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‘Schmidt's Antonovka’ is identical to ‘Common Antonovka’, an apple cultivar widely used in Russia in breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses
Pikunova, A. ; Madduri, M. ; Sedov, E. ; Noordijk, Y. ; Peil, A. ; Troggio, M. ; Bus, V.G.M. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Weg, W.E. van de - \ 2014
Tree Genetics and Genomes 10 (2014)2. - ISSN 1614-2942 - p. 261 - 271.
x-domestica borkh. - resistance gene - linkage map - scab - genome
Progenies of ‘Schmidt's Antonovka’ (SA) have been widely used in Western breeding programs as a source of scab resistance. The identity of SA has remained obscure, especially due to the existence of a series of ‘Antonovka’ cultivars with different origins. In this paper we show Schmidt's Antonovka to be identical to ¿¿¿¿´¿¿¿¿¿ ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ or ‘Common Antonovka’ (CA), an old Russian cultivar of unknown origin, by comparing simple sequence repeat (SSR) and SNP genotyping data from several first-generation descendants of SA from two European collections and a CA accession from the germplasm collection held at VNIISPK (The All-Russian Research Institute of Horticultural Breeding, Orel, Russia). The use of CA in Russian breeding programs is also briefly reviewed.
Modeling Deoxynivalenol Contamination of Wheat in Northwestern Europe for Climate Change Assessments
Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Goedhart, P.W. ; Elen, O. ; Börjesson, T. ; Hietaniemi, V. ; Booij, C.J.H. - \ 2012
Journal of Food Protection 75 (2012)6. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 1099 - 1106.
fusarium-head-blight - small-grain cereals - winter-wheat - mycotoxins - prediction - management - maize - scab
Climate change will affect mycotoxin contamination of feed and food. Mathematical models for predicting mycotoxin concentrations in cereal grains are useful for estimating the impact of climate change on these toxins. The objective of the current study was to construct a descriptive model to estimate climate change impacts on deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of mature wheat grown in northwestern Europe. Observational data from 717 wheat fields in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and The Netherlands were analyzed, including the DON concentrations in mature wheat, agronomical practices, and local weather. Multiple regression analyses were conducted, and the best set of explanatory variables, mainly including weather factors, was selected. The final model included the following variables: flowering date, length of time between flowering and harvest, wheat resistance to Fusarium infection, and several climatic variables related to relative humidity, temperature, and rainfall during critical stages of wheat cultivation. The model accounted for 50 % of the variance, which was sufficient to make this model useful for estimating the trends of climate change on DON contamination of wheat in northwestern Europe. Application of the model in possible climate change scenarios is illustrated.
Population Analysis of the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex from Wheat in China Show a Shift to More Aggressive Isolates
Zhang, H. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Waalwijk, C. ; Chen, W. ; Xu, Jin ; Xu, Jingsheng ; Zhang, Y. ; Feng, J. - \ 2012
PLoS One 7 (2012)2. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 13 p.
head blight pathogen - multilocus genotype data - genealogical concordance - mycotoxin chemotypes - genetic diversity - gibberella-zeae - eastern china - f-asiaticum - clade - scab
A large number of Fusarium isolates was collected from blighted wheat spikes originating from 175 sampling sites, covering 15 provinces in China. Species and trichothecene chemotype determination by multilocus genotyping (MLGT) indicated that F. graminearum s. str. with the 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (15ADON) chemotype and F. asiaticum with either the nivalenol (NIV) or the 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (3ADON) chemotype were the dominant causal agents. Bayesian model-based clustering with allele data obtained with 12 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) markers, detected three genetic clusters that also show distinct chemotypes. High levels of population genetic differentiation and low levels of effective number of migrants were observed between these three clusters. Additional genotypic analyses revealed that F. graminearum s. str. and F. asiaticum are sympatric. In addition, composition analysis of these clusters indicated a biased gene flow from 3ADON to NIV producers in F. asiaticum. In phenotypic analyses, F. asiaticum that produce 3ADON revealed significant advantages over F. asiaticum that produce NIV in pathogenicity, growth rate, fecundity, conidial length, trichothecene accumulation and resistance to benzimidazole. These results suggest that natural selection drives the spread of a more vigorous, more toxigenic pathogen population which also shows higher levels of fungicide resistance
Genetic diversity studies on Fusarium asiaticum isolates collected from barley in China show a clear substructure associated with their geographic origin
Zhang, Z. ; Zhang, H. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Li, C. ; Arens, P. ; Xu, J. ; Xu, J.S. ; Yang, L.J. ; Yu, D.Z. ; Waalwijk, C. ; Feng, J. - \ 2010
European Journal of Plant Pathology 127 (2010)2. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 239 - 248.
head blight pathogen - graminearum clade - genetic diversity - wheat fields - populations - scab - deoxynivalenol - mycotoxins
Abstract Fusarium head blight (FHB) can affect wheat and barley and is a devastating disease caused by a complex of Fusarium species. Here we report on a large-scale survey on the genetic diversity of isolates collected from barley in China. Ten VNTR markers were tested on a representative set of 40 isolates covering 14 sampling areas along the Yangtze River. VNTR4 and VNTR7, with 13 and 6 alleles, each were applied to a total of 1106 single-spore isolates to reveal the population structure of F. asiaticum. The F. asiaticum population showed high genetic diversity and a clear genotypic substructure within China. Pairwise comparisons of allele frequencies between the mountainous provinces of Sichuan and Chongqing in Western China, Hubei Province in the centre or the eastern provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai showed significant differences. Even between counties of the same province, significant differences between allele frequencies were found (P
Effects of integrated control measures on earthworms, leaf litter and Venturia inaequalis infection in two European apple orchards
Holb, I.J. ; Heijne, B. ; Jeger, M.J. - \ 2006
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 114 (2006)2-4. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 287 - 295.
fungicide use - scab - disease - urea - wint - netherlands - populations - management - ascospores - inoculum
Two-, three-year studies were conducted to determine the effect of combining chemical (fungicide and urea) and non-chemical (leaf shredding) sanitation treatments on earthworm populations, leaf litter density (LLD), and leaf and fruit infections caused by Venturia inaequalis in Dutch and Hungarian integrated apple orchards from 2000 to 2002 and 2001 to 2003, respectively. The combined sanitation treatment included urea and captan sprays applied to the tree and to the orchard floor and the shredding of fallen leaves in the previous autumn and winter. The earthworm numbers were significantly higher in the sanitation treatment compared to the treatment without sanitation in 2001 and 2002 (P <0.05) at Randwijk (The Netherlands) and in 2002 and 2003 (P <0.05) at Derecske (Hungary). LLD decreased continuously from leaf fall in late autumn to mid-May the following spring at Randwijk, which was explained well by a linear function fitted to the LLD data, with R 2 values ranging from 0.82 to 0.99. Model coefficients for the sanitation plots were significantly different (P <0.05) from those of the non-sanitized plots in 2001 and 2002. At Derecske, LLD started to clearly decrease in both treatments from February 2001 and 2002 and from March 2003 to late spring, and this was explained well by an exponential function fitted to the LLD data, with R 2 values ranging from 0.80 to 0.97. Model coefficients for the sanitation plots were significantly different (P <0.05) from those of the non-sanitized plots only in 2002. In most years and at both sites, the sanitation treatment resulted in significantly lower (P <0.05) scab incidence on spur-leaf clusters compared to the treatment without sanitation. However, the sanitation effect on scab levels on older leaves and fruits was low and varied by year and location. The results are discussed in connection with the environmental conditions in the two countries.
Detection of Fusarium in single wheat kernels using spectral Imaging
Polder, G. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Waalwijk, C. ; Young, I.T. - \ 2005
Seed Science and Technology 33 (2005). - ISSN 0251-0952 - p. 655 - 668.
fusarium - korrels (granen) - detectie - spectraalanalyse - beeldvormende spectroscopie - kernels - detection - spectral analysis - imaging spectroscopy - near-infrared reflectance - least-squares regression - machine vision - industrial applications - neural-network - head blight - spectroscopy - scab - corn - identification
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a harmful fungal disease that occurs in small grains. Non-destructive detection of this disease is traditionally done using spectroscopy or image processing. In this paper the combination of these two in the form of spectral imaging is evaluated. Transmission spectral images are recorded, both in the visible and near-infrared range from FHB infected wheat kernels. These images are analyzed, using light absorption, the relation between two wavelength bands, unsupervised fuzzy c-means clustering and supervised partial least squares regression. The reference method for training and validation is TaqMan real-time PCR. Results show that nearinfrared spectral images perform much better than spectral images in the visible range. Kernels with more than 6000 pg Fusarium DNA could clearly be identified. Above 100 pg it was possible to predict the amount of Fusarium with a Q2 of 0.8. This was both for Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) and a simple wavelength ratio. Also fuzzy c-means clustering shows a relation between amount of Fusarium and spectra.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a harmful fungal disease that occurs in small grains. Non-destructive detection of this disease is traditionally done using spectroscopy or image processing. In this paper the combination of these two in the form of spectral imaging is evaluated. Transmission spectral images are recorded, both in the visible and near-infrared range from FHB infected wheat kernels. These images are analyzed, using light absorption, the relation between two wavelength bands, unsupervised fuzzy c-means clustering and supervised partial least squares regression. The reference method for training and validation is TaqMan real-time PCR. Results show that near-infrared spectral images perform much better than spectral images in the visible range. Kernels with more than 6000 pg Fusarium DNA could clearly be identified. Above 100 pg it was possible to predict the amount of Fusarium with a Q(2) of 0.8. This was both for Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) and a simple wavelength ratio. Also fuzzy c-means clustering shows a relation between amount of Fusarium and spectra.
Quantitative detection of Fusarium species in wheat using TaqMan
Waalwijk, C. ; Heide, R. van der; Vries, P.M. de; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Schoen, C.D. ; Costrel-Decorainville, G. ; Kastelein, P. ; Köhl, J. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2004
European Journal of Plant Pathology 110 (2004)5-6. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 481 - 494.
small-grain cereals - head blight - gibberella-zeae - ear blight - pcr - dna - quantification - fluorescence - scab - graminearum
Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and other small-grain cereals is a disease complex caused by several fungal species. To monitor and quantify the major species in the FHB complex during the growing season, real-time PCR was developed. TaqMan primers and probes were designed that showed high specificity for Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae and Microdochium nivale var. majus. Inclusion of an internal PCR control and serial dilutions of pure genomic DNAs allowed accurate determination of the concentration of fungal DNA for each of these species in leaves, ears as well as harvested grains of winter wheat. The DNA concentration of F. graminearum in grain samples correlated (r 2= 0.7917) with the incidence of this species on the grain as determined by isolation from individual kernels. Application of the TaqMan technology to field samples collected in 40 wheat crops in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2001 revealed that M. nivale var. majus predominated on leaves early in the season (GS 45-65). Ears and harvested grains from the same fields, however, showed F. graminearum as the major species. In 2002, grain samples from 40 Dutch fields showed a much wider range of species, whereas in ears from 29 wheat crops in France, F. graminearum was the predominant species. The concentration of DON correlated equally well with the incidence of the DON-producing species F. culmorum and F. graminearum in the grain samples (r 2= 0.8232) as well as with total DNA of both these species (r 2= 0.8259). The Fusarium TaqMan technology is an important tool to quantify and monitor the dynamics of individual species of the complex causing FHB in cereals during the growing season. This versatile tool has been applied in a comparison of different genotypes, but can also be applied to other disease management systems, e.g. fungicide treatments
Efficacy and phytotoicity of lime sulphur in organic apple production
Holb, I.J. ; Jong, P.F. de; Heijne, B. - \ 2003
Annals of Applied Biology 142 (2003)2. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 225 - 233.
fungicidal action - scab
Curative and preventive efficacy and phytotoxicity of lime sulphur spray schedules, based on a warning system, were evaluated in the Netherlands during two growing seasons under field conditions. In most cases, lime sulphur treatments applied either curatively or preventively resulted in significantly lower scab damage on both the leaves and fruits compared to wettable sulphur treatments. However, all lime sulphur treatments showed high phytotoxicity values, reduced leaf size and had a tendency to a reduced yield quality compared to all other treatments. For curative schedules of lime sulphur on scab control, phytotoxicity and yield did not differ significantly from preventive schedules of lime sulphur. However, the use of a warning system combined with curative schedules of lime sulphur saved one and two lime sulphur sprays in 2000 and 2001, respectively, compared to the preventive treatments of lime sulphur. Our results demonstrated that a curative spray programme with lime sulphur at 0.75-2%, applied 35-45 h after predicted infection periods, can provide effective primary apple scab control, but no benefit in either yield or fruit quality was reached under organic growing conditions. Moreover, research herein clearly showed that organic growers are forced to find a balance between good efficacy and phytotoxic effects of lime sulphur.