Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Closing the nutrient loops in (peri-)urban farming systems through composting
Nigussie, Abebe - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper; A. de Neergaard, co-promotor(en): S. Bruun. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430050 - 144
urban agriculture - farming systems - nutrients - composting - refuse - sewage - waste treatment - vermicomposting - soil quality - nitrogen - ethiopia - stadslandbouw - bedrijfssystemen - voedingsstoffen - compostering - vuilnis - rioolwater - afvalverwerking - vermicompostering - bodemkwaliteit - stikstof - ethiopië

Organic amendments are used to improve soil fertility and maintain agricultural fields in a productive state. Despite these benefits, the use of organic amendments is limited in many developing countries. The overall objective of this thesis is therefore to provide a better understanding of current waste management practices in developing countries and ensure sustainable crop production via the biotransformation of urban waste into a high-quality soil amendment. First, I aimed at determining the causes for the limited use of organic amendments in small-scale urban farming systems. I interviewed 220 urban farmers in Ethiopia and found that competition for agricultural waste between fuel, feed and soil amendment is a major cause for the limited use of organic amendments. I demonstrated that allocation of agricultural waste for soil amendment is linked with farmers’ livelihood strategies. I also studied variation in compost demand among different farmer groups, and the socio-economic variables which explained these variations.

Gaseous losses of ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions occur during composting of nitrogen-rich urban waste. Several technologies could reduce these losses. However, these technologies are inadequate to fit within the broader farming systems because they are expensive. The second aim of this thesis was to develop low-cost methods to mitigate N losses and GHG emissions from composting, while retaining its fertilising value.

Composting by earthworms (vermicomposting) is proposed as a low-cost strategy for minimising N losses and GHG emissions. Using a wide range of substrate qualities (C:N ratio, labile C sources) and other factors (earthworm density, amount of input, and moisture), I showed that vermicomposting reduced N losses and GHG emissions compared with traditional thermophilic composting, but the magnitude of the earthworm effect varied between substrates. Earthworms also change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon during composting. Another low-cost strategy is to delay the addition of N-rich substrates during composting. I demonstrated that addition of nitrogen-rich substrate after the thermophilic phase reduced N losses. Delayed addition of N-rich substrates increased N2O emissions, but reduced CH4 emissions. Delayed addition resulted in compost that was as stable and effective at completely eradicating weed seeds as traditional composting.

In conclusion, urban waste compost should be considered as alternative source for soil amendment, particularly in developing countries with competition for agricultural waste. Technologies such as vermicomposting and delayed addition of N-rich substrate are recommended to increase or maintain the nitrogen content of compost, reduce N losses and mitigate GHG emissions.

Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in a UASB-Digester system : temperature effect on system performance, hydrolysis and methanogenesis
Zhang, Lei - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman; Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Hendrickx. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579798 - 165
municipal wastewater - anaerobic digesters - hydrolysis - temperature - water treatment sludge - sludges - water treatment - sewage sludge - sewage - stedelijk afvalwater - anaërobe verteerders - hydrolyse - temperatuur - waterzuiveringsslib - slib - waterzuivering - rioolslib - rioolwater

A novel treatment chain for low strength domestic sewage includes low temperature anaerobic treatment as the main process. It can improve the energy efficiency of sewage treatment compared with conventional aerobic sewage treatment. A combination of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor and a sludge digester, a UASB-digester system, was proven to be one of the successful anaerobic systems to challenge temperatures as low as 10°C and organic matter concentrations in the range of 382 and 1054 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l. The UASB is operated at low sewage temperature (10°C) and high loading rate. The produced non-stabilised sludge in the UASB is recirculated over the mesophilic digester (35°C) to convert organic solids to methane gas and produce anaerobic biomass fed back into the UASB reactor, where it converts dissolved COD at the low temperature of the waste water.

The effect of sludge recirculation rate and sludge transfer point on the performance of a UASB-digester treating domestic sewage at 15 ˚C was studied in this research. The results show increased total COD removal efficiency when increasing the sludge recirculation rate from 1% to 2.6% of the influent flow rate. Methane gas production increases with the sludge recirculation rate, in the range of 1 to 12.5% of the influent flow rate. A higher sludge transfer point results in an increased suspended COD removal efficiency and a higher VSS concentration of the UASB sludge bed.

Co-digestion was applied for improving soluble COD removal efficiency of a UASB-digester system, operated at low temperatures and treating domestic sewage with a high dissolved/suspended COD ratio. Glucose was chosen as a model co-substrate and added to the sludge digester to produce additional methanogenic biomass, which was continuously recycled to inoculate the UASB reactor. Methane production in the UASB reactor almost doubles and soluble COD removal efficiency equals the biodegradability of the influent dissolved COD, due to a twofold increase in methanogenic capacity, when applying co-digestion 16% of influent organic loading rate. Therefore, co-digestion is a suitable approach to support a UASB-digester for treatment of low temperature domestic sewage.

A pilot scale UASB-digester (130 + 50 L) was studied to treat domestic wastewater at temperatures of 10-20°C at an HRT of 6 h in the UASB reactor and 15 h in the digester. The results show a stable COD removal efficiency of 60 ± 4.6% during the operation at 12.5 to 20°C. COD removal efficiency decreases to 51.5 ± 5.5% at 10°C. The decreased COD removal efficiency is attributed to an increased influent COD load, leading to insufficient methanogenic capacity of the UASB reactor at such low temperature. Suspended COD removal efficiency was 76.0 ± 9.1% at 10-20°C. The effluent COD concentration is 90 ± 23 mg/L at temperatures between 12.5 and 20°C, while soluble COD removal efficiency fluctuates due to variation in the influent COD concentration. 80% of the influent biodegradable COD is recovered as methane gas (including dissolved methane).

Low temperature (10-25°C) hydrolysis after applying a short pre-hydrolysis at 35°C was studied compared with those without the pre-hydrolysis. Batch experiments were executed using cellulose and tributyrin as model substrates for carbohydrates and lipids. Low temperature anaerobic hydrolysis rate constants increase by a factor 1.5 - 10 after applying a short anaerobic pre-hydrolysis at 35°C. The hydrolytic activity of the supernatant collected from the digestate after batch digestion of cellulose and tributyrin at 35°C was higher than that of the supernatants collected from the low temperature (≤ 25°C) digestates. The observed hydrolysis in the UASB of a UASB-digester system, treating domestic sewage at low temperatures (10-20°C) is in line with the elevated hydrolytic activity of mesophilic supernatant.

Effects of temperature and temperature shocks on specific methanogenic activity (SMA), and acetate affinity of the digester sludge were studied. Digester sludge from a UASB (12.5°C)-digester (35°C) system, was fed with acetate at constant temperatures of 10-35°C and at varying temperatures from 35°C to 25, to 15 to 10°C. The results show no lag phase in methane production rate when applying temperature shocks of 35°C to 25, 15, and 10°C. The temperature dependency of the SMA of the digester sludge after the temperature shocks was similar to the one at constant temperatures. Acetate affinity of the digester sludge was high at the applied temperatures (10-35°C). Latter is consistent with the finding of no VFA in the effluent of the UASB-digester, treating low strength, and low temperature (12.5°C) domestic wastewater.

The UASB-digester system to treat low strength, low temperature domestic sewage was provided with a proof-of-principle, and its essential underlying anaerobic processes were sufficiently elucidated to make the technology ready for further scaling up and demonstration in practice.

Hoeveel is onze poep eigenlijk waard?
Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2015
Universiteit van Nederland
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - rioolwater - mestvergisting - geneesmiddelen - fosfaat - terugwinning - algenteelt - helofytenfilters - feces - nieuwe sanitatie - biobased economy - lesmaterialen - waste water treatment - water treatment - sewage - manure fermentation - drugs - phosphate - recovery - algae culture - artificial wetlands - faeces - new sanitation - teaching materials
Prof. dr. Louise Vet van Wageningen UR heeft een donkerbruin vermoeden dat we waardevolle stoffen door het toilet spoelen. Sterker nog: ze weet het zeker. Voedingsstoffen, zelfs medicijnen: In dit college vertelt ze hoe we met algen en nieuwe technologie kostbaar spul uit ons bruine spul kunnen halen. Louise Vet is hoogleraar Evolutionaire Ecologie aan de Universiteit Wageningen en directeur van het Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie. Professor Vet is een vrouw met een missie: een zo duurzaam mogelijke wereld realiseren. Zo gaf ze zelf het goede voorbeeld door het kantoorcomplex en lab waar zij haar onderzoek doet geheel via de cradle-to-cradle filosofie in te richten.
Energy and nutrient recovery for municipal wastewater treatment: How to design a feasible plant layout?
Khiewwijit, R. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Keesman, K.J. - \ 2015
Environmental Modelling & Software 68 (2015). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 156 - 165.
autotrophic nitrogen removal - sensitivity analysis - models - phosphorus - parameters - resources - oxidation - sewage - future - urine
Activated sludge systems are commonly used for robust and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater. However, these systems cannot achieve their maximum potential to recover valuable resources from wastewater. This study demonstrates a procedure to design a feasible novel configuration for maximizing energy and nutrient recovery. A simulation model was developed based on literature data and recent experimental research using steady-state energy and mass balances with conversions. The analysis showed that in the Netherlands, proposed configuration consists of four technologies: bioflocculation, cold partial nitritation/Anammox, P recovery, and anaerobic digestion. Results indicate the possibility to increase net energy yield up to 0.24 kWh/m3 of wastewater, while reducing carbon emissions by 35%. Moreover, sensitivity analysis points out the dominant influence of wastewater organic matter on energy production and consumption. This study provides a good starting point for the design of promising layouts that will improve sustainability of municipal wastewater management in the future.
Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on the bioflocculation process in high loaded MBRs
Faust, L. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zwijnenburg, A. ; Kemperman, A.J.B. ; Rijnaarts, H. - \ 2014
Water Research 66 (2014). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 199 - 207.
afvalwaterbehandeling - uitvlokking - bioreactoren - waste water treatment - flocculation - bioreactors - waste-water treatment - extracellular polymeric substances - activated-sludge flocs - improved energy recovery - membrane bioreactor - size distribution - biofilm structure - stability - sewage - performance
High-loaded membrane bioreactors (HL-MBRs), i.e. MBRs which are operated at extremely short sludge and hydraulic retention times, can be applied to flocculate and concentrate sewage organic matter. The concentrated organics can be used for energy recovery, or for the production of more valuable organic chemicals. Little is known about the effect of the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) on this bioflocculation process. To examine this effect, two HL-MBRs were operated, respectively at a low (1 mg L-1) and a higher (4 mg L-1) DO. The higher DO resulted in a better flocculation efficiency, i.e. 92% of the colloidal COD in the sewage flocculated compared to 69% at the lower DO. The difference was attributed to a higher microbial production of extracellular polymeric substances at a DO of 4 mg L-1 and to more multivalent cations (calcium, iron and aluminium) being distributed to the floc matrix. In addition, the HL-MBR that was operated at a DO of 4 mg L-1 gave a bigger mean floc size, a lower supernatant turbidity, better settleability and better membrane filterability than the HL-MBR that was operated at a DO of 1 mg L-1.
Glasaalonderzoek Den Oever als onderdeel van het project Glasaal over de dijk
Foekema, E.M. ; Keeken, O.A. van; Rippen, A.D. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C110/14) - 17
rioolwater - afvoerwater - palingen - aquatische ecologie - monitoring - kop van noord-holland - sewage - effluents - eels - aquatic ecology
Uit onderzoek verricht in het voorjaar van 2013 blijkt, dat grote hoeveelheden glasaal zich concentreerden rond het lozingspunt van de rioolwaterzuivering in Den Oever. Het is mogelijk dat onder de geconcentreerde glasalen verhoogde sterfte plaatsvindt vanwege gerichte predatie. In een onderzoek van beperkte opzet werd in het voorjaar van 2014 onderzocht of de rwzi-uitlaat in Den Oever als knelpunt voor de glasaalintrek geldt. Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd door monitoring van met kleurstof gemerkte glasalen, waarnemingen met een akoestische onderwatercamera (DIDSON) en maagonderzoek van lokaal aanwezige potentiele predator vissen.
High specific activity for anammox bacteria enriched from activated sludge at 10 °C
Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Kampman, C. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Hu, Z. ; Kartal, B. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2014
Bioresource Technology 163 (2014). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 214 - 221.
anaerobic ammonium oxidation - autotrophic nitrogen removal - strength waste-water - low-temperature - granular sludge - marine-sediments - performance - sewage - scale - reactor
Anammox in the water line of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) saves energy for aeration and allows for recovering biogas from organic material. Main challenges for applying the anammox process in the water line are related to the low temperature of
Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Development: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa
Vliet, B.J.M. van; Buuren, J.C.L. van; Mgana, S. - \ 2014
London and New York : Routledge (Routledge studies in sustainable development ) - ISBN 9780415833776 - 176
volksgezondheidsbevordering - rioolwater - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - technologie - beleid - afvalbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - oost-afrika - sanitation - sewage - wastes - sustainability - sustainable development - technology - policy - waste management - urban areas - east africa
Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures of waste and sanitation systems and to ensure wider access, increase flexibility and ecological sustainability. It shows how the problem is not the current diversity in waste and sanitation infrastructures and services and variety of types and scales of technology, of formal and informal sector involvement, and of management and ownership modes. The book focuses instead on the lack of an integrative approach to managing and upgrading of the various waste and sanitation configurations and services so as to ensure wider access, flexibility and sustainability for the low income populations who happen to be the main stakeholders. This approach, coined "Modernized Mixtures", serves as a nexus throughout the book. The empirical core addresses the waste and sanitation challenges and debates at each scale - from the micro-level (households) to the macro-level (international support) - and is based on the results of a five-year-long interdisciplinary, empirical research program. It assesses the socio-technical diversity in waste and sanitation and provides viable solutions to sanitation and waste management in East Africa. This book provides students, researchers and professional in environmental technology, sociology, management and urban planning with an integrated analytical perspective on centralized and decentralized waste and sanitation configurations and tools for improvement in the technology, policy and management of sanitation and solid waste sectors.
The effect of sludge recirculation rate on a UASB-digester treating domestic sewage at 15 °C
Zhang, L. ; Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Kampman, C. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Weiguang Li, ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2012
Water Science and Technology 66 (2012)12. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2597 - 2603.
afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwater - rioolwater - huishoudens - anaërobe behandeling - anaërobe verteerders - slibvergisting - recirculatiesystemen - temperatuur - zuurstofbehoefte - biogas - concentratie - efficiëntie - waste water treatment - waste water - sewage - households - anaerobic treatment - anaerobic digesters - sludge digestion - recirculating systems - temperature - oxygen requirement - concentration - efficiency - waste-water treatment - anaerobic-digestion - low-temperature
The anaerobic treatment of low strength domestic sewage at low temperature is an attractive and important topic at present. The upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-digester system is one of the anaerobic systems to challenge low temperature and concentrations. The effect of sludge recirculation rate on a UASB-digester system treating domestic sewage at 15 °C was studied in this research. A sludge recirculation rate of 0.9, 2.6 and 12.5% of the influent flow rate was investigated. The results showed that the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency rose with increasing sludge recirculation rate. A sludge recirculation rate of 0.9% of the influent flow rate led to organic solids accumulation in the UASB reactor. After the sludge recirculation rate increased from 0.9 to 2.6%, the stability of the UASB sludge was substantially improved from 0.37 to 0.15 g CH4-COD/g COD, and the bio­gas production in the digester went up from 2.9 to 7.4 L/d. The stability of the UASB sludge and bio­gas production in the digester were not significantly further improved by increasing sludge recirculation rate to 12.5% of the influent flow rate, but the biogas production in the UASB increased from 0.37 to 1.2 L/d. It is recommended to apply a maximum sludge recirculation rate of 2–2.5% of the influent flow rate in a UASB-digester system, as this still allows energy self-sufficiency of the system.
The effect of operational conditions on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the sludge bed in UASB reactors
Leitao, R.C. ; Santaellla, S.T. ; Haandel, A.C. van; Zeeman, G. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2011
Water Science and Technology 64 (2011)9. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1935 - 1941.
afvalwaterbehandeling - geactiveerd slib - anaërobe behandeling - slibzuivering - hydrodynamische dispersie - zuiveringsinstallaties - expansie - retentie - volume - waste water treatment - activated sludge - anaerobic treatment - sludge treatment - hydrodynamic dispersion - purification plants - expansion - retention - settling characteristics - expansion characteristics - granular sludge - volume index - velocity - sewage - settleability - design
This work aims to evaluate the hydrodynamic properties of the sludge bed of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors based on its settleability and expansion characteristics. The methodologies used for the evaluation of the settleability of aerobic activated sludge, and for the expansibility of a sludge bed of Expanded Granular Sludge Bed reactors and Fluidised Bed Reactors were adapted and applied to the particular characteristics of the sludge of UASB reactors. An easy-to-build experimental set-up was developed to assess the parameters necessary for the equations of settleability and of expansibility. The results obtained from the sludges of seven differently operated reactors show that, for the treatment of low strength wastewater, settleability increased and expansibility decreased at decreased hydraulic retention time, from 6 to 1 h, and/or increased influent concentrations, from 136 to approximately 800 mg chemical oxygen demand/L. The results also show that it is useless to design an UASB reactor with a longer hydraulic retention time to cope with hydraulic shock loads, as a more expansible sludge will develop at such condition.
Energie uit rioolwater en keukenafval bij hoge druk
Zagt, K. ; Barelds, J. ; Lier, J. van; Weijma, J. ; Plugge, C.M. - \ 2010
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling (2010). - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 10 - 13.
afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolwater - hergebruik van water - efficiëntie - innovaties - waterzuivering - hogedruktechnologie - waste water - waste water treatment - sewage - water reuse - efficiency - innovations - water treatment - high pressure technology
Decentrale sanitatie als invulling van een duurzame waterketen is bedacht in Wageningen en tussen 2002 en 2005 door een aantal partijen in het noorden van Nederland ontwikkeld tot een bruikbaar concept. Het demonstratieproject DeSaH in Sneek heeft laten zien dat het toepassen van decentrale sanitatie en hergebruik veel mogelijkheden biedt en zeker ook een aantal aanknopingspunten voor verdere ontwikkelingen. De resultaten van het innovatieve concept kunnen echter nog aanzienlijk worden verbeterd. Ondergetekenden zijn na het ontwerp voor het project in Sneek het laboratorium ingedoken, om met nieuwe partijen te werken aan de verbetering van de efficiency, de energieprestatie en de marktpotentie van het concept. Het resultaat is een nieuwe zuiveringstechnologie: hogedrukgisting
Waste water as a source for secondary resources and linkage to other urban systems
Agudelo Vera, C.M. ; Mels, A.R. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2010
waterzuivering - afvalverwerking - rioolwater - watervoorziening - stedelijke gebieden - water treatment - waste treatment - sewage - water supply - urban areas
Urban metabolism studies have shown that, in terms of sheer mass, water is the largest and the most vital component. Population growth and higher living standards will cause ever increasing demands for good quality municipal and industrial water, and ever increasing sewage flows within a limited area. Within this paper we will address the question whether there are better ways of meeting the various qualities and consequently reduce our water needs. The quantitative assessment of water quality and its relationships with management activities is a necessary step in efficient water resources management
Treatment of domestic wastewater in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by moving bed biofilm reactor
Tawfik, A. ; El-Gohary, F. ; Temmink, B.G. - \ 2010
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 33 (2010)2. - ISSN 1615-7591 - p. 267 - 276.
sponge dhs system - nitrogen removal - low-temperatures - uasb reactors - sewage - denitrification - nitrification - retention - effluent - time
The performance of a laboratory-scale sewage treatment system composed of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) at a temperature of (22-35 A degrees C) was evaluated. The entire treatment system was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT's) of 13.3, 10 and 5.0 h. An overall reduction of 80-86% for CODtotal; 51-73% for CODcolloidal and 20-55% for CODsoluble was found at a total HRT of 5-10 h, respectively. By prolonging the HRT to 13.3 h, the removal efficiencies of CODtotal, CODcolloidal and CODsoluble increased up to 92, 89 and 80%, respectively. However, the removal efficiency of CODsuspended in the combined system remained unaffected when increasing the total HRT from 5 to 10 h and from 10 to 13.3 h. This indicates that, the removal of CODsuspended was independent on the imposed HRT. Ammonia-nitrogen removal in MBBR treating UASB reactor effluent was significantly influenced by organic loading rate (OLR). 62% of ammonia was eliminated at OLR of 4.6 g COD m(-2) day(-1). The removal efficiency was decreased by a value of 34 and 43% at a higher OLR's of 7.4 and 17.8 g COD m(-2) day(-1), respectively. The mean overall residual counts of faecal coliform in the final effluent were 8.9 x 10(4) MPN per 100 ml at a HRT of 13.3 h, 4.9 x 10(5) MPN per 100 ml at a HRT of 10 h and 9.4 x 10(5) MPN per 100 ml at a HRT of 5.0 h, corresponding to overall log(10) reduction of 2.3, 1.4 and 0.7, respectively. The discharged sludge from UASB-MBBR exerts an excellent settling property. Moreover, the mean value of the net sludge yield was only 6% in UASB reactor and 7% in the MBBR of the total influent COD at a total HRT of 13.3 h. Accordingly, the use of the combined UASB-MBBR system for sewage treatment is recommended at a total HRT of 13.3 h.
Long term partial nitritation of anaerobically treated black water and the emission of nitrous oxide
Graaff, M.S. de; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2010
Water Research 44 (2010)7. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 2171 - 2178.
rioolafvalwater - rioolwater - excreten - huishoudens - afvoerwater - nieuwe sanitatie - afvalwaterbehandeling - nitrificatie - ammonium - anaërobe behandeling - sewage effluent - sewage - excreta - households - effluents - new sanitation - waste water treatment - nitrification - anaerobic treatment - anammox reactor - waste-water - start-up - removal - ammonia - sharon - supernatant - management - digestion
Black water (toilet water) contains half the load of organic material and the major fraction of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus in a household and is 25 times more concentrated, when collected with a vacuum toilet, than the total wastewater stream from a Dutch household. This research focuses on the partial nitritation of anaerobically treated black water to produce an effluent suitable to feed to the anammox process. Successful partial nitritation was achieved at 34 °C and 25 °C and for a long period (almost 400 days in the second period at 25 °C) without strict process control a stable effluent at a ratio of 1.3 NO2-N/NH4-N was produced which is suitable to feed to the anammox process. Nitrite oxidizers were successfully outcompeted due to inhibition by free ammonia and nitrous acid and due to fluctuating conditions in SRT (1.0–17 days) and pH (from 6.3 to 7.7) in the reactor. Microbial analysis of the sludge confirmed the presence of mainly ammonium oxidizers. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) is of growing concern and it corresponded to 0.6–2.6% (average 1.9%) of the total nitrogen load
Social Perspectives on the Sanitation Challenge
Vliet, B.J.M. van; Spaargaren, G. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2010
Dordrecht : Springer - ISBN 9789048137206 - 242
volksgezondheidsbevordering - sociologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - rioolwater - afvalwater - stedelijke gebieden - ontwikkelingslanden - ontwikkelde landen - sanitation - sociology - sustainability - sewage - waste water - urban areas - developing countries - developed countries
In developed countries the sanitation challenge is to initiate a transition from strongly centralized, water-based infrastructure regimes towards more sustainable, source-separation oriented, sanitation regimes. This calls for social scientific research and demonstration on different levels and scales, including concept development, institutional learning and governance building. In the developing world the sanitation challenge is to provide sanitation services to the poor and the very poor, without compromising on sustainability. New configurations employing the best practices of sanitation technology and management for rural and urban contexts are needed. The sanitation challenge in both worlds is to go beyond traditional dichotomies between ‘small, appropriate’ and ‘modern/advanced’ technologies and to develop rural and urban sanitation with a mix of scales, strategies, technologies, payment systems and decision-making structures, that better fit the physical and human systems for which they are designed.
Waterkwaliteit op het landgoed lankheet : zuiverende werking van rietvelden en de Buurserbeek
Mulder, H.M. ; Gerven, L.P.A. van; Querner, E.P. ; Werf, A.K. van der - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1878) - 72
helofytenfilters - landgoederen - phragmites - maaien - waterzuivering - fosfaten - stikstof - rioolwater - oppervlaktewater - modellen - biologische behandeling - achterhoek - artificial wetlands - estates - mowing - water treatment - phosphates - nitrogen - sewage - surface water - models - biological treatment
Op landgoed Lankheet worden rietvelden ingezet om het oppervlaktewater effectief te zuiveren van stikstof en fosfaat. Door het riet aan het einde van de groeiperiode te maaien kunnen grote hoeveelheden nutriënten uit het systeem gehaald worden. In deze studie wordt met het NUSWALITE waterkwaliteitsmodel de zuiverende werking van de Buurserbeek en de rietvelden in beeld gebracht
The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability
Leitao, R. ; Santaellla, S.T. ; Haandel, A.C. van; Zeeman, G. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2009
Water Science and Technology 59 (2009)9. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1847 - 1853.
uasb-reactor - anaerobic-digestion - sewage - water
The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent COD concentration (CODInf) on Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and the biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge need to be elucidated because of the discordant results available in literature. This information is important for the operation of anaerobic reactors and design of the sludge post-treatment unit. For this study, sludge samples obtained from eight pilot-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors were tested. The reactors were fed with municipal wastewater and operated with different sets of HRT and influent concentrations until the steady state was established. The results show that at a lower HRT, sludge with relatively higher SMA develops. A slight trend of declining SMA at increasing CODInf was found for reactors operated at longer HRTs; however, further experiments are necessary for more definitive conclusions. The sludge from reactors operated at longer HRTs and with lower CODInf resulted in lower biodegradability. Results also showed that it is ineffective to design a UASB reactor with a longer HRT to cope with organic shock loads
Combined carbon and nitrogen removal in integrated anaerobic/anoxic sludge bed reactors for the treatment of domestic sewage
Kassab, G. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): Jules van Lier, co-promotor(en): B. Klapwijk; M. Fayyad. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853886 - 130
rioolwater - rioolslib - bioreactoren - anaërobe behandeling - anaërobe afbraak - denitrificatie - afvalwaterbehandeling - stikstof - verwijdering - koolstof - sewage - sewage sludge - bioreactors - anaerobic treatment - anaerobic digestion - denitrification - waste water treatment - nitrogen - removal - carbon
The main objective of this research is to assess the applicability and effectiveness of integrating anaerobic digestion and denitrification processes in a single sludge system. The integrated concept is of particular interest for the treatment of highstrength domestic wastewater and is accomplished by means of a sequential anaerobic-aerobic system. The anaerobic pre-treatment can consist of a single anaerobic stage or two anaerobic stages, conditioned mainly by the wastewater characteristics, the prevailing ambient temperatures and the scale of application
Biological black water treatment combined with membrane separation
Voorthuizen, E.M. van; Zwijnenburg, A. ; Meer, W. van der; Temmink, H. - \ 2008
Water Research 42 (2008)16. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 4334 - 4340.
afvalwaterbehandeling - biologische behandeling - filtratie - membranen - voedingsstoffen - terugwinning - scheiding - verzamelen - rioolwater - prestatieniveau - waste water treatment - biological treatment - filtration - membranes - nutrients - recovery - separation - collection - sewage - performance - bioreactors - phosphorus
Separate treatment of black (toilet) water offers the possibility to recover energy and nutrients. In this study three combinations of biological treatment and membrane filtration were compared for their biological and membrane performance and nutrient conservation: a UASB followed by effluent membrane filtration, an anaerobic MBR and an aerobic MBR. Methane production in the anaerobic systems was lower than expected. Sludge production was highest in the aerobic MBR, followed by the anaerobic MBR and the UASB-membrane system. The level of nutrient conservation in the effluent was high in all three treatment systems, which is beneficial for their recovery from the effluent. Membrane treatment guaranteed an effluent which is free of suspended and colloidal matter. However, the concentration of soluble COD in the effluent still was relatively high and this may seriously hamper subsequent nutrient recovery by physical¿chemical processes. The membrane filtration behaviour of the three systems was very different, and seemed to be dominated by the concentration of colloidals in the membrane feed. In general, membrane fouling was the lowest in the aerobic MBR, followed by the membranes used for UASB effluent filtration and the anaerobic MBR.
Anaerobic biodegradation of estrogens-hard to digest
Mes, T.Z.D. de; Kujawa, K. ; Zeeman, G. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2008
Water Science and Technology 57 (2008)8. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1177 - 1182.
geactiveerd slib - varkensmest - oestrogenen - afvalwaterbehandeling - anaërobe behandeling - biodegradatie - korrelslib - activated sludge - pig manure - oestrogens - waste water treatment - anaerobic treatment - biodegradation - granular sludge - waste-water treatment - removal - sewage - combination - behavior - sludge - plant
Although many publications are available on the fate of estrone (E1), 17b-estradiol (E2) and 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2) during aerobic wastewater treatment, little is published on their fate under strictly anaerobic conditions. Present research investigated the digestibility of E1 and EE2, using digested pig manure, granular UASB sludge, UASB-septic tank sludge and activated sludge as inocula. Besides, actual concentrations were measured in a UASB septic tank treating black water. Under anaerobic conditions E1 is reduced to E2 but the extent of this reduction depends on type of inoculum. No significant loss of the sum of E1 and E2 and of EE2 was observed. Adsorption was responsible for a 32¿35% loss of E1 and E2 from the liquid phase in the UASB septic tank and the effluent still contained considerable concentrations of respectively 4.02 mg/l and 18.79 mg/l for E1 and E2 with a large fraction present in conjugated form. No EE2 was detected in the UASB effluent
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