects of genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance
Liang, C. ; Prins, T.W. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Kok, E.J. - \ 2014
Trends in Food Science and Technology 40 (2014)1. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 115 - 122.
risk-assessment - salt tolerance - transcription factors - salinity tolerance - transgenic plants - drought tolerance - gene flow - vegetable crops - gm crops - ipt gene
Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to the market, a food and environmental safety assessment is generally required. Although worldwide harmonised comparative approach is currently provided, risk assessors still face challenges to assess genetically modified crops with abiotic stress-tolerance. Here, we discuss current developments of abiotic stress tolerance as well as issues concerning food and environmental safety assessment of these crops, including current approaches, challenges and future directions.
Protocol voor veldbewerking en teelt van zeekraal
Blom, M. ; Visser, W. de - \ 2014
vollegrondsgroenten - teelthandleidingen - zoutwaterlandbouw - zout water - zoutgronden - zouttolerantie - salicornia herbacea - stengelgroenten - field vegetables - cultivation manuals - saline agriculture - saline water - salt land - salt tolerance - stem vegetables
De teelt van zeekraal kan in verschillende systemen plaatsvinden onder verschillende waterregimes, onder water zetten of irrigeren. De resultaten van proeven in Wilhelminapolder vormen de basis voor dit protocol en zijn gebaseerd op een buitenteelt met eb/vloed en springtij als watergeefregimes.
Planten en zout
Hop, Margareth - \ 2013
trees - plantations - shrubs - soil salinity - sensitivity - salt tolerance
Meer mogelijkheden om in te spelen op lage zoutopname
Voogt, W. ; Kierkels, T. ; Heuvelink, E. - \ 2013
Onder Glas 10 (2013)10. - p. 42 - 43.
glastuinbouw - groenten - snijbloemen - teeltsystemen - hergebruik van water - zouttolerantie - irrigatiewater - natriumchloride - fysische eigenschappen - gewasteelt - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - cut flowers - cropping systems - water reuse - salt tolerance - irrigation water - sodium chloride - physical properties - crop management
De komende jaren worden de spuinormen steeds strenger en moeten tuinbouwbedrijven het water steeds meer gaan hergebruiken. Dan zijn planteigenschappen als zoutgevoeligheid of een lage zoutopname nog belangrijker dan nu. Het is dus zaak om daar meer zicht op te krijgen om goed te kunnen sturen.
Modelling of soil salinity and halophyte crop production
Vermue, E. ; Metselaar, K. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2013
Environmental and Experimental Botany 92 (2013). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 186 - 196.
gewasproductie - bodemfactoren - zoute gronden - halofyten - bodemwater - verzilting - modellen - crop production - edaphic factors - saline soils - halophytes - soil water - salinization - models - salt tolerance - root water - growth - plants - irrigation - stress - extraction - simulation - wheat - transpiration
In crop modelling the soil, plant and atmosphere system is regarded as a continuum with regard to root water uptake and transpiration. Crop production, often assumed to be linearly related with transpiration, depends on several factors, including water and nutrient availability and salinity. The effect of crop production factors on crop production is frequently incorporated in crop models using empirical reduction functions, which summarize very complex processes. Crop modelling has mainly focused on conventional crops and specific plant types such as halophytes have received limited attention. Crop modelling of halophytes can be approached as a hierarchy of production situations, starting at the situation with most optimal conditions and progressively introducing limiting factors. We analyze crop production situations in terms of water- and salt limited production and in terms of combined stresses. We show that experimental data as such may not be the bottleneck, but that data need to be adequately processed, to provide the basis for a first analysis. Halophytic crops offer a production perspective in saline areas, but in other areas long-term use of low quality irrigation water for halophyte production can result in serious soil quality problems. An overview is given of potential problems concerning the use of (saline) irrigation water, leading to the conclusion that soil quality changes due to poor quality water should be considered in determining the areas selected for halophyte growing.
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