Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Perspectieven voor de afzet van (fosfaat-verarmd) zuiveringsslib naar de landbouw
Regelink, Inge ; Ehlert, Phillip ; Römkens, Paul - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2819) - 75
afvalwater - rioolslib - besmetters - zware metalen - mest - fosfaten - landbouw - afvalhergebruik - waste water - sewage sludge - contaminants - heavy metals - manures - phosphates - agriculture - waste utilization
Het project heeft als doel om nieuwe afzetroutes te formuleren waarbij zuiveringsslib op een duurzame wijze wordt verwerkt tot meststoffen en bodemverbeteraars zodat waardevolle nutriënten en organische stof worden hergebruikt.
Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in a UASB-Digester system : temperature effect on system performance, hydrolysis and methanogenesis
Zhang, Lei - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman; Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Hendrickx. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579798 - 165
municipal wastewater - anaerobic digesters - hydrolysis - temperature - water treatment sludge - sludges - water treatment - sewage sludge - sewage - stedelijk afvalwater - anaërobe verteerders - hydrolyse - temperatuur - waterzuiveringsslib - slib - waterzuivering - rioolslib - rioolwater

A novel treatment chain for low strength domestic sewage includes low temperature anaerobic treatment as the main process. It can improve the energy efficiency of sewage treatment compared with conventional aerobic sewage treatment. A combination of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor and a sludge digester, a UASB-digester system, was proven to be one of the successful anaerobic systems to challenge temperatures as low as 10°C and organic matter concentrations in the range of 382 and 1054 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l. The UASB is operated at low sewage temperature (10°C) and high loading rate. The produced non-stabilised sludge in the UASB is recirculated over the mesophilic digester (35°C) to convert organic solids to methane gas and produce anaerobic biomass fed back into the UASB reactor, where it converts dissolved COD at the low temperature of the waste water.

The effect of sludge recirculation rate and sludge transfer point on the performance of a UASB-digester treating domestic sewage at 15 ˚C was studied in this research. The results show increased total COD removal efficiency when increasing the sludge recirculation rate from 1% to 2.6% of the influent flow rate. Methane gas production increases with the sludge recirculation rate, in the range of 1 to 12.5% of the influent flow rate. A higher sludge transfer point results in an increased suspended COD removal efficiency and a higher VSS concentration of the UASB sludge bed.

Co-digestion was applied for improving soluble COD removal efficiency of a UASB-digester system, operated at low temperatures and treating domestic sewage with a high dissolved/suspended COD ratio. Glucose was chosen as a model co-substrate and added to the sludge digester to produce additional methanogenic biomass, which was continuously recycled to inoculate the UASB reactor. Methane production in the UASB reactor almost doubles and soluble COD removal efficiency equals the biodegradability of the influent dissolved COD, due to a twofold increase in methanogenic capacity, when applying co-digestion 16% of influent organic loading rate. Therefore, co-digestion is a suitable approach to support a UASB-digester for treatment of low temperature domestic sewage.

A pilot scale UASB-digester (130 + 50 L) was studied to treat domestic wastewater at temperatures of 10-20°C at an HRT of 6 h in the UASB reactor and 15 h in the digester. The results show a stable COD removal efficiency of 60 ± 4.6% during the operation at 12.5 to 20°C. COD removal efficiency decreases to 51.5 ± 5.5% at 10°C. The decreased COD removal efficiency is attributed to an increased influent COD load, leading to insufficient methanogenic capacity of the UASB reactor at such low temperature. Suspended COD removal efficiency was 76.0 ± 9.1% at 10-20°C. The effluent COD concentration is 90 ± 23 mg/L at temperatures between 12.5 and 20°C, while soluble COD removal efficiency fluctuates due to variation in the influent COD concentration. 80% of the influent biodegradable COD is recovered as methane gas (including dissolved methane).

Low temperature (10-25°C) hydrolysis after applying a short pre-hydrolysis at 35°C was studied compared with those without the pre-hydrolysis. Batch experiments were executed using cellulose and tributyrin as model substrates for carbohydrates and lipids. Low temperature anaerobic hydrolysis rate constants increase by a factor 1.5 - 10 after applying a short anaerobic pre-hydrolysis at 35°C. The hydrolytic activity of the supernatant collected from the digestate after batch digestion of cellulose and tributyrin at 35°C was higher than that of the supernatants collected from the low temperature (≤ 25°C) digestates. The observed hydrolysis in the UASB of a UASB-digester system, treating domestic sewage at low temperatures (10-20°C) is in line with the elevated hydrolytic activity of mesophilic supernatant.

Effects of temperature and temperature shocks on specific methanogenic activity (SMA), and acetate affinity of the digester sludge were studied. Digester sludge from a UASB (12.5°C)-digester (35°C) system, was fed with acetate at constant temperatures of 10-35°C and at varying temperatures from 35°C to 25, to 15 to 10°C. The results show no lag phase in methane production rate when applying temperature shocks of 35°C to 25, 15, and 10°C. The temperature dependency of the SMA of the digester sludge after the temperature shocks was similar to the one at constant temperatures. Acetate affinity of the digester sludge was high at the applied temperatures (10-35°C). Latter is consistent with the finding of no VFA in the effluent of the UASB-digester, treating low strength, and low temperature (12.5°C) domestic wastewater.

The UASB-digester system to treat low strength, low temperature domestic sewage was provided with a proof-of-principle, and its essential underlying anaerobic processes were sufficiently elucidated to make the technology ready for further scaling up and demonstration in practice.

Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands. : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
Vonk, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 53) - 164 p.
air pollutants, greenhouse gases, livestock, crops, animal housing, manure storage, manure application, inorganic fertilizer, enteric fermentation, manure management, agricultural soils, liming, NIR, CRF, IIR, NFR - landbouw - gewassen - landbouwgronden - vee - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - mestverwerking - begrazing - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - kooldioxide - methaan - anorganische meststoffen - fermentatie - bekalking - nederland - compost - rioolslib - teelt - oogstresten - rijp worden - agriculture - crops - agricultural soils - livestock - animal housing - animal manures - cattle manure - manure treatment - grazing - greenhouse gases - air pollutants - emission - ammonia emission - carbon dioxide - methane - inorganic fertilizers - fermentation - liming - netherlands - composts - sewage sludge - cultivation - crop residues - ripening
The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing are assessed using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N-fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, and carbon dioxide
(CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission
calculations with NEMA
Phosphorus recycling from the waste sector
Ruijter, F.J. de; Dijk, W. Van; Curth-van Middelkoop, J.C. ; Reuler, H. van - \ 2015
Plant Research International, Wageningen UR (Rapport / Plant Research International 641) - 29 p.
phosphorus - waste water - composts - recycling - sewage sludge - sludges - fosfor - afvalwater - compost - rioolslib - slib
An efficient use of phosphorus (P) is necessary as phosphate rock is a finite resource and P is essential for crop production. From the waste sector in the Netherlands, 23 Mkg P is sequestered in landfill, incineration ashes and cement. Flows containing P are discussed, together with options to recover P and reduce P losses, and the interactions between these options.
Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters
Cabrol, L. ; Urra, J. ; Rosenkranz, F. ; Kroff, P.A. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Lesty, Y. ; Chamy, R. - \ 2015
Water Science and Technology 71 (2015)12. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1790 - 1799.
rioolslib - anaërobe behandeling - anaërobe afbraak - sewage sludge - anaerobic treatment - anaerobic digestion - waste-water treatment - olive mill wastewaters - volatile fatty-acids - 16s ribosomal-rna - biogas production - degradation efficiency - microbial-populations - aromatic-compounds - phenolic-compounds - inhibition
The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale municipal WWTP in Santiago de Chile, and fed with either primary or mixed sewage sludge. AD performance was evaluated by volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production monitoring. Archaeal community structure was characterized by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and band sequencing. In the primary sludge digester, a single PAA pulse at 200 mg L(-1) was sufficient to affect AD performance and archaeal community structure, resulting in long-term VFA accumulation, reduced biogas production and community shift from dominant acetoclastic (Methanosaeta concilii) to hydrogenotrophic (Methanospirillum hungatei) methanogens. By contrast, AD performance and archaeal community structure in the mixed sludge digester were stable and resistant to repeated PAA pulses at 200 and 600 mg L(-1). This work demonstrated that the effect of PAA pulses on methanogenic activity and archaeal community structure differed according to AD substrate, and suggests that better insights of the correlations between archaeal population dynamics and functional performance could help to better face toxic shocks in AD
Appraising fertilisers: origins of current regulations and standards for contaminants in fertilisers : background of quality standards in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom and Flanders
Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Posthuma, L. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Wintersen, A.M. ; Wijnen, H. van; Dijk, T.A. van; Schöll, L. van; Groenenberg, J.E. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 336) - 128
rioolslib - compost - bemesting - kwaliteitsnormen - verontreiniging - overheidsbeleid - vergelijkingen - nederland - denemarken - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk - vlaanderen - sewage sludge - composts - fertilizer application - quality standards - pollution - government policy - comparisons - netherlands - denmark - germany - uk - flanders
The standards for contaminants in fertilisers in Denmark, Germany, Flanders, the Netherlands and United Kingdom, are given in the context of the proposals for new European fertiliser legislation. This EU legislation might result in generic limit values for contaminants and input lists of materials, and importantly specific waste materials, per categories of fertiliser. With the national and European targets of recycling and energy recovery, the sustainable use of waste materials as fertilisers is becoming more and more important. A revision of the fertiliser legislation is therefore not only relevant for agriculture but also for the waste and energy sector. Compared to the surrounding countries the limit values in the Netherlands are low for heavy metals and high for organic contaminants. The origin of the limit values, the basic protection policies and the risk analysis have been traced especially for the Netherlands, and roughly for the surrounding countries. The limits for heavy metals in fertilisers in the Netherlands are based on the protection of the soil, on practice, and in case of organic contaminants, also on a risk analysis. Also in the surrounding countries, the limit values have been derived using the same basic concepts of protection and risk analysis. The differences and similarities between the basic concepts to derive limit values between the countries give a starting point for a revaluation and new limit values for fertilisers
Operation of an aquatic worm reactor suitable for sludge reduction at large scale
Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2011
Water Research 45 (2011)16. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 4923 - 4929.
afvalwaterbehandeling - huishoudens - rioolslib - geactiveerd slib - bioreactoren - ontwerp - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - oligochaeta - waste water treatment - households - sewage sludge - activated sludge - bioreactors - design - sludge treatment - aquatic worms - eating waste sludge - activated-sludge
Treatment of domestic waste water results in the production of waste sludge, which requires costly further processing. A biological method to reduce the amount of waste sludge and its volume is treatment in an aquatic worm reactor. The potential of such a worm reactor with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus has been shown at small scale. For scaling up purposes, a new configuration of the reactor was designed, in which the worms were positioned horizontally in the carrier material. This was tested in a continuous experiment of 8 weeks where it treated all the waste sludge from a lab-scale activated sludge process. The results showed a higher worm growth rate compared to previous experiments with the old configuration, whilst nutrient release was similar. The new configuration has a low footprint and allows for easy aeration and faeces collection, thereby making it suitable for full scale application.
Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor
Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2010
Water Research 44 (2010)3. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 1017 - 1023.
afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolslib - biologische behandeling - lumbricidae - zuurstofconsumptie - waterzuivering - ontwerp - zuiveringsinstallaties - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water treatment - sewage sludge - biological treatment - oxygen consumption - water treatment - design - purification plants - sludge treatment - aquatic worms - lumbriculus-variegatus muller - eating waste sludge - minimization
Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be determined by the sludge consumption rate per unit of surface area. This design parameter was determined in sequencing batch experiments using sludge from a municipal WWTP. Long-term experiments using carrier materials with 300 and 350 µm mesh sizes showed surface specific consumption rates of 45 and 58 g TSS/(m2 d), respectively. Using a 350 µm mesh will therefore result in a 29% smaller reactor compared to using a 300 µm mesh. Large differences in consumption rates were found between different sludge types, although it was not clear what caused these differences. Worm biomass growth and decay rate were determined in sequencing batch experiments. The decay rate of 0.023 d-1 for worms in a carrier material was considerably higher than the decay rate of 0.018 d-1 for free worms. As a result, the net worm biomass growth rate for free worms of 0.026 d-1 was much higher than the 0.009–0.011 d-1 for immobilised worms. Finally, the specific oxygen uptake rate of the worms was determined at 4.9 mg O2/(g ww d), which needs to be supplied to the worms by aeration of the water compartment in the worm reactor
Slibverwerking met wormen: toepasbaar voor RWZI’s?
Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2009
Afvalwaterwetenschap 8 (2009)4. - ISSN 1568-3788 - p. 284 - 292.
afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolslib - biologische technieken - wormen - lumbricidae - economische haalbaarheid - economische analyse - zuiveringsinstallaties - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water - waste water treatment - sewage sludge - biological techniques - helminths - economic viability - economic analysis - purification plants - sludge treatment - aquatic worms
De verwerking van afvalslib uit biologische zuivering van industrieel en huishoudelijk afvalwater is kostbaar en de uiteindelijke verwerkingsmethode is veelal verbranding. Met behulp van aquatische wormen kan de hoeveelheid afvalslib worden gereduceerd, de ontwaterbaarheid ervan worden verbeterd en een gedeelte van de nutriënten worden teruggewonnen door de groei van wormenbiomassa. Een nieuw ontwerp voor een wormenreactor, geschikt voor opschaling, is succesvol getest in het lab. Bij relatief kleine RWZI's is het te verwachten voordeel het grootst, gezien de hoge transportkosten van ingedikt slib naar de centrale slibverwerkingsinstallaties en juist hierin kan veel voordeel behaald worden met een wormenreactor. Het economisch perspectief voor de toepassing van een wormenreactor bij een rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallatie (RWZI) van 35.000 i.e. wordt in dit artikel beschreven en is veelbelovend. Voor een gedetailleerde haalbaarheidsstudie zijn echter de ervaringen met een pilot reactor nodig, zoals optimalisatie van het indikken van wormenkeutels. Het economisch perspectief van een wormenreactor valt nog veel gunstiger uit wanneer de geproduceerde wormenbiomassa een hoogwaardige toepassing heeft, zoals visvoer voor consumptievis. Dit zou echter slechts een optie voor schone slibsoorten kunnen zijn, zoals die uit bepaalde voedingsindustrieën
Combined carbon and nitrogen removal in integrated anaerobic/anoxic sludge bed reactors for the treatment of domestic sewage
Kassab, G. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): Jules van Lier, co-promotor(en): B. Klapwijk; M. Fayyad. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853886 - 130 p.
rioolwater - rioolslib - bioreactoren - anaërobe behandeling - anaërobe afbraak - denitrificatie - afvalwaterbehandeling - stikstof - verwijdering - koolstof - sewage - sewage sludge - bioreactors - anaerobic treatment - anaerobic digestion - denitrification - waste water treatment - nitrogen - removal - carbon
The main objective of this research is to assess the applicability and effectiveness of integrating anaerobic digestion and denitrification processes in a single sludge system. The integrated concept is of particular interest for the treatment of highstrength domestic wastewater and is accomplished by means of a sequential anaerobic-aerobic system. The anaerobic pre-treatment can consist of a single anaerobic stage or two anaerobic stages, conditioned mainly by the wastewater characteristics, the prevailing ambient temperatures and the scale of application
Resultaten ringtest 2008 zware metalen en arseen in compost en zuiveringsslib in het kader van de voormalige regeling "Bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen"
Alewijn, M. ; Driessen, J.J.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Rapport / RIKILT 2009.001) - 21
zware metalen - arsenicum - analytische methoden - kwaliteitscontroles - compost - rioolslib - heavy metals - arsenic - analytical methods - quality controls - composts - sewage sludge
Metal supplementation to anaerobic granular sludge bed reactors: an environmental engineering approach
Gonzalez Fermoso, F. - \ 2008
University. Promotor(en): Jules van Lier; Piet Lens. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048787 - 247 p.
rioolslib - anaërobe omstandigheden - bioreactoren - metalen - supplementen - sewage sludge - anaerobic conditions - bioreactors - metals - supplements
The objective of this research is the optimization of essential metal dosing in upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors used for methanogenic wastewater treatment. Optimization of essential metal dosing in UASB reactors is a compromise between achieving the maximal biological activity of the biomass present in the reactor, while minimizing the costs of the supplied metal and the metal losses into the environment. The fate of metals in the anaerobic granular sludge is studied. The boundary conditions to keep a stable reactor operation are evaluated: Nutrient deficiency due to lack of essential metals versus toxicity in case of their excess. Finally, metal dosing strategies are evaluated. It is shown that the metal addition to UASB reactors and the methanogenic activity are related and, more important, this relation can be quantified
Resultaten ringtest 2007 zware metalen en arseen in een monster compost en een monster zuiveringsslib in het kader van de regeling "bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen"
Driessen, J.J.M. ; Oostrom, J.J. van - \ 2007
Wageningen : RIKILT, Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid (Rapport / RIKILT 2007.019) - 20
zware metalen - arsenicum - rioolslib - afvalcompost - organische meststoffen - kwaliteitsnormen - bemesting - heavy metals - arsenic - sewage sludge - refuse compost - organic fertilizers - quality standards - fertilizer application
In het besluit kwaliteit en gebruik overige organische meststoffen (BOOM) worden zuiveringsslib, compost en zwarte grond als overige meststoffen aangemerkt. Deze dienen te voldoen aan kwaliteitseisen voor o.a. zware metalen. Het voornaamste doel is de belasting van de bodem te verminderen
Haalbaarheidsonderzoek gecombineerde verwerking van zuiveringsslib en mestvergisting in Limburg : een verkennend onderzoek
Elbersen, H.W. ; Hoeksma, P. ; Man, A. de - \ 2007
Wageningen : Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (Rapport / Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group nr. 869) - 57
afvalverwerking - slib - mest - rioolslib - biogasmest - intensieve veehouderij - haalbaarheidsstudies - mestverwerking - reconstructie - slibzuivering - zuiveringsinstallaties - noord-limburg - midden-limburg - waste treatment - sludges - manures - sewage sludge - biogas slurry - intensive livestock farming - feasibility studies - manure treatment - reconstruction - sludge treatment - purification plants
De grote hoeveelheid intensieve veehouderij leidt tot een regionaal mest- en nutriëntenoverschot. Mest covergisting kan voor een aantal veehouderijbedrijven in het reconstructiegebied Noord- en Midden- Limburg een nieuwe economische activiteit worden. Hierbij is het belangrijk om direct het biogas of indirect de restwarmte op een efficiënte manier in te zetten. Het WBL (Waterschapsbedrijf Limburg) beheert 18 rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties. Op 3 plaatsen (Venlo, Hoensbroek en Susteren) wordt het geproduceerde slib gedroogd. De gedroogde slib wordt als brand- en bouwstof bij de ENCI afgezet. Het is onzeker of de ENCI na 2015 in bedrijf zal blijven. Het WBL voert momenteel een strategiestudie uit naar de mogelijkheden van slibverwerking in de toekomst. De studie wordt breed ingezet en gebruik van alternatieve brandstoffen of restwarmte krijgt de nodige aandacht. De Wageningen UR (Instituut AFSG i.s.m. ASG) heeft in opdracht van het WBL de mogelijkheden van gecombineerde verwerking zuiveringsslib en vergisting van mest en agro-residuen in kaart gebracht
Een nieuw reactorconcept voor slibreductie met aquatische wormen
Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2007
Afvalwaterwetenschap 6 (2007)1. - ISSN 1568-3788 - p. 45 - 52.
rioolslib - predatie - slib - wormen - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalverwerking - waterorganismen - lumbricus - sewage sludge - predation - sludges - helminths - waste water treatment - waste treatment - aquatic organisms
De behandeling van afvalwater resulteert in de productie van enorme hoeveelheden zuiveringsslib. In Nederland wordt dit slib voornamelijk verbrand. Een biologische aanpak voor het verminderen van de hoeveelheid slib die moet worden getransporteerd en verwerkt is de predatie door aquatische wormen. Tim Hendrickx, Hellen Elissen, Hardy Temmink en Cees Buisman beschrijven experimenten waarin de toepasbaarheid werd getest van een nieuw reactorconcept voor de reductie van slib met behulp van de aquatische oligochaet Lumbriculus variegatus
Milieutechnologie: snelweg naar een duurzame ontwikkeling
Rulkens, W.H. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 70
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - afvalverwerking - afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolslib - ontwikkelingslanden - milieutechnologie - openbare redes - sustainability - waste treatment - waste water treatment - sewage sludge - developing countries - environmental technology - public speeches
Prof. Wim Rulkens, hoogleraar Milieutechnologie aan Wageningen Universiteit neemt afscheid in een rede getiteld: Milieutechnologie: Snelweg naar een duurzame ontwikkeling
Analysis of PCBs in Sewage sludge for the characterization study of ERM-CC392
Korytar, P. ; Dao, Q.T. - \ 2007
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES C136/07) - 15
polychloorbifenylen - congeners - rioolslib - bewerking - monsters - methodologie - proefopzet - kwaliteitscontroles - meetsystemen - polychlorinated biphenyls - sewage sludge - handling - samples - methodology - experimental design - quality controls - measurement systems
The aim of this study was measurement of PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180) in a sewage sludge material ERM – CC392, in a control sample and in ampoule of the “Beltest” solution as part of the characterization study of ERM – CC392 “PCBs in Sewage sludge” organized by JRC'IRMM, Geel, Belgium. This document provides detailed description of the sample handling, measurement method used, study design applied, quality control measures and results of the measurements. Samples
Sludge reduction by aquatic worms in wastewater treatment : with emphasis on the potential application of Lumbriculus variegatus
Elissen, H.J.H. - \ 2007
University. Promotor(en): Wim Rulkens, co-promotor(en): A. Klapwijk. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047773 - 189 p.
afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolslib - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water treatment - sewage sludge - sludge treatment - aquatic worms
In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), large amounts of biological waste sludge are produced. In the Netherlands, the application of this sludge in agriculture or disposal in landfills is no longer allowed, mainly because of its high heavy metal content. The sludge therefore generally is incinerated. Sludge processing costs are estimated to be half of the total wastewater treatment costs. This thesis focuses on the application of aquatic worms to reduce the amount and volume of the excess sludge. Several worm species, belonging to the Aeolosomatidae, Tubificidae (including Naidinae) or Lumbriculidae have specific characteristics that could make them suitable for such an application
Microbial community analysis in sludge of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems : integrated culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches
Roest, C. - \ 2007
University. Promotor(en): Willem de Vos; Fons Stams, co-promotor(en): A.D.L. Akkermans; Hauke Smidt. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048398 - 159
rioolslib - micro-organismen - anaërobe omstandigheden - afvalwaterbehandeling - anaërobe behandeling - stedelijk afvalwater - sewage sludge - microorganisms - anaerobic conditions - waste water treatment - anaerobic treatment - municipal wastewater
The need for clean water is increasing and anaerobic wastewater treatment can be used as a cost-effective solution for purification of organically polluted industrial waste streams. This thesis presents results from microbiological investigations of several full-scale and lab-scale anaerobic wastewater treatments systems. Anaerobic wastewater treatment has gained popularity and is now one of the key technologies in environmental biotechnology. However, knowledge of the microbial community structure – function relationships is limited. A combination of cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent techniques can be used to improve this knowledge. In this thesis, batch serial dilution incubations from a methanol-fed lab-scale thermophilic (55°C) methanogenic bioreactor indicated that syntrophic interspecies hydrogen transfer-dependent methanol conversion is at least equally important as direct methanogenesis in this lab-scale reactor. A direct methanol-utilizing Methanomethylovorans hollandica-related strain was detected up to a 108-fold dilution, while Thermodesulfovibrio relatives and Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus strains were found till 109–fold dilutions in the presence of H2/CO2. Microbial diversity was further evaluated in two expanded granular sludge bed reactors fed with increasing oleic acid loading rates. The archaeal community in the reactor inoculated with granular sludge stayed quite stable and active, whereas the relative abundance of Methanosaeta-like organisms gradually decreased in the reactor inoculated with suspended sludge when oleate loads were increased to 8 kg of chemical oxygen demand m-3 day-1. Desulfomicrobium and Methanobacterium were found to dominate the start-up of a full-scale synthesis gas fed gas-lift reactor treating metal and sulphate rich wastewater. Most Probable Number (MPN) counts confirmed that heterotrophic sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were dominant (1011-1012 cells/g VSS) compared to homoacetogens (105-106 cells/g VSS) and methanogens (108-109cells/g VSS). Methanogens can still persist in sulphate-reducing bioreactors with short sludge retention time, since competition for hydrogen is determined by Monod kinetics and not by hydrogen threshold values. The microbial community in a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating paper mill wastewater operated at 37°C was relatively stable over a period of 3 years as indicated by a high similarity (>75%) of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments. Batch incubations at different temperatures resulted in microbial community changes. While the archaeal community composition differed significantly between incubations at 45 and 55°C, the bacterial composition changed between 37 and 45°C. Overall the bacterial community was dominated by Firmicutes (68% of the clones) and Delta-Proteobacteria (17% of the clones). A sequential degradation of first butyrate and then propionate at 37°C was linked to strong presence of Syntrophomonas sp. and Desulfobulbus propionicus, respectively. MPN series allowed estimating the number of micro-organisms per ml sludge that could use propionate without sulphate (109), propionate and sulphate (105), butyrate without sulphate (108), butyrate with sulphate (105), glucose (109) and H2/CO2 (1010). Archaea were mainly dominated by Methanosaeta, but also Crenarchaeota-relatives were identified. Bacterial clone sequences were related to a variety of different known species, with expected functions in anaerobic digestion like fermentative bacteria, syntrophic short chain fatty acids oxidisers and SRB. However, about 80% of the clones was similar to sequences in the database without close cultured relatives, but many of these appeared to be present in anaerobic environments. It is important to improve knowledge of these unknown micro-organisms and fast accurate monitoring and identification could be instrumental in realising this. Therefore, a pilot macro-array was developed and tested. It appeared that combining probes generated by PCR amplification of the V1 and V6 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene provided accurate differentiation of closely related organisms. The integrated application of molecular and cultivation dependent analyses of microbiota structure and function of a broad variety of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems described in this thesis has been used to improve insight of the ecophysiology in such reactors. Some general commonalities of anaerobic systems have been found, but also system-specific characteristics. This provides potential identification of general and system-specific indicator populations, allowing improved diagnostics and reactor predictability.
Fate of estrogens in biological treatment of concentrated black water
Mes, T.Z.D. de - \ 2007
University. Promotor(en): Gatze Lettinga, co-promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman; Katarzyna Kujawa. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047537 - 154 p.
oestrogenen - oestrogene eigenschappen - rioolslib - waterverontreiniging - afvalwaterbehandeling - hormonen - biologische behandeling - riolering - oestrogens - oestrogenic properties - sewage sludge - water pollution - waste water treatment - hormones - biological treatment - sewerage
Feminisation of male fish is for a large part due to compounds entering surface waters via wastewater. For domestic wastewater, two natural estrogens, estrone and 17-estradiol and the synthetic estrogen, constituent of the contraceptive pill, are mainly responsible for this effect. These compounds are excreted by humans and in conventional treatment systems sometimes insufficiently removed. A solution can be found in the implementation of innovative sanitation concepts like source separated collection and treatment of black water (toilet), grey water (shower, kitchen, laundry) and rain. As the three compounds will be mainly present in black water, contamination by storm water overflows is completely excluded and the concentrated character of the wastewater allows for more energy efficient treatment systems. Present research showed the first step, anaerobic treatment where energy is as well produced as conserved, is unfavourable to satisfactory remove these compounds and the aerobic post-treatment only partly. As the volume of the stream is remarkably smaller compared to conventional systems (7 liter black water per person per day against 200 liter wastewater per person per day), a necessary tertiary treatment, for which ozonation is promising, will be more compact. Besides, current research shed light on several parameters influencing the degradation of estrogens in biological systems
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