Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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How virtual shade sheds light on plant plasticity
Bongers, Franca J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Niels Anten, co-promotor(en): R. Pierik; Jochem Evers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432047 - 140
planten - fenotypen - fenotypische variatie - modellen - arabidopsis - natuurlijke selectie - schaduw - reacties - concurrentie tussen planten - licht - plants - phenotypes - phenotypic variation - models - natural selection - shade - responses - plant competition - light

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to express multiple phenotypes in accordance with different environments. Although variation in plasticity has been observed, there is limited knowledge on how this variation results from natural selection. This thesis analyses how variation in the level of plasticity influences light competition between plants and how this variation could result from selection, driven by light competition, in various environments. As an exemplary case of phenotypic plasticity, this thesis focusses on phenotypic responses of the annual rosette plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) in response to the proximity of neighbour plants, as signalled through the red : far—red (R:FR) ratio, which are responses associated with the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS).

Plant experiments were conducted to measure variation in these plastic responses and a functional-structural plant (FSP) model was created that simulates plant structures in 3D and includes these organ-level plastic responses while simulating explicitly a heterogeneous light environment. Simulating individual plants that explicitly compete for light, while their phenotype changes through plasticity, gave insights in the role of the level of phenotypic plasticity and site of signal perception on plant competitiveness. In addition, an analysis on how natural selection in different environments acts on the level of plasticity was performed by combining FSP simulations and evolutionary game theoretical (EGT) principles.

Primeur op congres: onderzoeksresultaten urban heat effect door kunstgras : WUR-onderzoeker bestudeert op verzoek van vakblad Fieldmanager
Theeuwes, N.E. - \ 2015
Fieldmanager 11 (2015)6. - ISSN 2212-4314 - p. 70 - 71.
sportterreinen - grasveld - kunststoffen - natuurlijke graslanden - voetballen - omgevingstemperatuur - bodemtemperatuur - schaduw - sports grounds - grass sward - plastics - natural grasslands - soccer - environmental temperature - soil temperature - shade
Er bestaat vermoedelijk een groot verschil tussen de temperatuur van kunstgras en die van natuurgras bij hitte. Als kunstgrasvelden hitte-eilandjes vormen, zou dit een groot effect hebben op het stadsklimaat. Natalie Theeuwes van de Wageningen Universiteit deed op verzoek van vakblad Fieldmanager wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar het urban heat effect door kunstgras en geeft de bezoekers van het Nationaal Sportvelden Congres de primeur van haar meetresultaten. Ook geeft zij advies over het minimaliseren van hittestress rónd de velden.
(Koel)water voor waterbuffels; noodzaak onder NL-omstandigheden?
Bokma, S. ; Poelarends, J.J. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 550) - 27
buffels - dierenwelzijn - schaduw - diergezondheid - dierhouderij - buffaloes - animal welfare - shade - animal health - animal husbandry
From literature, discussions with buffalo farmers and interviews with experts, no indications were determined that water buffaloes need (cooling) water under Dutch climatological circumstances.
Genetische modificatie tomaat en chrysant
Angenent, G.C. - \ 2010
[S.l. : S.n. - 18
glastuinbouw - tomaten - genetische modificatie - energiebesparing - lichtdoorlating - genen - chrysanten - schaduw - greenhouse horticulture - tomatoes - genetic engineering - energy saving - light transmission - genes - chrysanthemums - shade
Gedurende 1999 en 2000 zijn in dit project tomaten en chrysanten getransformeerd met genen waarvan kon worden aangenomen dat ze van invloed zijn op de energiehuishouding. Deze aanname berust op effecten die door deze genen in andere planten zijn opgewekt bijv. een andere gewasopbouw en lichtonderschepping. De werkelijke effecten op de energiebehoefte van de genetisch gemodificeerde tomaten en chrysanten worden in het project "Teeltanalyse transgene planten tomaat en crysant" onderzocht. In het vervolg traject "Genetische modificatie van tomaat en chrysant, analyse op plantniveau" zijn de effecten van verhoogde niveaus van phyA, phyB1 en phyB2 op de schaduw-vermijdings-reactie (SAR) onderzocht, door fytochroomgenen in tomaat tot overexpressie te brengen
Monitoring ClimecoVent-systeem in de praktijk - Technisch, teeltkundig en economisch onderzoek naar een energiezuinige kas bij kwekerij Grenspaal B.V.
Raaphorst, M.G.M. ; Voermans, J. - \ 2010
Bleiswijk : Wageningen (Rapporten GTB 1032) - 54
kassen - innovaties - schaduw - kooldioxide - temperatuur - tomaten - glastuinbouw - energiebesparing - greenhouses - innovations - shade - carbon dioxide - temperature - tomatoes - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving
De tomatentelers Noud en Roy Steegh zijn in januari 2009 op kwekerij Grenspaal te Wellerlooi (L) gestart met een nieuwe kas, voorzien van het ClimecoVent-systeem. Met het ClimecoVent-systeem wordt beoogd zodanig energie te besparen dat de warmtevraag bij een tomatenteelt neerkomt op een aardgasverbruik van 25 tot 30 m3/m2. De productiedoelen liggen gelijk aan die van een standaard tomatenteelt. Gezien het innovatieve en energiezuinige karakter van het ClimecoVent-systeem, heeft Wageningen UR in samenwerking met Climeco het systeem bij kwekerij Grenspaal over een tijdsspanne van ruim een jaar gemonitord in opdracht van het programma “Kas als Energiebron”. Doordat minder gas is gebruikt voor de verwarming van de kas is ook minder CO2 beschikbaar. In combinatie met de schaduwwerking van het extra scherm zou hiermee mogen worden verwacht dat het productieniveau achterblijft, maar dat is niet gebleken.
Genetic modification of shade-avoidance: overexpression of homologous phytochrome genes in tomato
Husaineid, S.H. - \ 2007
University. Promotor(en): Linus van der Plas, co-promotor(en): Sander van der Krol. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045120 - 152
solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - schaduw - fytochroom - genen - transgene planten - licht - groei - gewasdichtheid - tomatoes - shade - phytochrome - genes - transgenic plants - light - growth - crop density
Netten doen meer dan beschermen
Hemming, S. - \ 2006
De Boomkwekerij 19 (2006)12. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 8 - 9.
netten - hagelbescherming - vorstwering - lichtdoorlating - schaduw - kunststofweefsel - boomkwekerijen - nets - hail protection - frost protection - light transmission - shade - plastic fabric - forest nurseries
Het gebruik van netten in de boomkwekerij neemt steeds meer toe. Vooral het areaal schaduwhallen is groeiende. De juiste keuze voor een net is belangrijk bij een bepaalde toepassing. Wat zijn de eigenschappen van de diverse netten? En wat is hun invloed op het gewas en het klimaat eromheen?
The importance of seed mass for early regeneration in tropical forest: a review
Rose, S.A. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2003
In: Long-term changes in tropical tree diversity: Studies from the Guiana Shield, Africa, Borneo and Melanesia / ter Steege, H., Wageningen : Tropenbos - p. 19 - 35.
tropische regenbossen - regeneratievermogen - schaduw - zaden - bosecologie - tropical rain forests - regenerative ability - shade - seeds - forest ecology
Seed mass is an important component of the shade tolerance of rain forest tree species. Using a metaanalysis this article evaluates till what extent seed mass affects the survival, initial size, and growth of seedlings in light environments that are typical of forest gaps and understory
Effecten van dunning en vraat op spontane verjonging in eiken-dennenbossen.
Goudzwaard, L. ; Bartelink, H.H. - \ 2001
Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 73 (2001)3. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 23 - 27.
bossen - bosbeheer - opstandsontwikkeling - verjonging - natuurlijke verjonging - opstandskenmerken - opstandsstructuur - dunnen - begrazing - herbivoren - concurrentie tussen planten - licht - schaduw - plantensuccessie - bosopstanden - gemengde opstanden - forests - forest administration - stand development - regeneration - natural regeneration - stand characteristics - stand structure - thinning - grazing - herbivores - plant competition - light - shade - plant succession - forest stands - mixed stands
In bospercelen in de Beheerseenheid Ugchelen (Gelderland) is vanaf 1993 onderzoek gedaan naar de effecten van dunning (verschillende dunningspercentages) en herbivorie (wel of niet begraasd) op de bodemvegetatie (hogere planten in de kruidlaag), de bosstructuur en de spontane verjonging. De wilddruk belemmert de spontane verjonging sterk en beïnvloedt ook de samenstelling van de verjonging
Floridakas: lichtrijke kunststofplaat op Kas van de Toekomst
Sonneveld, P.J. - \ 2000
Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 55 (2000)48. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 44 - 44.
landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - kassen - licht - schaduw - zonnestraling - innovaties - energiebehoud - economie - farm buildings - greenhouses - light - shade - solar radiation - energy conservation - economics - innovations
De Floridakas is een kas met een speciaal ontwikkeld zigzagkasdek met een hoge lichttransmissie. Kostenbesparing circa f97.000,- per ha
Nieuw kunststofdek bespaart een ton per jaar
Sonneveld, P.J. - \ 2000
Groenten en Fruit. Vakdeel glasgroenten 10 (2000)48. - ISSN 1380-3573 - p. 12 - 13.
farm buildings - greenhouses - light - shade - solar radiation - energy conservation - economics - innovations - building materials - plastics - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - kassen - licht - schaduw - zonnestraling - energiebehoud - economie - innovaties - bouwmaterialen - kunststoffen
De Floridakas is een kas met een speciaal ontwikkeld zigzagkasdek met een hoge lichttransmissie. Kostebesparing circa f97.000,- per ha
Leaf function in tropical rain forest canopy trees : the effect of light on leaf morphology and physiology in different-sized trees
Rijkers, T. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren; F. Bongers; T.L. Pons. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083142 - 116
goupia glabra - pourouma - dicorynia guianensis - duguetia - tropische regenbossen - fotosynthese - bladleeftijd - bladeren - plantenmorfologie - bomen - planthoogte - licht - lichtregiem - schaduw - tolerantie - frans-guyana - tropical rain forests - photosynthesis - leaf age - leaves - plant morphology - trees - plant height - light - light regime - shade - tolerance - french guiana
<p>In this thesis the effect of constant and fluctuating light availability on several leaf traits was studied for naturally growing trees of different sizes, <em>i.e</em> . from sapling to adult canopy tree, of five species in a tropical rain forest in French Guiana. Leaf acclimation responses were examined throughout the life time of leaves in order to evaluate whether leaves can profit from these adjustments in terms of carbon gain. The five species, arranged in order from most shade-tolerant to pioneer, were: <em>Duguetia surinamensis</em> , <em>Vouacapoua americana</em> , <em>Dicorynia guianensis</em> , <em>Pourouma bicolor</em> spp. <em>digitata</em> , and <em>Goupia glabra</em> .</p><p>For <em>Duguetia</em> , <em>Vouacapoua</em> , <em>Dicorynia</em> and <em>Goupia</em> , it was shown that tree height and light availability had independent effects on photosynthesis and other features of leaf function. Direction and magnitude of the variation in leaf variables tended to be similar among species. The morphological variable leaf mass per unit area seemed to be a key variable as it determined most of the variation in other leaf variables.</p><p>The time needed to increase the photosynthetic rate (up to 90% of its capacity) to a sudden increase in light was between 7 to 11 min for shade and sun growing saplings of <em>Vouacapoua</em> , <em>Dicorynia</em> and <em>Pourouma</em> . The readiness to exploit the next lightfleck was substantial in these plants as the induction loss was moderate to low, except in gap saplings of <em>Dicorynia</em> . The time needed to reach 75% of the maximum carboxylation efficiency (V <sub>cmax</sub> ) was used to separate the relative importance of biochemical and stomatal limitation during the time course of photosynthetic induction.</p><p>The mean leaf life span of different-sized trees for <em>Vouacapoua</em> was 61 months (range 27-101) and for <em>Dicorynia</em> 32 months (range 17-54). The variation in traits in response to leaf age was low. Photosynthetic capacity and nitrogen concentration were relatively constant with time; leaf mass per unit area increased during the first 18 months. Simulations of the daily carbon gain with a low- and highlight regime showed differences among both sun- and shade-leaves and trees of different sizes. Leaf construction cost was independent of leaf life span. Leaf payback time was relatively short (4 to 40 days); it was constant during a wide range of irradiance, but increased sharply in a narrow range of low light. The rate of net return on carbon investment was slow in <em></em> long-lived leaves of <em>Vouacapoua</em> . Leaf mass per area decreased with increased leaf life span, which could be explained by a light- and height-dependent selection pressure for leaf life span and leaf mass per area.</p><p>The integration of the results with those at higher organisation levels, such as branch and tree crown, is briefly discussed, and the applicability in silvicultural systems in which light is manipulated to enhance growth and production of timber species is evaluated.</p><p><strong>Key-words:</strong> tropical rain forest, leaf morphology, photosynthesis, leaf age, tree height, shade tolerance, leaf construction costs, leaf payback time, ecophysiology.</p>
Effect daglengte, temperatuur bloemknopvorming in Pieris-stek (project 1006)
Ruesink, J.B. - \ 1998
Boskoop : Boomteeltpraktijkonderzoek (Rapport / Boomteeltpraktijkonderzoek 52) - 27
plantenfysiologie - plantenontwikkeling - bloemen - bloei - plantenvermeerdering - stekken - licht - fotoperiode - fotoperiodiciteit - schaduw - temperatuur - warmte - ericaceae - rapporten - potplanten - pieris japonica - binnen kweken (van planten) - plant physiology - plant development - flowers - flowering - propagation - cuttings - light - photoperiod - photoperiodism - shade - temperature - heat - reports - pot plants - indoor culture
Matching crops and environments : quantifying photothermal influences on reproductive development in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.)
Brink, M. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R. Rabbinge; M. Wessel; E. Westphal. - S.l. : Brink - ISBN 9789054858751 - 161
peulvruchten - groei - gewassen - vruchtdragend - vruchtzetten - licht - fotoperiode - fotoperiodiciteit - schaduw - temperatuur - warmte - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - fenologie - planten - vigna subterranea - grain legumes - growth - crops - fruiting - fruit set - light - photoperiod - photoperiodism - shade - temperature - heat - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models - phenology - plants
<p>The extent to which crops are adapted to specific environments greatly depends on how their development is affected by climatic factors. Development in bambara groundnut ( <em>Vigna subterranea</em> (L.) Verdc.) is known to be influenced by temperature and photoperiod. The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of these factors on reproductive development in selections from different origins.</p><p>Models relating development rates to photoperiod and temperature with linear equations were made for different bambara groundnut selections on the basis of research in semi-controlled environments. The photoperiod and temperature responses could be explained very well by the photothermal conditions in the regions where the selections were obtained. Validation of the models with the results of glasshouse and field experiments showed good to reasonable agreement between observed and predicted times to flowering and podding.</p><p>It is shown that the average photoperiod between flowering and podding determines the rate from flowering to podding, and that a gradual increase or decrease in photoperiod does not affect that rate. This means that photothermal models intended to predict bambara groundnut development in field situations with fluctuating photoperiods can be based on studies with constant photoperiods. It is also shown that growth and development in bambara groundnut are largely independent and that there are no strong direct photoperiod effects on dry matter partitioning.</p><p>The usefulness of photothermal development models for identifying suitable selections for different locations and sowing dates is demonstrated in a simulation study for Botswana. It is concluded that the influence of photoperiod and temperature on bambara groundnut development can be quantified through descriptive linear models, using data from semi-controlled environment experiments with constant temperatures and photoperiods. These quantitative models, either on their own or incorporated into a crop growth model, can be useful instruments for matching bambara groundnut genotypes and specific environments.</p>
Modelling interactions in grass-clover mixtures
Nassiri Mahallati, M. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L. 't Mannetje; A. Elgersma; Egbert Lantinga. - S.l. : Mahallati - ISBN 9789054858201 - 165
graslanden - lolium - trifolium repens - stikstof - biologische mededinging - concurrentie tussen planten - plantenecologie - licht - fotoperiode - fotoperiodiciteit - schaduw - fotosynthese - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - lolium perenne - grasslands - nitrogen - biological competition - plant competition - plant ecology - light - photoperiod - photoperiodism - shade - photosynthesis - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models
<p>The study described in this thesis focuses on a quantitative understanding of the complex interactions in binary mixtures of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under cutting. The first part of the study describes the dynamics of growth, production and the structural characteristics of contrasting grass and clover cultivars under field conditions. This basic information is used in the second part to quantify light absorption, C0 <sub>2</sub> assimilation, radiation use efficiency (RUE) and light competition of the species using a modelling approach.<p>Both species showed a seasonal pattern in growth of the dry matter (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) during the season so that the grass-dominated swards during spring shifted to clover dominance in summer. Without N fertilisation (-N), this seasonality was mainly controlled by the weather conditions. However, in fertilised mixtures (+N) grass was the dominant component of the mixture during the whole season and clover growth was always limited by light. The competitive ability and persistence of clover were determined by the structural characteristics of the cultivars. In the -N swards, both large and small-leaved clover cultivars had a higher proportion of their leaf area at the top canopy layers than their companion grass. In the +N mixtures, this was observed only in largeleaved clover, whereas the small-leaved cultivar was strongly overtopped. The difference between cultivars; was mainly due to the pattern of allocation of the DM into the supporting tissues.<p>Experimental results showed two sources of vertical heterogeneity within the mixed grass-clover canopies: different patterns of LAI distribution and leaf dispersion. The validity of the canopy light partitioning model was considerably improved by introducing these sources of variation into the model. Using this model the RUE of species was calculated for different regrowth periods. Grass and clover had a different RUE in mixture and monoculture, but overall RUE was higher in grass, particularly in spring. The variation in the DM yield of grass under different treatments was due to changes in RUE and absorbed radiation. However, in clover these differences were mainly due to the amount of absorbed radiation. Quantification of light competition showed that in spring grass was the strongest competitor. In summer, the competitive ability of clover was related to N level and clover cultivar. Without N, both large and small-leaved clover were better competitors than grass. However, in the +N swards only the large-leaved clover had the same competitive ability as its companion grass. In both species a leaf N profile developed during regrowth, parallel to the light profile within the canopy. The effect of the observed compared to a uniform leaf N profile on canopy C02 assimilation of species was low, but it was different between mixtures and monocultures.<p> It was concluded that the effect of canopy structure on productivity of species was more important than their assimilatory characteristics. The persistence of white clover under cutting may be improved by choosing cultivars with a higher competitive ability, based on canopy structure.
DIF in relatie tot licht- en temperatuurniveau : onderzoek naar alternatieve groeiregulatoren bij perkplanten
Vogelezang, J. - \ 1997
Aalsmeer : Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente (Rapport / Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente 98) - 19
tuinen - sierplanten - kunstlicht - verlichting - groeistadia - gewassen, groeifasen - licht - fotoperiode - fotoperiodiciteit - schaduw - temperatuur - warmte - rapporten - gardens - ornamental plants - artificial light - lighting - growth stages - crop growth stage - light - photoperiod - photoperiodism - shade - temperature - heat - reports
Zomerklimaat cyclamen
Verberkt, H. - \ 1997
Aalsmeer : Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente (Rapport / Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente 79) - 47
potplanten - kassen - klimaat - licht - fotoperiode - fotoperiodiciteit - schaduw - irrigatiewater-toedieningsschema - cyclamen - binnen kweken (van planten) - pot plants - greenhouses - climate - light - photoperiod - photoperiodism - shade - irrigation scheduling - indoor culture
Sturing van de bloemontwikkeling van aster door daglengte
Durieux, A. ; Blacquiere, T. - \ 1997
Aalsmeer : Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente (Rapport / Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente 109) - 57
licht - fotoperiode - fotoperiodiciteit - schaduw - plantenfysiologie - plantenontwikkeling - bloemen - bloei - sierplanten - aster - light - photoperiod - photoperiodism - shade - plant physiology - plant development - flowers - flowering - ornamental plants
Quantifying the effects of temperature and photoperiod on phenological development to flowering in rice
Yin, X. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.J. Kropff, co-promotor(en): J. Goudriaan. - S.l. : Yin - ISBN 9789054855156 - 173
rijst - oryza sativa - groei - gewassen - licht - fotoperiode - fotoperiodiciteit - schaduw - bloei - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - rice - growth - crops - light - photoperiod - photoperiodism - shade - flowering - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models
<br/>Accurate prediction of crop phenology is important not only for modelling purposes but also for crop improvement and management actions. The objective of this study was to develop a model for predicting phenological development to flowering in rice ( <em>Oryza sativa</em> L.).<p>Data from the literature were analysed to evaluate a basic equation for crop development. The Beta function, commonly used as a skewed probability density function in statistics, was found to accurately describe responses of rice development rate to both temperature and photoperiod. Controlled-environment experiments were then conducted for detailed understanding of the physiological basis of photothermal responses of preflowering development in rice. Effects of day and night temperature on development to flowering were found to be different. The plants did not respond to photoperiod throughout the entire preflowering period, instead, the photoperiod- sensitive phase was sandwiched by two photoperiod-insensitive phases. It appeared that responses to both day and night temperature were stronger during the photoperiod-sensitive phase than during the two photoperiod-insensitive phases. The results also indicated that leaf appearance occurring simultaneously during the preflowering development had a different thermal response from that of the development <em>per se</em> .<p>Based on the experimental results, a detailed model for photothermal responses of flowering in rice was developed, using the Beta function. The model, referred to as the three-stage Beta (3s-Beta) model, describes different photothermal responses during the photoperiod-sensitive phase and the photoperiod-insensitive phases of preflowering ontogeny. Using parameter values derived from controlled-environment experiments, the 3s-Beta model adequately predicted rice flowering dates observed in field conditions. It preformed better than several existing models over a wide range of environments.<p>In order to assist new plant type design, the 3s-Beta model was applied to determine optimal preflowering phenological traits of rice for an increased yield potential in three different irrigated environments in Asia.<p>The results of this thesis were discussed in view of the experimental findings, the methodology of phenology modelling and model applications.
Light relations in orchard systems
Wagenmakers, P.S. - \ 1995
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R. Rabbinge; J. Tromp. - S.l. : Wagenmakers - ISBN 9789054853404 - 151
appels - malus - licht - fotoperiode - fotoperiodiciteit - schaduw - beplanten - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - apples - light - photoperiod - photoperiodism - shade - planting - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models
<p>The optimization of light interception is essential for the production of highquality fruit. High light interception is required for high yields, whereas insufficient light exposure may lead to inferior flowering and a reduction of many characteristics of fruit quality. Orchard configuration is important for the manipulation of light utilization. In this context, the influence of planting density, arrangement, tree size and shape on light interception was quantified in a model approach. The results were evaluated with the use of datasets from experiments with apple.<p>From the results of the calculation of light absorption and canopy photosynthesis, it could be inferred that early cultivars having a growing season of only four months achieve about the same potential production over a wide range of temperate regions. The production of cultivars with a longer season would, however, increase by at least one tonne fruit (fresh weight) per ha for every degree lower latitude. On the other hand, production at low latitudes may suffer from higher respiration costs.<p>A model for the assessment of light transfer through trees was used to analyse the influence of density, planting system, and tree size and shape. It was concluded that trees with a conical shape have better light penetration into the lower tree parts than have those with parabolic or cylindrical shapes. Light interception and the amount of well-illuminated canopy increase with planting density particularly 9 leaf density of the crowns is not increased. Systems with a low ratio of between-to- within row distance (rectangularity) should intercept light very efficiently.<p>In experiments, planting density was found to be the most important orchard factor for production per ha, which was actually due to leaf area. Systems at low rectangularities produced considerably more well-coloured fruit than did those at higher rectangularities. The product" of three-row bed systems on a triangular design lagged behind that of other systems. A tall bit open tree was found to produce more well-coloured fruit than lower trees with a higher leaf density did. It is concluded that for fruit growers light interception is a key factor for the optimization of orchard management, that can be manipulated by planting density, planting system, and tree size and shape.
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