- F. Dentener (1)
- R.F. Funk (1)
- Y.H. Hu (1)
- V. Huijnen (1)
- M. Kahnert (1)
- T. Krebs (1)
- M.C. Krol (1)
- Q. Lan (1)
- L. Lin (1)
- G.M.J. Mohren (1)
- E.H. Nes van (1)
- L. Poorter (1)
- J.L. Rajot (1)
- M. Schaap (1)
- M. Scheffer (1)
- C.G.P.H. Schroën (1)
- R. Scott Van Pelt (1)
- J.W.F. Slik (1)
- M. Sofiev (1)
- G. Sterk (1)
- J.E. Stout (1)
- N. Velden van der (1)
- E. Vignati (1)
- M. Vlam (1)
- T.M. Zobeck (1)
- P.A. Zuidema (1)
Monodominance of Parashorea chinensis on fertile soils in a Chinese tropical rain forest
Velden, N. van der; Slik, J.W.F. ; Hu, Y.H. ; Lan, Q. ; Lin, L. ; Deng, X.B. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2014
Journal of Tropical Ecology 30 (2014)4. - ISSN 0266-4674 - p. 311 - 322.
tree species composition - size distributions - diversity - mexico - xishuangbanna - phosphorus - mechanisms - vegetation - responses - guyana
Monodominance in the tropics is often seen as an unusual phenomenon due to the normally high diversity in tropical rain forests. Here we studied Parashorea chinensis H. Wang (Dipterocarpaceae) in a seasonal tropical forest in south-west China, to elucidate the mechanisms behind its monodominance. Twenty-eight 20 × 20-m plots were established in monodominant and mixed forest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province. All individuals =1 cm stem diameter and 16 soil variables were measured. Parashorea chinensis forest had a significantly higher mean tree dbh compared with mixed forest. Diversity did not differ significantly between the two forest types. However, within monodominant patches, all diversity indices decreased with an increase in P. chinensis dominance. Floristic composition of P. chinensis forest did differ significantly from the mixed forest. These differences were associated with more fertile soils (significantly higher pH, Mn, K and lower carbon pools and C:N ratio) in the P. chinensis forest than the mixed forest. In contrast to current paradigms, this monodominant species is not associated with infertile, but with fertile soils. Parashorea chinensis seems to be especially associated with high manganese concentrations which it can tolerate, and with edaphic conditions (water, K) that allow this tall and exposed emergent species to maintain its water balance. This is in contrast with most previous studies on monodominance in the tropics that found either no effect of soil properties, or predict associations with nutrient-poor soils.
Understanding recruitment failure in tropical tree species: Insights from a tree ring study
Vlam, M. ; Baker, P.J. ; Bunyavejchewin, S. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Zuidema, P.A. - \ 2014
Forest Ecology and Management 312 (2014). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 108 - 116.
mahogany swietenia-macrophylla - big-leaf mahogany - historical stand dynamics - western thailand - rain-forests - disturbance history - size distributions - amazon forest - canopy tree - large-scale
Many tropical tree species have population structures that exhibit strong recruitment failure. While the presence of adult trees indicates that appropriate regeneration conditions occurred in the past, it is often unclear why small individuals are absent. Knowing how, when and where these tree species regenerate provides insights into their life history characteristics. Based on tree age distributions inferences can be made on past forest dynamics and information is obtained that is important for forest management. We used tree-ring analyses to obtain tree ages and reconstruct >200 years of estimated establishment rates in a sparsely regenerating population of Afzelia xylocarpa (Fabaceae), a light-demanding and long-lived canopy tree species. We sampled all 85 Afzelia trees >5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) in a 297-ha plot in a seasonal tropical forest in the Huai Kha Khaeng (HKK) Wildlife Sanctuary, western Thailand. The age distribution of the sampled Afzelia trees revealed two distinct recruitment peaks centred around 1850 and 1950. The presence of distinct age cohorts provides a strong indication of disturbance-mediated recruitment. Additionally we found three lines of evidence supporting this interpretation. (1) Similarly aged trees were spatially aggregated up to ~500 m, a scale larger than single tree-fall gaps. (2) High juvenile growth rates (5–10 mm dbh year-1) of extant small and large trees indicate that recruitment took place under open conditions. (3) A significant positive correlation between tree age and local canopy height indicates that trees recruited in low-canopy forest patches. Likely causes of these severe canopy disturbances include windstorms and ground fires, which are common in the region. In addition, successful establishment seems to be favoured by wetter climate conditions, as the estimated establishment rate was correlated to the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Thus, the co-occurrence of canopy disturbance and favourable climatic conditions may provide a window of opportunity for Afzelia establishment. Our results indicate that forest patches with occurrence of large Afzelia trees have undergone high-severity canopy disturbance prior to establishment, suggesting that these disturbances have shaped forests at HKK. Tree-ring analyses provide a powerful tool to understanding tropical tree establishment patterns. Rare, high-severity canopy disturbances may play a key role in the regeneration of long-lived tropical canopy tree species with recruitment failure, potentially in interaction with climate variability to determine variation in establishment success over decades or centuries.
A microfluidic method to study demulsification kinetics
Krebs, T. ; Schroën, C.G.P.H. ; Boom, R.M. - \ 2012
Lab on a Chip 12 (2012)6. - ISSN 1473-0197 - p. 1060 - 1070.
simple shear-flow - size distributions - oil-emulsions - break-up - coalescence - drops - droplets - fluid - surfactants - suspensions
We present the results of experiments studying droplet coalescence in a dense layer of emulsion droplets using microfluidic circuits. The microfluidic structure allows direct observation of collisions and coalescence events between oil droplets dispersed in water. The coalescence rate of a flowing hexadecane-in-water emulsion was measured as a function of the droplet velocity and droplet concentration from image sequences measured with a high-speed camera. A trajectory analysis of colliding droplet pairs allows evaluation of the film drainage profile and coalescence time t(c.) The coalescence times obtained for thousands of droplet pairs enable us to calculate coalescence time distributions for each set of experimental parameters, which are the mean droplet approach velocity (v(0)), the mean dispersed phase fraction (f) and the mean hydraulic diameter of a droplet pair (d(p)). The expected value E(t(c)) of the coalescence time distributions scales as E(t(c)) is proportional to (v(0))(-0.105±0.043)(d(p))(0.562±0.287), but is independent of f. We discuss the potential of the procedure for the prediction of emulsion stability in industrial applications
The European aerosol budget in 2006
Brugh, J.M.J. Aan de; Schaap, M. ; Vignati, E. ; Dentener, F. ; Kahnert, M. ; Sofiev, M. ; Huijnen, V. ; Krol, M.C. - \ 2011
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11 (2011)3. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 1117 - 1139.
general-circulation model - evaluation program emep - light absorbing carbon - air-pollution - sulfuric-acid - sea-salt - tropospheric aerosols - 3-dimensional model - size distributions - particulate matter
This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension). We model that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95%) and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%). We model transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we underestimate the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match), while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional) aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study
Self-organized similarity, the evolutionary emergence of groups of similar species
Scheffer, M. ; Nes, E.H. van - \ 2006
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (2006)16. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 6230 - 6235.
character displacement - size distributions - niche shift - competition - communities - diversity - models - plankton - ecology - biodiversity
Ecologists have long been puzzled by the fact that there are so many similar species in nature. Here we show that self-organized clusters of look-a-likes may emerge spontaneously from coevolution of competitors. The explanation is that there are two alternative ways to survive together: being sufficiently different or being sufficiently similar. Using a model based on classical competition theory, we demonstrate a tendency for evolutionary emergence of regularly spaced lumps of similar species along a niche axis. Indeed, such lumpy patterns are commonly observed in size distributions of organisms ranging from algae, zooplankton, and beetles to birds and mammals, and could not be well explained by earlier theory. Our results suggest that these patterns may represent self-constructed niches emerging from competitive interactions. A corollary of our findings is that, whereas in species-poor communities sympatric speciation and invasion of open niches is possible, species-saturated communities may be characterized by convergent evolution and invasion by look-a-likes
Measurement and data analysis methods for field-scale wind erosion studies and model validation
Zobeck, T.M. ; Sterk, G. ; Funk, R.F. ; Rajot, J.L. ; Stout, J.E. ; Scott Van Pelt, R. - \ 2003
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28 (2003). - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 1163 - 1188.
crushing-energy meter - aeolian sand traps - size distributions - soil properties - dust emission - saltating particles - aggregate abrasion - columbia plateau - transport - sediment
Accurate and reliable methods of measuring windblown sediment are needed to confirm, validate, and improve erosion models, assess the intensity of aeolian processes and related damage, determine the source of pollutants, and for other applications. This paper outlines important principles to consider in conducting field-scale wind erosion studies and proposes strategies of field data collection for use in model validation and development. Detailed discussions include consideration of field characteristics, sediment sampling, and meteorological stations. The field shape used in field-scale wind erosion research is generally a matter of preference and in many studies may not have practical significance. Maintaining a clear non-erodible boundary is necessary to accurately determine erosion fetch distance. A field length of about 300 m may be needed in many situations to approach transport capacity for saltation flux in bare agricultural fields. Field surface conditions affect the wind profile and other processes such as sediment emission, transport, and deposition and soil erodibility. Knowledge of the temporal variation in surface conditions is necessary to understand aeolian processes. Temporal soil properties that impact aeolian processes include surface roughness, dry aggregate size distribution, dry aggregate stability, and crust characteristics. Use of a portable 2 tall anemometer tower should be considered to quantify variability of friction velocity and aerodynamic roughness caused by surface conditions in field-scale studies. The types of samplers used for sampling aeolian sediment will vary depending upon the type of sediment to be measured. The Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) and Modified Wilson and Cooke (MWAC) samplers appear to be the most popular for field studies of saltation. Suspension flux may be measured with commercially available instruments after modifications are made to ensure isokinetic conditions at high wind speeds. Meteorological measurements should include wind speed and direction, air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, rain amount, soil temperature and moisture. Careful consideration of the climatic, sediment, and soil surface characteristics observed in future field-scale wind erosion studies will ensure maximum use of the data collected.