Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==soil management
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Soil Physical Quality of Citrus Orchards Under Tillage, Herbicide, and Organic Managements
Prima, Simone di; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús ; Novara, Agata ; Iovino, Massimo ; Pirastru, Mario ; Keesstra, Saskia ; Cerdà, Artemi - \ 2018
Pedosphere 28 (2018)3. - ISSN 1002-0160 - p. 463 - 477.
Beerkan estimation of soil transfer parameter - capacitive indicator - organic farming - soil management - soil quality assessment - structural stability index

Soil capacity to support life and to produce economic goods and services is strongly linked to the maintenance of good soil physical quality (SPQ). In this study, the SPQ of citrus orchards was assessed under three different soil managements, namely no-tillage using herbicides, tillage under chemical farming, and no-tillage under organic farming. Commonly used indicators, such as soil bulk density, organic carbon content, and structural stability index, were considered in conjunction with capacitive indicators estimated by the Beerkan estimation of soil transfer parameter (BEST) method. The measurements taken at the L'Alcoleja Experimental Station in Spain yielded optimal values for soil bulk density and organic carbon content in 100% and 70% of cases for organic farming. The values of structural stability index indicated that the soil was stable in 90% of cases. Differences between the soil management practices were particularly clear in terms of plant-available water capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Under organic farming, the soil had the greatest ability to store and provide water to plant roots, and to quickly drain excess water and facilitate root proliferation. Management practices adopted under organic farming (such as vegetation cover between the trees, chipping after pruning, and spreading the chips on the soil surface) improved the SPQ. Conversely, the conventional management strategies unequivocally led to soil degradation owing to the loss of organic matter, soil compaction, and reduced structural stability. The results in this study show that organic farming has a clear positive impact on the SPQ, suggesting that tillage and herbicide treatments should be avoided.

What drives farmers to increase soil organic matter? Insights from the Netherlands
Hijbeek, R. ; Pronk, A.A. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Berge, H.F.M. ten; Bijttebier, J. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2018
Soil Use and Management 34 (2018)1. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 85 - 100.
farmers’ behaviour - farmers’ intentions - organic materials - soil conservation - soil management - soil organic matter - theory of planned behaviour

Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important resource base for arable farming. For policies on SOM to be effective, insight is needed on why and under which conditions farmers are willing to increase SOM content. This study used the theory of planned behaviour to analyse what prevents or encourages Dutch farmers to increase the SOM content of their fields. In an online survey, 435 arable farmers were asked questions to understand their attitude (perceived benefits), subjective norm (social pressure) and perceived behavioural control (anticipated impediments and obstacles) related to management of SOM. Farmers’ answers were related to their intention to increase SOM content, use of organic materials and perceived increase in SOM content. Our results showed that Dutch farmers are well aware of the possible benefits of SOM content for crop productivity. Farmers’ attitude, subjective norm and perceived decrease in SOM content were significantly related to their intention to increase SOM content. In our farm survey, this intention was very strong: 90% of the farmers stated a high or very high intention to increase the SOM content of their fields. A higher intention to increase SOM content was correlated with the use of organic materials as expressed as total and effective C (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively), but this did not lead to a perceived increase in SOM content. From a farmer's point of view, this indicates that increasing SOM content is to a large degree beyond their direct influence. The Dutch Manure and Fertiliser Act, costs of organic inputs and the need to cultivate profitable crops (such as potatoes or sugar beet) were indicated as important impeding factors for increasing SOM content.

Ploeg- en omzetverbod van blijvend grasland in Natura 2000-gebieden : beoordeling ecologische en milieu- effecten van eventuele opheffing in de Wieden Weerribben
Doorn, Anne ; Broekmeijer, Mirjam ; Schotman, Alex ; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Geertsema, Willemien ; Korevaar, Hein ; Melman, Dick ; Schuiling, Rini - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2832) - 59
natura 2000 - bodembeheer - permanente graslanden - milieueffect - ecologische beoordeling - nederland - soil management - permanent grasslands - environmental impact - ecological assessment - netherlands
A comprehensive assessment of agriculture in lowlands of south Brazil: characterization and comparison of current and alternative concepts
Theisen, Giovani - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Niels Anten, co-promotor(en): Lammert Bastiaans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436380 - 234
cropping systems - farming systems - crop management - lowland areas - wetlands - pampas - brazil - intensification - sustainability - productivity - indicators - soil management - rice - flooded rice - oryza sativa - maize - zea mays - glycine max - cover crops - livestock - rotation - mixed farming - seedbed preparation - farm machinery - teeltsystemen - bedrijfssystemen - gewasteelt - laaglandgebieden - pampa's - brazilië - intensivering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - productiviteit - indicatoren - bodembeheer - rijst - natte rijst - maïs - dekgewassen - vee - rotatie - gemengde landbouw - zaaibedbereiding - landbouwwerktuigen

Agriculture in the lowlands of south Brazil is of strategic importance at the national level, since it supplies around 80% of the rice consumed by the Brazilian population. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state in Brazil, three million hectares of lowlands are ready for grain-based agriculture. Of this area, about half is fallow, partly used for cattle grazing, and irrigated rice is the predominant crop, cultivated annually on 1.1 million ha. The remaining area is used for soybean and other crops. The predominant cropping system is a combination of irrigated rice and cattle. Over the last decades, rice yields have steadily increased, but this rise in yield level has to a large extent been obtained at the expense of a continuously higher use of external inputs. The recent introduction of soybean in rotation with rice has partially improved the system, but in most areas the situation is becoming incompatible with the modern demands for sustainability. This thesis presents a long-term study (2006-2015) of five cropping systems for lowlands. Next to monocrop rice and two rice-soybean rotations conducted in either conventional or minimum tillage, the experiment contained two novel systems based on large ridges, on which soybean and maize were combined with either cover crops or crop-livestock integration in winter. In these last systems, 8-m-wide ridges were built to avoid flooding, thus allowing for diversification of cash crops and the cultivation of cover crops or pastures in winter time, as well as the use of no-tillage. All systems were evaluated at process-level, including soil preparation, seeding, plant nutrition, pest management, irrigation, harvesting, transport and cattle management, as well as regarding their performance for the different dimensions of sustainability, particularly environment, land productivity, economics, energy-use and labour. Next to system assessment, two additional experiments were conducted for the evaluation of two specific technologies for soil management in these areas. Crop livestock integration on the ridge-based system offered the best balance between food production, environmental impact and economics. This system is well suited to be used in fields that are kept fallow, thereby enlarging the agricultural productivity of the lowlands. The additional experiments revealed that a knife-roller can successfully substitute plough-and-harrow for soil preparation after rice harvest, and that germination of weed seeds can be reduced if crop seeding is conducted at a lower speed or using a no-tillage seeder equipped with an improved cutting mechanism. Overall the results show that by using alternative cropping systems that allow for diversification and new methods of field management it is possible to simultaneously attain a larger agricultural production and improved sustainability in the lowlands.

On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming
Hijbeek, Renske - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Hein ten Berge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436632 - 211
soil fertility - soil fertility management - soil management - soil conservation - organic matter - soil organic matter - nitrogen - nitrogen fertilizers - green manures - manures - straw - soil carbon sequestration - cover crops - crop yield - yields - meta-analysis - food security - europe - drivers - barriers - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - bodembeheer - bodembescherming - organische stof - organisch bodemmateriaal - stikstof - stikstofmeststoffen - groenbemesters - mest - stro - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - dekgewassen - gewasopbrengst - opbrengsten - meta-analyse - voedselzekerheid - europa - chauffeurs - barrières

The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in mineral fertiliser. In addition, a farm survey was conducted to find drivers and barriers for the use of organic inputs and to assess if arable farmers in Europe perceive a deficiency of SOM.

The findings in this thesis suggest that at least on the shorter term, on average, there seems to be no immediate threat from a deficiency of SOM to crop production in arable farming in Europe. The long-term experiments showed that with sufficient use of only mineral fertilisers, on average, similar yields could be attained over multiple years as with the combined use of organic inputs and mineral fertiliser. This was reflected in the farm survey, in which a large majority of farmers indicated not to perceive a deficiency of SOM. Analysis of long-term experiments also showed that more mineral fertiliser N was saved when using farmyard manure at high N rates (with mineral fertiliser application) than at low N rates (without mineral fertiliser application), based on comparisons at equal yield.

Specific crops and environments did benefit from organic inputs and more SOM in terms of crop production. Long-term experiments showed that organic inputs give benefit to crop production in wet climates and on sandy soils. In addition, farmers perceived a higher deficiency of SOM on steep slopes, sandy soils, wet and very dry climates. The additional yield effect of organic inputs was significant for potatoes. More in general, farmers who cultivated larger shares of their land with specialized crops (including potatoes, sugar beets, onions and other vegetables) than cereals perceived a higher deficiency of SOM. It seems that while the functions of SOM can be replaced with technical means to a large extent (e.g. tillage, use of mineral fertilisers), there are limits to this technical potential when environmental conditions are more extreme and crops are more demanding.

The farm survey revealed that farmers perceive a trade-off between improved soil quality on the one hand and increased pressures from weeds, pests and diseases and financial consequences on the other hand when using organic inputs. If policies aim to stimulate the maintenance or increase of SOM, more insight is needed into the conditions that regulate the pressures of weeds, pests and diseases in response to organic inputs. Financial consequences (at least on the short term) should also be accounted for. More importantly however, benefits from SOM for crop production cannot be taken for granted. Only in specific situations such benefits will exist. If European policies on SOM aim to include benefits for crop production, focus should be on areas with more extreme environmental conditions (very dry or wet climates, steep slopes, sandy soils), or cropping systems with more specialized or horticultural crops rather than cereals.

Research for AGRI Committee : preserving agricultural soils in the EU - Study
Berge, H.F.M. ten; Schroder, J.J. ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Giraldez Cervera, J.V. - \ 2017
Brussels : European Parliament - ISBN 9789184609550 - 135 p.
soil management - soil quality - european union - soil organic matter - biodiversity - agriculture - organic farming - bodembeheer - bodemkwaliteit - europese unie - organisch bodemmateriaal - biodiversiteit - landbouw - biologische landbouw
This study explains how threats to soils and soil services are linked to agricultural soil management, how threats can be mitigated, and which barriers complicate this. It highlights trade-offs and synergies that exist between different interests affected by soil management, such as climate change mitigation, water and air quality, biodiversity, food security and farm income. Conservation of peatland and extensive agro-forestry systems, and protecting soils against sealing, erosion and compaction are ranked as highest priorities. Potential policy elements are suggested.
Zoeken naar betekenis in twee waarheden : samenhang tussen bodem- en voedselkwaliteit tijdens symposium niet opgehelderd
Gils, S.H. van - \ 2017
Ekoland (2017)4. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 32 - 33.
bodembeheer - bodemkwaliteit - voedselkwaliteit - voeding en gezondheid - voedselproductie - biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - bemesting - soil management - soil quality - food quality - nutrition and health - food production - organic farming - dairy farming - fertilizer application
In de landbouw bestaan er twee waarheden: die van de wetenschap en die van de praktijk. Tijdens het symposium Sustainable soil management & healthy food bleken die twee waarheden vooralsnog onverenigbaar. “Niet om te beledigen, maar de praktijk loopt toch een beetje voor op de wetenschap”, vindt melkveehouder Kees van Gaalen.
Duurzaam bodembeheer maïs : Maïs en Bodem jaarrapport 2016
Riemens, Marleen ; Huiting, Hilfred ; Deru, Joachim ; Schooten, Herman van; Weide, Rommie van der - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research (Wageningen Plant Research rapport 731) - 61
maïs - zea mays - bodembeheer - ruwvoer (forage) - akkerbouw - maize - soil management - forage - arable farming
Hoe kunnen veetelers met minder input meer resultaten halen bij snijmaïsteelt? Dat is de centrale vraag van het project “Duurzaam bodembeheer maïs” (BO-31.03-001-003). Veel melkveehouderijbedrijven telen snijmaïs, een gemakkelijk te telen ruwvoergewas met een goede productie van constante hoge kwaliteit. Als zetmeelbron met een ruime energie/eiwitverhouding past het goed in het runderdieet, naast gras en graskuil. De maïsteelt kan echter nadelige effecten hebben voor de bodem door gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en het uit- en afspoelen van nutriënten. Wageningen UR en het Louis Bolk Instituut onderzoeken in opdracht van het ministerie van EZ duurzame en praktisch haalbare verbeteringen en vernieuwingen. Teeltsystemen die zorgen voor een gezonde bodem worden daarbij gezien als sleutel tot duurzame teelt. Op drie locaties worden diverse teeltsystemen vergeleken in meerjarige proeven uitgevoerd op zand- en kleigrond. Daarbij wordt onder andere gekeken naar opbrengst, onkruiddruk, bodemstructuur, aanwezigheid van regenwormen, indringingsweerstand, waterinfiltratie, stikstofdynamiek en economische aspecten. Deze kennis wordt vervolgens doorgegeven aan de praktijk middels o.a. de beslisboom snijmaïs, een instrument om praktische kennis naar veetelers en erfbezoekers te brengen. De resultaten uit het vijfde projectjaar (2016) worden in deze rapportage beschreven. Onderstaande paragrafen geven eerst per proeflocatie een korte samenvatting van de bevindingen van 2016.
Mais en bodem rapport 2015
Riemens, M.M. ; Huiting, H.F. ; Deru, J.G.C. ; Schooten, H.A. van; Weide, R.Y. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen Plant Research - 76 p.
zea mays - maïs - bodem - bodembeheer - teeltsystemen - maize - soil - soil management - cropping systems
Hoe kunnen veetelers met minder input meer resultaten halen bij snijmaïsteelt? Dat is de centrale vraag van het project “Duurzaam bodembeheer maïs” (BO-31.03-001-003). Veel melkveehouderijbedrijven telen snijmaïs, een gemakkelijk te telen ruwvoergewas met een goede productie van constante hoge kwaliteit. Als zetmeelbron met een ruime energie/eiwitverhouding past het goed in het runderdieet, naast gras en graskuil. De maïsteelt kan echter nadelige effecten hebben voor de bodem door gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en het uit- en afspoelen van nutriënten. Wageningen UR en het Louis Bolk Instituut onderzoeken in opdracht van het ministerie van EZ duurzame en praktisch haalbare verbeteringen en vernieuwingen. Teeltsystemen die zorgen voor een gezonde bodem worden daarbij gezien als sleutel tot duurzame teelt. Op drie locaties worden diverse teeltsystemen vergeleken in meerjarige proeven uitgevoerd op zand- en kleigrond. Daarbij wordt onder andere gekeken naar opbrengst, onkruiddruk, bodemstructuur, aanwezigheid van regenwormen, indringingsweerstand, waterinfiltratie, stikstofdynamiek en economische aspecten. Deze kennis wordt vervolgens doorgegeven aan de praktijk middels o.a. de beslisboom snijmaïs, een instrument om praktische kennis naar veetelers en erfbezoekers te brengen.
Project Duurzaam bodembeheer in de Hoekse Waard
Brussaard, L. - \ 2016
Wageningen University & Research
soil management - organic farming - sustainable agriculture - zuid-holland - arable farming - bodembeheer - biologische landbouw - duurzame landbouw - akkerbouw
Bezoek aan 3 akkerbouwers die vertellen wat voor hen duurzaam bodembeheer betekent.
Leve(n) de bodem! : de basis onder ons bestaan
Brussaard, L. ; Govers, F.P.M. ; Buiter, R.M. - \ 2016
Den Haag : Stichting Bio-Wetenschappen en Maatschappij (Cahier / Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij 35e jaargang (2016) kwartaal 3) - ISBN 9789073196834 - 88
bodemkunde - bodembiologie - bodemkwaliteit - landbouwgronden - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodembeheer - bodemweerbaarheid - bodemmicrobiologie - duurzaam bodemgebruik - lesmaterialen - soil science - soil biology - soil quality - agricultural soils - soil fertility - soil management - soil suppressiveness - soil microbiology - sustainable land use - teaching materials
De bodem is niet alleen letterlijk de grond onder ons bestaan, ze is dat ook figuurlijk. Vruchtbare bodems leveren ons bijvoorbeeld voedsel, water en grondstoffen, maar ook een heel scala aan andere ecosysteemdiensten. In één theelepel zwarte grond leven meer organismen dan er mensen zijn op de hele aarde. Ze zorgen ervoor dat planten gebruik kunnen maken van de voedingsstoffen in de bodem en in een gezonde bodem krijgen ziekteverwekkers ook minder kans. Nu we steeds beter begrijpen hóe ze dat doen, kunnen wij zelfs nieuwe antibiotica vinden in de bodem! In dit cahier laten wetenschappers van naam op het gebied van het bodemonderzoek niet alleen zien welke diensten een gezonde bodem al vele eeuwen levert. Ze vertellen ook hoe de figuurlijke bodem onder ons bestaan tegelijk grond voor inspiratie is voor voedsel en technologie voor de toekomst.
Regenerating degraded soils and increasing water use efficiency on vegetable farms in Uruguay through ecological intensification
Alliaume, F. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Pablo Tittonell, co-promotor(en): Walter Rossing; Santiago Dogliotti. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578487 - 163 p.
tillage - minimum tillage - mulches - vegetable growing - water use efficiency - degraded land - soil conservation - modeling - soil management - grondbewerking - minimale grondbewerking - groenteteelt - watergebruiksrendement - gedegradeerd land - bodembescherming - modelleren - bodembeheer

This thesis investigated alternative soil management strategies for vegetable crop systems and their hypothesized effects on increasing systems resilience by sequestering soil carbon, increasing the efficiency of water use, and reducing erosion. The goal was to contribute knowledge on and tools for the integrated assessment of soil management strategies for the ecological intensification and small-scale production systems sustainability in South Uruguay.

We performed a baseline assessment of key soil properties on cropped fields, and evaluated the impact of implementing different soil management strategies after re-design of systems in a co-innovation project. We showed evidence that even under smallholder conditions, it was possible to reverse the soil degradation. However, it was not possible to reduce erosion in cases that a pasture could not be included in the rotation. We evaluated reduced tillage and cover crop management in an experiment. In-situ grown mulching increased water capture by 9.5% and reduced runoff by 37% on average, leading to less erosion risk and greater plant available water. We also collected enough data to develop a simple, generally applicable, locally parameterizable mathematical model that accounts for the effect of soil cover on soil water dynamics. Exploration with 10 years of weather data showed that reduced tillage and mulching (RTmulch) would decrease water requirements for irrigation by 37% on average.

Finally, we scaled up the results to study the impact of RTmulch on two small horticultural family farms with different resource availabilities. By combining process-based simulation models with empirical data and expert knowledge, we quantified inputs and outputs of production activities. Adoption of RTmulch was associated with improvements of the economic and/or environmental performances. It was possible to design production activities with erosion rates below the tolerable level without sacrificing the family income too much. Average water savings of 775 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (fully irrigated rotations) to 452 (irrigating only the most profitable vegetable crops) were obtained under RTmulch compared with conventional tillage.

Reduced tillage and mulching have potential for increasing water infiltration, reducing runoff and erosion, and achieving greater efficiency of water use for vegetable crops grown in raised bed systems. These aspects are especially relevant under conditions of high rainfall variability, limited access to irrigation and high soil erosion risk. For future research, we suggest combining long-term experiments with on- farm research to capture the benefits of improving soil quality on soil productivity, while adjusting the technology to solve limitations that arise in the process. This study provides ground for testing the proposed changes on pilot farms, using a co-innovation approach combining scientific insights with farmers’ knowledge of their farms.

Agrarische bedrijfswaterplannen Dwingelerstroom en Wapserveensche Aa : pilotstudie naar de potentie en effectiviteit van maatregelen bij agrarische bedrijven die bijdragen aan verbetering van de waterhuishouding
Schipper, P.N.M. ; Groenendijk, P. ; Hoving, I.E. ; Michels, R. ; Arts, M. ; Staarink, H. ; Bakel, J. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2735) - 67 p.
melkveebedrijven - melkveehouderij - waterbeheer - bodembeheer - gewasopbrengst - drainage - drenthe - dairy farms - dairy farming - water management - soil management - crop yield
In dit onderzoek zijn 9 agrarische melkveebedrijven in Drenthe bezocht en is samen met de betrokken agrariërs besproken en geanalyseerd in hoeverre de situatie op het erf en de percelen verbeterd kan worden ten aanzien van bodem en water. Vanuit gesignaleerde knelpunten zijn maatregelen aangedragen die bij kunnen dragen aan verbetering van het bedrijfsresultaat en het watersysteem. Samen met het waterschap zijn een 6-tal type maatregelen geselecteerd waarvan de effectiviteit is berekend. Hierbij is gebruik gemaakt van modellen die op perceelsniveau de vochthuishouding, gewasopbrengst en nutriëntenhuishouding simuleren. Voor ieder bedrijf zijn de resultaten van het veldbezoek, analyse en berekening van effecten opgenomen in een bedrijfswaterplan, welke voor feedback is voorgelegd aan de betreffende agrariër. Het voorliggende rapport vat de resultaten van de 9 bedrijfswaterplannen samen en geeft op hoofdlijnen aan wat de potenties zijn van maatregelen op regionaal niveau.
Inspiratiesessie ''Bodemverbeteraars: hoop of hype?''
Os, G.J. van - \ 2016
Aeres Hogeschool
bodembeheer - bodemverbeteraars - bodemkwaliteit - bodemstructuur - gewasopbrengst - landbouwkundig onderzoek - soil management - soil conditioners - soil quality - soil structure - crop yield - agricultural research
Inspiratiesessie bij CAH Vilentum door Gera van Os, Lector Duurzaam Bodembeheer, ''Bodemverbeteraars: hoop of hype?''
Meer informatie op http://www.kcagro.nl
Monitoring landbouwkundige risico’s bij actief bodembeheer in Krimpenerwaard : monitoringsplan en nulmeting
Groenenberg, J.E. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2726) - 27 p.
sloten - stortterreinen - vuilnisbelten - verontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - monitoring - afdeklagen - bodembeheer - krimpenerwaard - ditches - landfills - refuse tips - pollution - soil pollution - coatings - soil management
In de Krimpenerwaard liggen circa 6500 slootdempingen en vuilstorten. Het dempingsmateriaal bevat regelmatig verontreinigingen, zodat voor de hele regio sprake is van een geval van ernstige bodemverontreiniging. Het gebiedsgerichte bodembeheerplan voorziet in het afdekken van de verontreinigde slootdempingen met gebiedseigen schone grond. De effectiviteit van de sanering wordt geëvalueerd op basis van monitoring van ecologische en landbouwkundige risico’s. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de monitoring in het kader van de landbouwkundige risico’s. Er zijn metingen verricht aan het dempingsmateriaal, de afdeklaag en het gras, zowel voorafgaand aan als na het afdekken. Het gras dat groeide op de demping had verhoogde gehalten aan met name zink. De kwaliteit van het gras op de afgedekte dempingen wijkt niet af van de referentielocaties zonder dempingsmateriaal. De zeer lage PCB-concentraties in de afdeklaag en de hoge concentraties in de demping op de monitoringslocaties maken het in principe mogelijk om eventueel optredende veranderingen als gevolg van bioturbatie te monitoren.
Van bodeminformatie naar bodemmaatregelen
Haan, Janjo de - \ 2016
arable farming - soil fertility - soil conservation - farm management - internet - information needs - soil management - teaching materials
Visie integraal bodembeheer Algemeen
Haan, Janjo de - \ 2016
arable farming - soil management - water management - soil quality - soil fertility - farm management - rotations - fertilizer application - tillage - agricultural production - biodiversity - climatic factors - ecosystem services - organic matter - teaching materials
Graaf een gat en kijk in de bodem
Tramper, Marcel - \ 2016
arable farming - soil structure - farm management - soil management - samplers - augers - groundwater level - soil quality - teaching materials
Aandacht voor de regenworm
Pulleman, M.M. ; Frazao, J.F.T.A. ; Faber, J.H. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Groot, J.C.J. ; Brussaard, L. - \ 2016
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 33 (2016)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 23 - 26.
akkerbouw - aardwormen - akkerranden - bodemstructuur - bodembeheer - landinrichting - landschapsbeheer - zuidhollandse eilanden - arable farming - earthworms - field margins - soil structure - soil management - land development - landscape management
Regenwormen leveren een belangrijke bijdrage aan de omzetting van bodemorganische stof en nutriënten en zorgen voor een goede bodemstructuur, maar ze zijn gevoelig voor verstoringen die de moderne landbouw met zich meebrengt (onder meer Pelosi et al., 2014). Naar aanleiding van strengere regelgeving rond het gebruik van meststoffen en toenemende bodemverdichting staat een beter begrip van de effecten van bodembeheer en landinrichting op regenwormengemeenschappen momenteel volop in de belangstelling.
Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde
Santos Baptista Costa, I. Dos - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Coen Ritsema; Violette Geissen, co-promotor(en): Luuk Fleskens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577367 - 189 p.
water management - soil management - farming systems - dry farming - optimization - watershed management - watersheds - runoff - erosion control - cape verde - waterbeheer - bodembeheer - bedrijfssystemen - optimalisatie - beheer van waterbekkens - stroomgebieden - oppervlakkige afvoer - erosiebestrijding - kaapverdië

“Optimizing Soil and Water Management in Dryland Farming Systems in Cabo Verde”

Isaurinda Baptista

Summary

Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both people’s livelihood and the environment. Dryland food production in Cabo Verde faces steep slopes, inadequate practices, irregular intense rain, recurrent droughts, high runoff rates, severe soil erosion and declining soil fertility, leading to the inefficient use of rainwater. Despite the enormous investment in soil and water conservation measures (SWC), land degradation due to water erosion is still rife and dryland crop productivity remains low. Sustainable land management (SLM) techniques that reduce runoff, erosion and nutrient loss are the key to mitigating/preventing land degradation and assuring long-term soil productivity.

This thesis investigated soil and water management techniques for Cabo-Verdean dryland farming systems to increase the efficiency of rainwater and crop yield, combining traditional and scientific knowledge in a field-based participatory approach. Field experiments were conducted in different agro-ecological zones of the Santiago Island aiming to evaluate the effects of water conservation techniques (mulching of crop residue, soil surfactant and pigeon-pea hedges) combined with organic amendments (compost and animal or green manure) on runoff, erosion, soil nutrients and crop yield. The PESERA-DESMICE modelling approach allowed assessing the biophysical and socio-economic benefits of the promising SLM techniques against a local baseline condition and their potential application at larger scale, under climate variability.

Following the general introduction (chapter 1), chapter 2 of the thesis reviews the national strategies towards building resilience against the harsh environmental conditions, analyses the state of land degradation and its drivers, surveys the existing SWC measures, and assesses their effectiveness against land degradation and in supporting people’s livelihoods. The analysis allows inferring that the relative success of Cabo Verde in tackling desertification and rural poverty is due to an integrated governance strategy that comprises awareness raising, institutional framework development, financial resource allocation, capacity building, and active participation of rural communities. The chapter provides a panoramic view of the importance of SWC measures for Cabo Verde drylands and recommends further specific, science-based assessment of the biophysical and socioeconomic impact of SLM and potential for upscaling.

Chapter 3, first, discusses the participatory approach used in selecting the SLM techniques that are field-tested in this research and, then, evaluates the effects of the selected water conservation techniques combined with organic amendments on the generation of runoff and soil loss from rain-fed agricultural fields compared with traditional farmers’ practices. The chapter also discusses the main factors influencing runoff and soil loss in semiarid dryland hilly areas, including the degree of soil cover, rainfall amount and erosivity, slope and soil infiltration rate. Runoff was significantly reduced only with the treatments containing mulch on slopes >10% and in the treatment containing surfactant and organic amendment on slopes <10%. Observed soil erosion rates were highest for the silty-clay-loam soil, followed by the sandy-loam soil and the loamy-soil, reaching a maximum value of 17 Mg ha-1 in the traditional practice, but were reduced by more than 50% with the SLM techniques. Residue mulch and pigeon-pea combined with an organic amendment (T3) almost eliminated runoff and erosion from agricultural fields even on steep slopes, contributing to improved use of rainwater at the plot level. The chapter recommends that SLM techniques, such as T3, be advocated and promoted for the semiarid hillsides of Cabo Verde prone to erosion to increase rainwater-use and to prevent further soil degradation.

As soil erosion, runoff and related nutrient losses constitute a high risk to soil fertility in Cabo Verde drylands, chapter 4 focuses on the effects of the techniques tested in chapter 3 on erosion and runoff related nutrient losses (NO3-N and PO4-P) and on crop productivity. The traditional system lost significantly higher amounts of both NO3-N and PO4-P than the tested SLM techniques, with the T3 technology reducing soil loss, runoff and nutrient losses to nearly a 100%. Nutrient losses from the amended plots were low, while the significant losses from the traditional system could result in long-term nutrient depletion in the soil. The treatments did not consistently increase crop yield or biomass in all three sites, but the combination of organic amendment with soil surfactant increased both crop yield and biomass in some cases. T3 was the best treatment for steep slope areas, although it is crucial to manage the pigeon-pea hedges to achieve higher maize yield. For flatter areas with deeper soils, the combination of organic amendment with soil surfactant could be a less expensive and effective choice. The chapter identifies and recommends SLM techniques to prevent nutrient depletion, improve dryland crop yield and avoid further land degradation due to erosion by water, both in steep slope areas and flatter areas.

Given the potential of the SLM techniques, but also significant spatial-temporal yield variability, chapter 5 considers the PESERA-DESMICE modelling approach to capture a greater range of climatic conditions and evaluate the biophysical and socio-economic benefits of the promising SLM technique (residue mulch combined with pigeon-pea hedges and an organic amendment - T3) against the traditional baseline practice of maize-bean intercropping (T0). It also evaluates the potential for upscaling the selected technique at Island scale. From stations in semi-arid and sub humid climates, long-term historic rainfall statistics allowed construction of 50-year rainfall realizations providing a unique time-series of rainfall scenarios and an envelope of the potential biomass production. T3 elevates yield under both sub-humid and semi-arid climates with greater security for sub-humid areas even though risk of crop failure still exists. The T3 technology offered good potential to increase yields by 20% in 42% of the area and reduce erosion by 8.6 Mg ha-1, but in terms of cost effectiveness, it might be prohibitively expensive for farmers lacking inputs. Such findings can inform policy options or influence adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability of the Cabo Verde drylands and resilience to future climate change.

The thesis ends with a synthesis chapter (6) that presents the research findings, highlights the new contributions made to the current scientific debates on Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) technologies for sub-Saharan Africa, sustainable intensification and land degradation neutrality. The T3 technology can be a promising CSA practice that could be widely used by smallholder farmers in semiarid regions to maintain food production and secure farmers’ livelihoods, while contributing to ecosystem services by storing water in the soil. The synthesis concludes with policy recommendations for optimizing soil and water management on hilly drylands to prevent further degradation.

Hence, the thesis presents options to support moving from degrading and low yielding land management practices towards more sustainable land intensification in hilly drylands that reduce runoff and soil loss, increase crop nutrient and crop productivity, ultimately, contributing to the mitigation/adaptation of climate change, food security and land degradation neutrality in Cabo Verde.

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