Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Pionieren : De impact van innovatieve maatschappelijke initiatieven op een natuur-inclusieve samenleving
Salverda, I.E. ; Dam, R.I. van; Pleijte, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 64 p.
natuur - samenleving - participatie - stedelijke gebieden - sport - lopen - burgers - fondsgelden - weidevogels - bodem - nederland - nature - society - participation - urban areas - walking - citizens - funding - grassland birds - soil - netherlands
Philosophical explorations on energy transition
Geerts, Robert-Jan - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bart Gremmen; Guido Ruivenkamp, co-promotor(en): Josette Jacobs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430487 - 172
philosophy - technology - sustainable energy - renewable energy - social change - energy consumption - quality - society - energy - filosofie - technologie - duurzame energie - hernieuwbare energie - sociale verandering - energiegebruik - kwaliteit - samenleving - energie

This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel technologies. Fossil energy sources and a growth-based economy have resulted in very specific energy practices, which will change in the future. Broader reflection is needed to understand how and in which direction such change is acceptable and desirable.

This reflection is initiated by articulating two pertinent problems with current energy practices that have thus far failed to receive appropriate attention in debates on energy transition: 1) the difficulty of dealing with intermittent sources in relation to the idea of cumulative accounting of energy consumption, and 2) the mismatch between expectations of ethical consumer behaviour in energy systems that discourage engagement.

To move forward, instead of assuming that all consumption is equivalent and that more is better, we must develop a better informed and more nuanced idea of 'good' energy practices that actually contribute to our quality of life. One often overlooked aspect of this may be 'embodied engagement', which would suggest that automation of tasks through energy-consuming technologies may be convenient, but also tends to lead to a loss of appreciation for both the task and its result. Some things, like creating a cozy environment around a fireplace, or climbing a mountain, are better partly because they take effort. In such cases, the 'efficiency' of the technology (e.g. the heat-pump, or the automobile) is besides the point - the question is whether it gives us anything of value at all.

Women’s participation in tourism in Zanzibar : an enactment perspective
Maliva, Nelly Samson - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Rene van der Duim, co-promotor(en): Karin Peters. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579231 - 206
tourism - zanzibar - participation - women - emancipation of women - labour - income - entrepreneurship - women workers - family life - society - tourist industry - swahili - standards - social values - gender relations - toerisme - participatie - vrouwen - vrouwenemancipatie - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - ondernemerschap - vrouwelijke werknemers - gezinsleven - samenleving - toeristenindustrie - normen - sociale waarden - man-vrouwrelaties

To shed more light on the position of women in tourism, in this thesis I examined the ways women in Zanzibar have incorporated working in tourism in their daily lives by comparing those who work in tourism as entrepreneurs with employees, working in hotels and restaurants. Conceptually my thesis is framed within Weick’s theory of enactment, with special focus on the concept of sensemaking. I used this particular framework to understand how women either reinforce or resist gendered identities by constantly ‘enacting’ their environments. My research showed that the position of women in Zanzibar is highly influenced by religion, marital status and level of education. However, since women make sense of the environment in different ways, perceive different opportunities and constraints, and on the basis of these make different choices, I recommended that programmes customised according to the differences among women should be developed. Second, I argued that these tailor-made programmes should focus on four interventions: education and training, working conditions, self-organisation and microcredit.

Bonding by doing : the dynamics of self-organizing groups of citizens taking charge of their living environment
Dam, R.I. van - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer; Andre van der Zande. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578975 - 188 p.
citizens - groups - public authorities - public domain - living conditions - social participation - democracy - governance - case studies - society - burgers - groepen - overheid - overheidsdomein - levensomstandigheden - sociale participatie - democratie - gevalsanalyse - samenleving

This thesis is about groups of citizens following their ideals and taking charge of their living environment. The research set out to investigate the practice of citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities, seen as groups of people who organize themselves, take action in the public domain, create public values and organize and manage their social, cultural and green living environment. The topicality of the concept of citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities—from empirical, normative and scientific perspectives—sparked an interest in investigating their actual practice: people’s reasons for getting involved, the meaning they assign to place and what people mean for places, the activities and the strategies, the (informal) organization, how the initiatives develop and the relations they entail. Besides investigating how citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities develop and achieve things, the research examines the implications for governance processes, and the role and approach of citizens and government organizations in these processes. A micro-perspective is used to focus on analysing how citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities act on the road from ideal to realization. Moreover, the practice of groups of citizens taking charge of their living environment is approached here from a relational perspective, focussing on questions around bonding processes and interaction, and the dynamics that come with them. As a consequence, the research questions are: (1) how do the dynamics within and between groups of people taking charge of their living environment and their surroundings manifest themselves? and (2) how do groups of people taking charge of their living environment affect governance processes and vice versa?

In this thesis, an interpretive research approach was chosen, based on case studies and the principles of openness and heterogeneity. The interpretive research approach made it possible to start with a general interest in the development of groups of people taking charge of their living environment and from there to delve deeper into the aspects that seemed relevant. Importantly, particularly given that this study focuses on people’s approaches and activities, this approach views the social as constructed in the intertwinement of action and meaning; it also values various ways in which meaning arises, including informal and less rational approaches and values. In total, seventeen cases of citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities are studied. Of these seventeen, one case is studied in great depth and at various points in time, another seven in moderate depth and nine cases are studied at a broader, more illustrative and exploratory level. The data was collected through a combination of interviews, casual conversations, participatory observation, non-participatory observation and learning network meetings, as well as a study of secondary material. The qualitative analysis took place in iterative phases in which several analytical concepts were applied. Triangulation was ensured by using a variety of methods and theories. The findings are presented in five empirical chapters (Chapters 2 to 6 of this thesis).

Chapter 2 describes a study in which the transition in societal organization from a heavy reliance on the state to self-organization is examined by analysing two self-organizing communities. The case studies of the ADM squatter community [Amsterdamse Doe-het-Zelf Maatschappij - Amsterdam do-it-yourself company] and the Golfresidence Dronten show how these communities of self-organizing citizens created their own residential arrangements and took the initiative in developing a unique spatial environment. The role self-organization plays differs depending on how the communities were established and the inhabitants’ motivations. There are also differences in the physical appearance of the two communities and the communities’ organization and rules. Although quite different self-organizing communities, both are manifestations of alternative living arrangements, both socially and spatially, and address the differences in citizens’ needs concerning living arrangements in society in general. As such, concluding remarks concern the value of and need for heterogeneity.

Chapter 3 presents an analysis of the social and spatial bonding processes affecting a squatter community who lived at Fort Pannerden for about seven years. Besides describing the relation between the squatters and the fort, the chapter analyses the influence of the squatters’ actions on the development of the fort and on the local community and local governmental organizations in terms of social and spatial bonding processes. It shows how a non-institutional actor—a squatter community—was able to breathe new life into a national monument that had been abandoned for several decades, reconnecting a cultural heritage site to society and vice versa.

Chapter 4 analyses the citizens’ initiatives Natural Area Grasweg and Collective Farmers of Essen and Aa’s in terms of their evolution, their organization and the strategies adopted. Strategies are understood as something people do, rather than something organizations and firms have. Natural Area Grasweg chose a formal approach for the organization of their initiative, adjusting it to institutional settings. For Collective Farmers of Essen and Aa’s, by contrast, it is an explicit goal to get local residents involved, fostering a sense of community and collectively improving the cultural historical landscape. Both cases are viewed here as the contingent product of a self-transforming organization, and a way of relating its internal processes to the outside world. The chapter analyses the ability of citizens’ initiatives to adapt and to mobilize, which makes them a powerful and relevant development in the governance area.

Chapter 5 focusses on the mutually activated process of subjectification in citizens’ initiatives. Analysing the citizens’ initiatives Lingewaard Natural, Border Experience Enschede and Residents’ Association and Action Committee Horstermeerpolder, it is argued that the discourses produced by governmental organizations on what it entails to be an active citizen have a performative effect on citizens’ initiatives, which adapt themselves, anticipate what is expected of them and act strategically with respect to these discourses.

Chapter 6 presents an exploratory study of the citizens’ initiatives Sustainable Soester quarter, Caetshage City Farm, Emma’s Court, Power of Utrecht, Beautiful Wageningen, Ecopeace, As We Speak, Canal Park Leiden and Harderwijk Steiner School Natural Playground. The study shows how the participatory society and information society come together at the community level. Regarding the role of information in how citizens’ initiatives operate and develop, it is concluded that informational capital is fundamental to the realization of citizens’ initiatives, that there is a dynamic between social capital, human capital and informational capital and that informational capital is generated, identified, used and enlarged through the relational strategies of bonding, bridging and linking. It is a process which works both ways and reinforces citizens’ initiatives.

Chapter 7 synthesizes the outcomes of the five chapters and provides an answer to the research questions. The research revealed four sets of dynamics in and between groups of people taking charge of their living environment. Firstly, there are the dynamics of the drivers causing citizens to take charge of their living environment. Citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities are triggered by an interplay of drivers that originate on the one hand in the citizens’ ideals and their intrinsic will to do something, and on the other hand in dissatisfaction with the current situation, whether locally, at the policy level or at a broader societal level. They often choose subjects close to their everyday lives but with a broader societal component. As a consequence, the interplay between public interest and self-interest is another important driver in how and why citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities operate. Secondly, in the operation, development and realization of groups of self-organizing citizens, there is a dynamic relationship between social capital, human capital and informational capital. These forms of capital can be seen as ‘resources’ that ‘feed’ the communities and initiatives. Social, human and informational capital are forms of capital related to a changing society in which citizens play a vital role in creating public values and where other, less tangible, forms of capital become important. The various forms of capital interact and can reinforce each other, contributing to the development of the initiatives. The third set of dynamics concerns the dynamics of the relational strategies of bonding, bridging and linking. Using the interrelated relational strategies, groups of people taking charge of their living environment connect with different actors, both institutional and non-institutional, at different times and levels of intensity. By establishing connections with others, citizens’ initiatives embed themselves in society. They interact with others, using and at the same time growing their social, human and informational capital. Fourthly, the dynamics between social and spatial bonding are revealed in groups of people taking charge of their living environment. Place turned out to be more than the context; often it is also part of the objective. The citizens in the initiatives connected with a place and thought and behaved in a certain way, but they also enabled others to connect (or reconnect) with a place and to think and act in a certain way in relation to the place. So these citizens mobilize and connect people. When groups of people take charge of their living environment, we clearly see that social bonding processes (bonding, bridging and linking) and spatial bonding processes (cognitive, affective and conative) are inextricably intertwined: they interact with, influence and reinforce one another. This can be symbolized by the double helix, two DNA strings twisted around each other.

Furthermore, the interaction in governance processes was dealt with by summarizing the patterns and mechanisms found in the interaction between self-organizing citizens and others, particularly between citizens and governmental organizations. A pattern was analysed in how the internal process of groups of citizens taking charge of their living environment relates to the outside world. In this process of self-transformation, the identity of a citizens’ initiative—seen broadly as how they define themselves and how they operate—is influenced by their interpretations of the immediate and relevant outside world, which in turn shapes their strategies. In this process of self-transformation, specifically in relation to governmental organizations, citizens’ initiatives tend to internalize the assumptions about what is considered important to the relevant governmental institutions, which often leads to them pursuing formal strategies and adopting a formal identity. The case studies showed that government officials often only tend to like those citizens’ initiatives that they can relate to, in terms of both content and form. Citizens’ initiatives that have other objectives, take a different course of action, have a different form or express a different opinion are often bullied or treated as irrelevant. This governmental dominancy is influenced in turn by the way citizens’ initiatives act and position themselves with respect to governmental organizations. They adapt, anticipate and act strategically with regard to their images of governmental organizations and their interpretations of these organizations’ wishes. In other words, they apply the techniques of adaptation, anticipation and framing themselves constructively. So in the practice of Dutch citizens’ initiatives, the initiators are both made subject and subject themselves to governmental organizations. The initiators can be labelled as obedient and submissive, but also as smart and strategic. This leads to the conclusion that there is teamwork going on between citizens and governmental organizations, in which there is a mutual reproduction of government thinking.

Assuming we want to move towards a more citizen-driven society, this thesis reveals that there is indeed a great deal of potential in citizens. Reflecting further on new practices, one can say both citizens and governmental institutions need to learn and to take the next step. There is a need for an interplay of forces in which all actors contribute in their own way to the joint creation of public values. Although the development of self-organization is also taking place on the continuum between citizens and the market, as well as in a variety of different combinations of these players, one can say that the way to go forward, specifically in the relationship between citizens and government, is to aim for an interplay in which ‘learning by doing’ is followed by ‘bonding by doing’. To conclude, groups of people taking charge of their living environment (or something else) is an expression of an informal and participatory democracy that is giving shape to democratic values. This ‘do-ocracy’ is not just an alternative but can also be a complementary form of democracy that meets a need related to democratic values. Democracy can be seen as an ongoing process which needs working on.

How to pursue quality of life
Antonides, G. - \ 2016
Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462573734 - 28 p.
well-being - income - consumption - society - western world - quality of life - welzijn - inkomen - consumptie - samenleving - westerse wereld - kwaliteit van het leven
Well-being, happiness or quality of life is a desirable life goal which can be pursued in many different ways.
Micropolitics in Resistance: The Micropolitics of Large-Scale Natural Resource Extraction in South East Asia
Rasch, E.D. ; Kohne, F.M. - \ 2016
Society & Natural Resources 29 (2016)4. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 479 - 492.
Micropolitics - resistance - natural resources - extraction - south east asia - society
This article analyzes Southeast Asian local communities’ resistance against the globalizing large-scale exploitation of natural resources using a micropolitical ecology approach. It focuses on how communities struggle for livelihoods, both resisting and appropriating globalized practices and narratives. Our ethnographic material encompasses natural resource conflicts in two communities: one on Sumatra (Indonesia) and one on Palawan (the Philippines). In both communities foreign and national companies have laid claims on community lands, transforming local power relations and wealth distribution as well as the relations of the communities vis-à-vis globalized production and the state. Communities often split over such transformations; some members negotiate a share in the globalized markets, while others organize resistance against these developments. The article argues that the specifics of this resistance against globalization can only be explained by taking into account the “micropolitics” within which they are produced, which calls for an ethnographic research approach to globalization.
De permanente groene revolutie van Swaminathan
Fresco, L.O. ; Rabbinge, R. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)3. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 66 - 71.
green revolution - genetic engineering - human feeding - hunger - food supply - scientific research - scientists - society - fertilizers - pesticides - environmental impact - india - netherlands - potatoes - wheat - groene revolutie - genetische modificatie - humane voeding - honger - voedselvoorziening - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - wetenschappers - samenleving - kunstmeststoffen - pesticiden - milieueffect - nederland - aardappelen - tarwe
Het weekblad Time kwalificeerde hem als een van de twintig meest invloedrijke Aziaten van de twintigste eeuw: ‘The father of the Green Revolution used his skills in genetic engineering and his powers of persuasion to make famine an unfamiliar word in Asia’. Tegelijkertijd wees hij al vroeg op de gevaren van een te grote afhankelijkheid van kunstmest en bestrijdingsmiddelen en milieugevolgen daarvan. Dr. Monkombu Sambasivan Swaminathan is een fervent pleitbezorger van de Evergreen Revolution, de permanente groene revolutie. Op 7 augustus werd hij 90 jaar. Louise Fresco en Rudy Rabbinge schetsen zijn enorme betekenis voor wetenschap en samenleving.
Fosforstromen door landbouw, industrie, huishoudens en afval
Curth-van Middelkoop, J.C. ; Dijk, W. van; Reuler, H. van; Ruijter, F.J. de; Smit, A.L. - \ 2015
V-focus 2015 (2015). - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 36 - 38.
fosfaat - kringlopen - landbouw en milieu - agro-industriële ketens - samenleving - afvalhergebruik - overschotten - afvalverwerking - bodemchemie - oppervlaktewater - dierlijke meststoffen - recycling - phosphate - cycling - agriculture and environment - agro-industrial chains - society - waste utilization - surpluses - waste treatment - soil chemistry - surface water - animal manures
Fosfaat: we horen de term vaak in combinatie met overschot. In de landbouw spelen voer, mest en land daar een rol in. Maar hoeveel fosfaat komt er vrij uit de maatschappij? Wat als we dat fosfaat willen recyclen voor landbouwkundige doeleinden? In een studie naar fosforstromen is nagegaan hoe groot de stromen in Nederland zijn.
Community based fish culture in the public and private floodplains of Bangladesh
Mahfuzul Haque, A.B. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): M.M. Dey. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574533 - 166
stroomvlakten - visteelt - ontwikkelingsstudies - ontwikkelingseconomie - samenleving - huishoudens - bangladesh - zuid-azië - floodplains - fish culture - development studies - development economics - society - households - south asia

Seasonal floodplains are water bodies that retain water for 5-6 months during which they are suitable to grow fish and other aquatic animals. Out of 2.8 million ha of medium and deep-flooded areas, about 1.5 million ha are estimated to be suitable for Community-Based Fish Culture (CBFC). WorldFish had undertaken a five-year interdisciplinary action research project from 2005-2010 with the overall aim of enhancing the productivity of seasonally occurring floodwaters for the improved and sustained benefit of the livelihoods of the poor. My involvement in this project was as PhD Scholar from 2007-2009 for understanding the different and complex institutional arrangements and its overall impact of governing Community-Based Fish Culture in seasonal floodplains for the sustainable use and maximization of benefits to the targeted people of Bangladesh.

Six seasonal floodplains in different areas of Bangladesh were selected under the action research project implemented by the Department of Fisheries in collaboration with the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council and the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute. For the action research which is the subject of this thesis, three seasonal floodplains were selected in the Brahamaputra, the Padma and the Teesta River Basins located at Mymensingh, Rajshahi and Rangpur districts, respectively. Another three floodplains were selected as control sites in the same river basins located near to the projects sites. The control sites were included in the economic study (Chapters 4 and 5) only. All the six floodplains belong to two types of ownership categories: public floodplains surrounded by private lands.

My thesis is broadly divided into a sociological and an economic part, mainly because of methodological differences. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discuss the institutional arrangements and the power and decision-making process of Community-Based Fish Culture management. Chapter 4 addresses the overall economic impact of technical and institutional arrangements of fish culture at both floodplain and household levels. We here employed a random effects model to estimate the impact of participation on fish income. Finally, in Chapter 5 the economic impact of community-based fish culture on expenditure inequality was measured at household level.

In the sociological part, three project floodplains covered the different institutional arrangements for managing the floodplains and maximizing their benefits to different classes of beneficiaries. Power relations between the various key actors or stakeholders were assessed who were directly or indirectly involved in the floodplain, and decision making processes in co-management practices were also studied at different institutional levels. Sociological research methods and techniques including semi-structured interviews, Focus Group Discussions, informal discussions with key informants, and
quantitative surveys were applied to gather data from Floodplain Management Committees, villagers and institutional stakeholders to investigate the use of the floodplain as a common property resource (CPR) and the processes of the formation of local institutions and organizations.

For the economic analysis of Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, three project floodplains and three control floodplains were selected for comparing the impact of the intervention at beneficiary level and also community level. Household survey data includes a baseline survey on socioeconomic information, three months monitoring on seasonal and monthly basis at community and household levels, as well as an assessment of the floodplains’ natural resource systems. The seasonal survey covered the changes in input use for crop production, changes in quality of output from the agricultural land and the effects of the intervention on crop production. A monthly survey on the 1st and 15th day of the month was conducted to capture the household consumption pattern, especially the frequency and quantity of fish and meat consumption.

Chapter 2 improves our understanding of the complex institutional relationships governing Community-Based Fish Culture in seasonal floodplains in Bangladesh. Formal institutional linkages between DoF, WorldFish Center and the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC) played a key role in ensuring success. DoF is a government institution with establishments at different administrative levels. Institutional embedding of DoF through the Fishers Cooperatives (FMC) as implementing institutions appeared highly instrumental. Large numbers of people, including landless poor seasonal fishers, professional landowning fishers, and non-fishing landowners benefited from the successful implementation of the CBFC activities in the floodplains. The outcomes demonstrate a significant increase in income to all classes of beneficiaries through income sharing derived from their involvement in the fisheries cooperatives and fish culture.

In case 2 and case 3 the floodplains under private ownership privately owned land is inundated during the monsoon season; these floodplains are similar in size, with comparable percentages of beneficiaries and similar numbers of communities surrounding the floodplains. However, the distribution of beneficiaries among the classes differs with more landowners than landless seasonal fishers benefitting. FMCs normally allow these non-members to access the floodplains, but only to harvest un-stocked fish using local gears, considering the importance of fishing to their livelihood. This means that the CPR character of the management by the FMCs shows a certain permissiveness or permeable boundary regarding landless non-members under strict spatial and temporal conditions. Regulation and conservation thus guarantee the availability of un-stocked small fish in the floodplains with a high catch by artisanal gears which results in higher incomes and related benefits to the poorer households. Households who own land or ditches in the floodplains do not depend on un-stocked fish as they can have ponds to trap and harvest fish obtained in the wild. Additionally, during the dry season, they may use land in lowland areas for crop production.

Case 1 of the public floodplain surrounded by private lands differs most from the private floodplain cases. Here, the public area is leased out to fishers during the monsoon, including the private land owned by the affluent and politically influential stakeholders. The floodplain is larger than in the other two cases, but both the percentages of landless fishers and of landowners are lower, making the class of the landowning professional fishers the majority among the beneficiaries.

Generally, the rules and regulations that apply to public and privately owned floodplains are written down in a Memorandum of Understanding between DoF and the individual FMC’s in a non-judicial construction. In their regular meetings the FMCs also document the everyday practices of the rules related to fish culture and management in the minutes that are distributed among its members. It appears that in the three cases, comparable rules and regulations for fish culture are applied to the public and to the private floodplains in operational rules, collective choice rule and constitutional rule.

Benefit sharing of the fish production from the floodplains was agreed at the start of project activities by all stakeholders, but their commitment varied between the classes of beneficiaries and across the cases. A significant increase of income for different stakeholders was derived from their involvement in fish culture. In the public floodplain fishers received around 40% of net income increase and the landowners received almost 38% of net income increase, as they had to pay the lease money for the floodplain. But in private floodplain all classes of stakeholders deposited around 25% of their net income in a revolving fund. The fishers group got their income from the final harvesting of fish as they received 50% of the price of the harvest of un-stocked fish and 10-15% of the stocked fish. The landowners received 45-50% of income according to their land. The landless seasonal fishers had open access to the non-stocked fish during the monsoon. Finally, the users of the public as well as the private floodplains contributed a small portion of their income to social work, like the building of a mosque or a Hindu temple.

Chapter 3 firstly assessed the power relations between the various key actors or stakeholders who were directly or indirectly involved in floodplain fisheries in the three sites. Secondly, their shifting power relations and decision making process in co-management practices were studied in the different institutional contexts of the three research sites during WorldFish project intervention. Instead of merely listing the institutions involved, we studied the actual power practices and decisions making processes between the stakeholders in the three cases to gain insight in the different governance models used in CBFC in Bangladesh. Existing co-management arrangements are characterized by unequal power distribution among the different actors, often resulting in the marginalization of the professional fishers and the landless poor fishers. I differentiated between two types of power in the management of floodplain aquaculture and stakeholder involvement, namely a) the power to create rules and decision making procedures, and b) the power to resolve disputes and ensure compliance. The Floodplain Management Committee (FMC) reviews the rules and regulations formulated by the government to complement the vision and roles of the institution, and if there is a need, modify them. Rules and regulations governing access to the public and privately owned floodplains were developed by the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and the FMC. A similar set of rules and regulations was applied to the public and the privately owned floodplains for fish culture. Most of the rules were derived from the national fisheries law. The rules and regulations that were applied to the floodplain were written down in a Memorandum of Understanding between DoF and FMC. Examples are rules and regulations about membership, leadership, boundary and access, allocation, penalties, input, and conflict resolution that were enforced for the management of community based-fish culture.

Magistrate courts at local level in Bangladesh have the power to decide on penalties for offenders in case of violation of the Government Fisheries Act of 2010 (DoF 2013) in the management of fisheries and aquaculture including the floodplain; a range of penalties is stipulated in the Offences and Penalties paragraph of the Act. In addition, in the case of both public and private floodplains, leaders of customary organizations have the authority and power to confiscate illegal nets and penalize offenders by charging monetary fines.

Governance in the context of Community-Based Fish Culture (CBFC) management addresses the dominancy of the land-owning group, informal sets of norms and traditions, and the social network and power relationships between stakeholders. In the public floodplain governance processes resulting in the formation of a responsive, accountable leadership and representative membership appeared vital for the success of CBFC. But, the establishment of successful CBFCs in public floodplains demands continuous institutional support from agencies such as the Department of Fisheries, because an increase in production and income also increases the risk of elite capture, and the possibility of an exploitative. In the private floodplain, there was no specific governance system in place to manage access and use of the floodplains during the wet season, as opposed to the dry months when the lands of the floodplain could be used by individual households for crop production. Thanks to greater accountability of the leaders, and more equal representation of the different stakeholders including active leadership and a supporting role of DOF, leadership problems were few and easily solved. Downward accountability was well established in addition to many efforts by the project.

Chapter 4 examined the overall impact on households involved through the WorldFish project in community-based fish culture in seasonal floodplains, particularly with respect to fish production, consumption, and income generation. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were deployed to examine the impact of Community-Based Fish Culture starting with a conceptual framework as to how positive impacts take effect. The overall fish production in the floodplains of the project appeared to have increased 274%. Due to project intervention introducing fish culture, 43% of the farmers used floodplain water to meet up irrigation needs instead of ground water and rice production increased by 18.9% for dry-season (Boro) rice and 28.9% for wet-season (Aman) rice in the project floodplain areas.

Increased income is an important economic incentive for the expansion of community-based fish culture in Bangladesh. Over that period, average income from fish production increased to USD 240 for all beneficiaries involved in the project, which is 237% higher than the income of beneficiaries in the control group. Results of the random effects model show that project-involved households significantly increased their fish income compared to the households of the control sites. Furthermore, total household income increased to about USD 175 per household for those who participated in the WorldFish project.

Fish availability increased in the project area from July to December. During these months approximately 68%-75% of the total fish consumption needs of the project beneficiaries could be fulfilled by the newly introduced fish culture in the floodplains. The consumption of nutritional food shows that per capita fish consumption of households in the project sites increased from 1.26 kg per capita per month in the baseline year to 2.31 kg per capita per month in 2009.

Apart from the direct effect on household income and food consumption, CBFC intervention also created the opportunity for employment, backward linkage, and access to market to sell harvested fish. Indirect benefits of the community based fish culture include reduced conflict; improved social capital and greater cooperation in the community.

Expenditure is a better measurement of welfare than income where most of the people are poor and struggle for food. In this study I therefore used data on expenditure instead of income. The results in Chapter 5 show that the CBFC project had a positive and significant impact on food expenditure, as well as on non-food (other basic needs) and overall total expenditure. The impact of CBFC on household expenditure and expenditure inequality was measured by using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method and Gini decomposition. Results revealed that the overall average food expenditure per year per household (for panel estimation) increased due to participation in the CBFC project from USD 93 to USD 141. Project participants were able to spend significantly more on food compared to non-participants. In addition, expenditure on food was increasing year by year. Moreover, participant households were capable to spend more compared to non-participants on non-food items like cloth, health, education, housing, transport etc. (from USD 45 to USD 74 per year). This non-food expenditure also gradually increased per year. Finally, total household expenditure of CBFC project participants was between USD 134 and USD 215 per year higher than the total expenditure of control households, which implies a better livelihood of the households involved in the project.

Gini index of total expenditure was found to be 0.34 and 0.40 for the CBFC project and control households respectively, which indicate that expenditure was equally distributed among households, but that it is more equally distributed among the CBFC households as compared to the control households. The expenditure inequality difference between the CBFC project and the control sites was 0.06, which implies that the CBFC management system helped to distribute total expenditure more equally among the surrounding communities.

Policy advice

For better management of the floodplain beels, the government may apply a similar policy for better utilization of the resources and for the economic benefits of the beneficiaries. Accountability, sustainable management of the floodplains, proper marketing of fish and equity in the distribution of benefits of the floodplains have proven to increase the productivity and ensure the accessibility of the poor and landless farmers, as long as elite capture is controlled.

Taking all CBFC project lessons into consideration, the Bangladesh government could indeed make some changes to their floodplain /wetland policy in order to accommodate the poor fishers and the landless poor. Policy (re)formulation may be needed for the dissemination of the CBO-based fish culture approach to scale-up its impact. In order to establish the rights of the CBOs (under the leadership of fishers) there is a need for modification of the policy of leasing of public floodplains. The major issues to be included are to bring private and public floodplains under CBO management; to secure government support for the registration of the CBOs and the strengthening of the institution; to guarantee that CBOs obtain long term (10-15 years or more) lease of the public areas of the floodplains as priority; to support small infrastructure constructions in the outlet and inlets of the floodplains; and to develop a functional model for the scaling-up (influencing policy) and scaling-out of the CBO fish culture approach in Bangladesh.

Future research

To assess the effectiveness of the scaling-up of the innovation in Community-Based Fish Culture in public and private floodplains, using a CBO to CBO approach will have to be developed with the support and facilitation from formal institutions. This will be considered as the subject of future research.

Aspirations and everyday life of single migrant women in Ghana
Tufuor, T. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Hilje van der Horst; Chizu Sato. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575578 - 187
migratie - rurale migratie - ruraal-urbane migratie - platteland - stedelijke gebieden - vrouwen - man-vrouwrelaties - samenleving - gezinsstructuur - ghana - west-afrika - migration - rural rural migration - rural urban migration - rural areas - urban areas - women - gender relations - society - family structure - west africa

Female labour migrants in West Africa including Ghana have been widely perceived as followers of male relatives. Since the late 1990s, the increasing movement of young women to cities in the region has drawn attention to this phenomenon and this study discovered females as actors in the migration process. Women have been moving from the rural North to the urban South, especially to Accra, to live in the city’s slums. Their migrations are not associational; these journeys are now independently pursued by women with aspirations to realise their ideals of a better life. Female migrations make up a growing share of migrant labour streams within Ghana. Among the migrants who arrive in Accra every day there is an increasing number of single young women as well as divorced women and neglected as wives from the North of Ghana. Economic explanations do not fully account for such moves, because men and women perform different productive and reproductive roles within the northern households. The varying degrees of gender and intra-household inequality and the women’s anticipation of life changes after migration spur the motivations and aspirations behind the journeys.

This study on single migrant women (SMW) was conducted in two sites. The first site was in four districts in the Northern Region with its capital Tamale. The Dagomba are the pre­dominant ethnic group here. They practise subsistence farming and most of them are Muslims. The second study site was the Old Fadama (OF) market in Accra. By tracking the migrant women from the North to OF, the study connected the spaces of area of origin and area of destination in the migration process. A mixed-methods approach was applied in data collection, combining qualitative methods such as focus group discussion, case study and life history with a survey in the OF market.

While in the past the restrictions on women’s sexuality and autonomy prevented women from migrating alone, now northern households provide an incentive for young women to migrate. The women cited a gain in autonomy and freedom as the most important motivation for their move. In the household of their fathers or future husbands in the North, their autonomy is constrained. However, through their earnings in Accra, the women prepare themselves for an expensive religious marriage ceremony, invest in housing or education and also buy modern goods. Young migrant women from the rural Dagomba communities primarily engage in accumulating goods for their dowry, whereas older women accumulate capital for investment in their children’s education. The older women who have no plans anymore of returning to the North to marry, especially those who are successful in Accra and have achieved the status of ‘market mummies’, seek enjoyment in the present but also use their wealth to secure construction of rooms of their own in the North. The women save money, assemble housewares and send remittances with their own independent income.

In Accra, most young women engage in petty trading. In the OF market in Accra these single migrant women from the North generate livelihoods through the adoption of both market and non-market based strategies by extending and prioritising moral obligations to community members beyond their immediate households, instead of just focusing on maximisation of profits. Communities of old and young market women have built a ‘moral community economy’ through, among others, engaging in reciprocal labour, gift giving, and childcare and food sharing. This contributes positively to household food security and social well-being among the market women and migrant settlers in the OF community. SMW’s livelihood generation is sustained through social relations among women, in which also age, ethnicity and regional background play crucial roles. SMW give support to and receive benefits from the community through moral obligations and ethnic commitment. The analysis of these strategies contributes to the understanding of the intersections of household, livelihood strategies, gender and markets in urban settings.

In Accra, these women not only need to find income earning activities, they also have to reinvent themselves as consumers because of the abundant and varied consumption options in Accra as compared to the North. Through consumption of food, hairdos and leisure activities, they shape their new urban identities. However, through consumption they also try to secure the desired next phase in their life course. Despite earning very modest amounts of money with activities such as hawking or food vending, SMW save for their future and adapt their consumption to enable such savings. They save in money and in kind, buying items to set up their own hearths in the North for the preparation of meals, an iconic married woman’s activity, and to be able to enter a preferred, i.e. religious, marriage. They also spend money on dressing, styling their hairdos and looking good in order to attract suitable marriage candidates. Alternatively, the successful older women in the market place invest in conspicuous consumption to enact their informal position of ‘market mummies’, women who are well established and suitable mentors to more recent arrivals. The women shape their own life courses through consumption. The consumption practices SMW engage in are crucial for understanding the dynamics of single migrant women’s agency.

After migration, SMW are more likely to exert influence on the timing of their marriage and the choice of the partner. In the place of origin there are transformations of the gendered subjectivities women experience after having produced livelihoods away from home. The investigation of the reintegration experience of SMW who return to their place of origin revealed the everyday experience of returned migrant women within their households in rural northern Ghana. The study found the household to be an ‘arena of everyday life’; the word arena indicates dynamics and even struggle. These are visible in the provision for daily needs, and also in the income generating activities the women try to initiate to exercise their agency in generating livelihood. In this household arena, we recognized the gender dynamics around decision-making on livelihood generation as key to under­standing the reintegration experience of returned migrant women. The analysis drew on feminist geographers’ insights of gender as process situated in a specific place. Critical attention was paid to how gender and household are co-constituted, to shed light on the multiple and contradictory ways in which gender, livelihood, and household are constructed.

Applying the lens of gender as situated process enabled capturing the significance of everyday micro transformations, resulting in a framework that wove together the domains of gender, household and livelihood. Contingent formations of intra-household dynamics revealed variations in the ways subjection and activation are enacted. The boundaries of women’s triple shifts (household work, farming, income generation) are not fixed but are constantly negotiated. On an everyday basis women have to juggle multiple subjectivities, such as being wives, daughters-in-law, mothers and petty commodity producers and traders. They do the work their husbands and senior women require them to do in order to secure their marriage, which is considered a lifelong security in this specific context, but they try to set limits to this work.

The general conclusion this study highlights is that the young women in the North successfully negotiate to realize their aspirations to migrate and, upon return, both subject themselves to the domestic and patriarchal order and contest it by using the means and skills they acquired to improve their bargaining position. This causes cracks in the prevailing order, which suggest the malleability of the patriarchal system. The observed processes underpin the relevance of conceptualising migration as an intrinsic factor in broader processes of development and social transformation.

ADAA end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-030) - 70
agricultural development - development projects - civil society - society - empowerment - ethiopia - east africa - africa - landbouwontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsprojecten - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the African Development Aid Organisation (ADAA) that is a partner of Stichting Kinderpostzegels Nederland (SKN). It assesses ADAA’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia and it uses the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which ADAA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain OSSA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
Education for Development Association (EfDA) end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Hofstede, M. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-073) - 60
civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - ethiopia - east africa - africa - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Ethiopian Education for Development Association (EfDA) that is a partner of Edukans Foundation under the Connect4Change (C4C) Consortium. It assesses EfDA’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which EfDA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain EfDA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
EKHC end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-033) - 78
rural development - civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - ethiopia - east africa - africa - plattelandsontwikkeling - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of Ethiopian Kale Heywit Church (EKHC) in Ethiopia is a partner of Tear Fund Netherlands under the ICCO Alliance. It assesses EKHC’s efforts to strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia based upon the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which EKHC contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain EKHC’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
Ethiopian Rural Self-Help Association (ERSHA) end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Hofstede, M. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI Rapporten CDI-15-072) - 58
rural development - self help - groups - society - civil society - empowerment - ethiopia - east africa - africa - plattelandsontwikkeling - zelfhulp - groepen - samenleving - maatschappelijk middenveld - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Ethiopian Rural Self-Help Association (ERSHA) that is a partner of ICCO and IICD under the Connect4Change (C4C) Consortium. It assesses ERSHA’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia based upon the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which ERSHA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain ERSHA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
JeCCDO end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-070) - 70
civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - ethiopia - east africa - africa - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Jerusalem Children and Community Development Organisation (JeCCDO) that is a partner of Edukans Foundation under the ICCO alliance. It assesses JeCCDO’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which JeCCDO contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain JeCCDO’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
MKC-RDA end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-069) - 70
civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - ethiopia - east africa - africa - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of Meserete Kristos Church – Relief and Development Association (MKC-RDA) in Ethiopia is a partner of Tear Fund and ICCO under the ICCO Alliance. It assesses MKC-RDA’s efforts to strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia and for this exercise it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which EKHC contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain EKHC’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
OSSA end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-019) - 75
civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - ethiopia - east africa - africa - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Ethiopian Organisation for Social Services for AIDS (OSSA) that is a partner of Cordaid. It assesses OSSA’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which OSSA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain OSSA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
RiPPLE end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-028) - 20
civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - ethiopia - east africa - africa - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Research Inspired Policy and Practice Learning in Ethiopia and the Nile Region (RiPPLE) that is a partner of the WASH alliance. It assesses RiPPLE’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia and it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which RiPPLE contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain RiPPLE’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
REDS end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Desalos, C.B. ; Hofstede, M. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. ; Madaan, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-076) - 78
civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - india - south asia - asia - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - zuid-azië - azië
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of Rural Education for Development Society (REDS) in India that is a partner of ICCO. It assesses REDS’ contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in India for which it used the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which REDS contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain REDS’ role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
Network of Northeast Tribes (NNET) end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Desalos, C.B. ; Wadhwa, S. ; Madaan, A. ; Kalra, A. ; Prasad Mohapatra, B. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-063) - 81
civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - india - south asia - asia - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - zuid-azië - azië
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Network of Northeast Tribes (NNET) in India that is a partner of Mensen met een Missie. It assesses NNET’s efforts in strengthening Civil Society in India based upon the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2013. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which CSA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain CSA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
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