Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==sojabonen
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Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops : quick assessment of the medium-term economic consequences
Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Wijnands, J.H.M. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-097) - ISBN 9789086157259 - 51 p.
transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - economic impact - agricultural sector - food industry - feed industry - european union - france - germany - poland - hungary - transgene planten - gewassen - genetische modificatie - sojabonen - economische impact - landbouwsector - voedselindustrie - veevoederindustrie - europese unie - frankrijk - duitsland - polen - hongarije
The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal feed industry, livestock sector) of a possible opt-out policy for soy by individual Member States has been assessed by LEI Wageningen UR.
A single scenario was defined in which the four countries France, Germany, Poland and Hungary choose an ‘opt-out’ policy for soy. Consequences of this switch to non-GM soy and substitutes were assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively for feed prices, for production costs for animal production, for crushing industry and for trade, with a focus on the medium term
Stikstofbinding voor kleine boeren in Afrika
Giller, K.E. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)3. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 16 - 21.
tuinbouw - kleine landbouwbedrijven - afrika - stikstofbindende bacteriën - rhizobium - bodemvruchtbaarheid - inkomen van landbouwers - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - peulgewassen - sojabonen - voedselproductie - projecten - teeltsystemen - horticulture - small farms - africa - nitrogen fixing bacteria - soil fertility - farmers' income - farm management - legumes - soyabeans - food production - projects - cropping systems
Het project N2Africa is onlangs de tweede fase ingegaan met als doel dat in 2020 een half miljoen kleine boeren in Afrika, ten zuiden van de Sahara, stikstofbinding hebben geïntegreerd in hun bedrijfsvoering. Op een manier die hen past, zegt Ken Giller. Stikstofbinding verbetert de bodemvruchtbaarheid, terwijl de teelt van bonen, die samen met bacteriën de stikstof vastleggen, een belangrijke aanvulling vormt op het menu en op het inkomen van de boer.
Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America
Pashaei Kamali, F. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576087 - 219
bedrijfseconomie - rundvleesproductie - sojabonen - economische productie - agro-industriële ketens - veehouderijbedrijven - economie van de veehouderij - brazilië - latijns-amerika - business economics - beef production - soyabeans - economic production - agro-industrial chains - livestock enterprises - livestock economics - brazil - latin america

Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America

The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef production chains in a LA-EU context was carried out. Sustainability issues were found to vary across stakeholders’ interests. Next, the environmental and economic performance of four feeding strategies for beef production in southern Brazil were evaluated. Results showed that improved pasture is a promising system as it results in the best environmental and economic performance. Furthermore, the environmental, economic, and social performance of genetically modified (GM), non-genetically modified (non-GM), and organic soybean production was evaluated by capturing the uncertainty of key parameters. Results revealed that none of these systems performed best for all sustainability issues evaluated. Multi-criteria assessment (MCA) has the capability of giving a single overall score per system by aggregating sustainability scores using relative importance weights provided by stakeholders. The results showed that there is potential to use expert elicitation as an alternative to extensive data rich methods. The simulation results showed a higher variation for the organic soybean production system compared to GM and non-GM.

Effecten van een verbod op het gebruik van genetisch gemodificeerde soja als veevoedergrondstof. Quick scan van de gevolgen voor Nederland
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Hoste, R. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI Report 2015-109) - ISBN 9789086157143 - 26
transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - fodder - economic impact - netherlands - transgene planten - gewassen - genetische modificatie - sojabonen - veevoeder - economische impact - nederland
If the Netherlands, alongside Germany, France, Poland, and Hungary, decides to ban genetically modified (GM) soy in animal feed, the use of soy products in animal feed in these five countries will have to decrease by 40 to 50% to ensure that the EU demand for non-GM soy does not exceed the supply on the world market. The extra costs to Dutch livestock farmers over a period of 3 to 5 years as a result of the more expensive non-GM soy and alternative protein sources are estimated at between €60 and €100 million a year, with approximately 80% being borne by poultry farmers. Livestock numbers and productivity will then be maintained. A partial shift in trade flows from animal feed ingredients can be expected from import in the west of the EU - for example, through the port of Rotterdam - to intra-EU flows from production areas within the EU to consumers and via the waterway axis from regions east of the EU, such as Ukraine. Less soy will enter the EU via the Netherlands. This deficit can be offset by the increased demand for alternative protein sources, which will be partly imported from overseas. The effects on Dutch ports, the transport sector, and employment will depend on the nature of the trade flow shifts.
Estrogenicity and metabolism of prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids
Schans, M.G.M. van de - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen, co-promotor(en): Jean-Paul Vincken; Toine Bovee. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574748 - 180
flavonoïden - isoflavonoïden - glycine max - sojabonen - oestrogeenreceptoren - zoethout - glycyrrhiza glabra - in vitro - flavonoids - isoflavonoids - soyabeans - oestrogen receptors - liquorice

Binding of (prenylated) flavonoids and isoflavonoids to the human estrogen receptors (hERs) might result in beneficial health effects in vivo. To understand structure-activity relationships of prenylated (iso)flavonoids towards the hERs, prenylated (iso)flavonoids were purified from extracts of licorice roots and elicited soybean seedlings. It was observed that prenylation can modulate estrogenicity. Unprenylated, chain and δ-position pyran prenylated (iso)flavonoids show an agonistic mode of action, whereas α/β-position pyran, α/β-position furan and double chain prenylated (iso)flavonoids show an antagonistic mode of action towards hERα in the yeast bioassay. The mode of estrogenic action of prenylated (iso)flavonoids could be related to structural features of the hER. In particular, the increase in length of α/β-position pyran prenylated compounds was related to indirect antagonism. It was also shown that heat and acid affected the stability of 6a-hydroxy-pterocarpans, converting them into their respective 6a,11a-pterocarpenes and consequently modulate their estrogenicity. Six prenylated isoflavonoids acted as SERMs and eight prenylated isoflavonoids showed ER subtype-selective behavior. The kind of prenylation (chain, furan or pyran) was most important for determining SERM activity, whereas additionally the backbone structure, i.e. the presence of an additional D-ring, was of importance for determining ER subtype-selectivity. To determine structure-metabolism relationships, in vitro conversion of purified prenylated (iso)flavonoids by liver enzymes was studied. These compounds can be extensively metabolized by phase I and II enzymes. A glucuronidation yield between 70-80% was observed. It was also shown that pyran and chain prenylation gave more complex hydroxylation patterns with 4 or more than 6 hydroxyl isomers, respectively, compared to unprenylated compounds (only 1 hydroxyl isomer).

Induction of prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids in legumes
Aisyah, S. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen, co-promotor(en): Jean-Paul Vincken. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574816 - 154
flavonoïden - stilbenoïden - isoflavonoïden - peulgewassen - glycine max - sojabonen - arachis hypogaea - fylogenetica - phaseolus - lupinus - rhizopus - aspergillus - kwantitatieve analyse - flavonoids - stilbenoids - isoflavonoids - legumes - soyabeans - phylogenetics - quantitative analysis

The germination of legume seeds in the presence or absence of stress factors was studied with respect to compositional changes in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids. Different strategies were applied using (i) different types of legume seed, (ii) different stress factors i.e. biotic, abiotic and their combination, and (iii) different time point of application of the fungus. Mass spectrometric tools to better characterize the position of prenyl groups in the molecules were optimized. Isoflavonoids and stilbenoids appeared more inducible than flavonoids. Fungus was a more effective stress factor than light and wounding. The impact of fungus might be enhanced by combining it with other stress factors; the combination of fungus and light was more promising than that of fungus and wounding. The seeds of various legume species appeared to respond differently towards elicitation by Rhizopus during germination. The kind of molecules induced followed the phylogenetic relationship of the various species, but their amounts induced during germination, alone or combined with elicitation, did not. In terms of quantities of compounds induced, some species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus spp., Lupinus spp. and Arachis hypogaea were more promising than Vigna spp., Lablab purpureus and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus. Moreover, the fact that Rhizopus and Aspergillus could metabolize the stilbenoids induced during the process of simultaneous germination and elicitation of peanut seedlings showed that the type of fungus was a crucial parameter for optimizing accumulation of potentially bioactive compounds.

Improvement of risk assessment by integrating toxicological and epidemiological approaches: the case of isoflavones
Islam, M.A. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Ivonne Rietjens; Rolaf van Leeuwen; Tinka Murk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574649 - 174
isoflavones - glucosides - soyabeans - toxic substances - bioavailability - biomarkers - human nutrition research - risk-benefit analysis - gene expression - isoflavonen - glucosiden - sojabonen - toxische stoffen - biologische beschikbaarheid - voedingsonderzoek bij de mens - risico-baten analyse - genexpressie

Improvement of risk assessment by integrating toxicological and epidemiological approaches: the case of isoflavones

PhD-thesis Mohammed Ariful Islam

This thesis describes the results of a research project that aimed at the improvement of the risk/benefit assessment of soy isoflavones (SIF) by combining toxicological and epidemiological methods. The toxicological studies were carried out at the Department of Toxicology and part of the results were compared with the outcome of human intervention studies, that were carried out in parallel research project at the Division of Human Nutrition. In Chapter 1 it is explained why we considered such an integrated “tox-epi” approach to be useful for the prediction of possible effects of SIF in humans on the basis of animal data. SIF are constituents of soy based supplements, which became more and more popular in Western societies over the last decades, because of their putative beneficial health effects, that were related to the SIF present in these supplements. In spite of the long and safe history of soy consumption by the East and the South-East Asian population, the benefit and safety of soy have been challenged in recent years and concerns have been raised about possible adverse health effects. These concerns focussed primarily on the weak estrogenic and proliferative effects of SIF. Chapter 1 also provides some background information on the individual SIF, their structural similarity with the steroid hormone estradiol (E2) and their interaction with the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ.

Chapter 2 describes the differences between rats and humans in the conversion of the three major soy isoflavone glucosides, daidzin, genistin and glycitin, and their aglycones in a series of in vitro models. Results of studies in a Caco-2 transwell model confirmed that deconjugation of the isoflavone glucosides is essential for their transport across the intestinal barrier. It was shown that both rat and human intestinal S9 fractions were able to deconjugate the glucosides, and that intestinal enzymes plaid an important role in this deconjugation reaction. It was demonstrated that in the rat lactase phlorizin hydrolase, glucocerebrosidase, and cytosolic broad-specificity β-glucosidase contribute significantly to this deconjugation, and that in humans deconjugation mainly appeared to occur through the activity of broad-specificity β-glucosidase. Species difference in glucuronidation and sulfation were smaller than for the deconjugation reaction, and it was shown that 7-O-glucuronides were the major metabolites for all the three isoflavone aglycones. The in vitro results also indicated that glucuronidation in rats might be more efficient than in humans, again pointing towards species differences in the metabolism of isoflavone glycosides between rats and humans. It was also shown that the reconjugation reaction has a larger catalytic efficiency than the deconjugation of the glucosides, which corroborates that the detection of aglycones in the systemic circulation is unlikely.

It has been reported in literature that following administration of SIF to humans or animals, these compounds are mainly (~98%) present in the systemic circulation in their conjugated form (i.e. as glucuronide and sulphate) of which the estrogenic potency is not yet clear. Chapter 3 provides evidence that in an intact cellular model the major SIF glucuronide metabolites in blood, genistein-7-O-glucuronide (GG) and daidzein-7-O-glucuronide (DG), only become estrogenic after deconjugation. The estrogenic potencies of genistein (Ge), daidzein (Da), GG and DG were determined using stably transfected U2OS-ERα, U2OS-ERβ reporter gene cells and proliferation was tested in T47D-ERβ and in T47D breast cancer cells. In all these assays the estrogenic potency of the aglycones was significantly higher than that of their corresponding glucuronides. UPLC analysis revealed that in the in vitro cell line assays, 0.2-1.6% of the glucuronides were deconjugated to their corresponding aglycones. It was also found that, under similar experimental conditions, rat breast tissue S9 fraction was about 30 times more potent in deconjugating these glucuronides than human breast tissue S9 fraction. The results presented in Chapter 3 confirm that SIF glucuronides are not estrogenic as such when tested in an intact cellular model system, and that the small fraction of aglycones account for the observed estrogenic effects. They also provide evidence for a significant species difference in the metabolism of SIF.

In Chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis, two rat studies are described, that were performed to further elucidate important modes of action underlying biological effects of SIF and to facilitate an interspecies comparison of the effects observed in rats with those observed in human intervention studies. In these studies inbred ovariectomized Fischer344 rats were used, as an animal model for (post)menopausal women. In the first study described in Chapter 4, two dose levels (i.e. 2 and 20 mg/kg bw) were used to characterise plasma bioavailability, urinary and faecal concentrations of SIF and to investigate changes in gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The low dose was in line with the type of dosing relevant for human supplement use. Animals were dosed at 0 and 48 hr and sacrificed 4 hr after the last dose. A clear dose dependent increase of SIF concentrations in plasma, urine and faeces was observed, together with a strong correlation in changes in gene expression between the two dose groups. In the transcriptomic analysis, all estrogen responsive genes (ERG) and related biological pathways (BPs) that were found to be affected by the SIF treatment were regulated in both dose groups in the same direction, and indicate possible beneficial effects of SIF. However, most of the common genes in PBMC of rats and of (post)menopausal women, exposed to a comparable dose of the same supplement, were regulated in opposite direction. Thus based on these results no correlation was found between the changes in gene expression in rats and humans, leading to the conclusion that rats might not be a suitable model for humans.

In Chapter 5 an animal experiment is described, in which rats received a dose of 2 mg SIF/kg body weight per day for a period of eight weeks. This dosing regimen was similar as that of the parallel human intervention study. Changes in gene expression in different target (i.e. breast (BT), uterus (UT) and sternum (ST)) and non-target (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), adipose (AT) and liver (LT)) tissues were compared. Rank-rank scattered plots did not show any correlation in gene expression changes among different tissues. Out of 87 estrogen responsive genes (ERG), only 19 were found to be significantly regulated (p<0.05) in different tissues. The significantly regulated ERG were mostly found in LT, AT and UT. Surprisingly, no ERG were significantly regulated in BT and ST, although these are considered to be important estrogen sensitive target tissues. No correlation was observed with the changes in gene expression in the PBMC of two rat studies. Correlation was also not seen in the changes of gene expression in PBMC and adipose tissue between rat and humans.

In Chapter 6 the results of the research project described in this thesis are evaluated. It was the aim of thesestudies to contribute to theimprovement ofthe risk and/or benefit assessment of SIF for humans, by using in vitro and in vivo animal and human models, and gene expression data in various animal and human tissues, as early biomarkers of effects of exposure to SIF. Although important information has been gathered on the metabolism and the estrogenic activity of SIF and their aglycones, we were not able to predict possible effects in human target tissues based on the results of changes in gene expression in target tissues obtained in the 8 weeks rat study. Possibly aged rats might be a more appropriate model than young ovariectomized rats.

Optimalisatie N-bemesting soja
Timmer, R.D. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2014
Lelystad : PPO AGV - 15
akkerbouw - sojabonen - peulvruchten - veevoeding - bemesting - stikstofmeststoffen - opbrengst - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - rhizobium - arable farming - soyabeans - grain legumes - livestock feeding - fertilizer application - nitrogen fertilizers - outturn - sustainability
Soja is weliswaar een vlinderbloemig gewas dat (via de vorming van stikstofknolletjes aan de wortels) in z’n eigen stikstofbehoefte kan voorzien, de ervaring leert echter dat het gewas in Nederland vaak een erg lichte bladkleur heeft gedurende het seizoen wat kan duiden op N-gebrek. Voor de vorming van de stikstofknolletjes aan de wortels is een goed geslaagde enting nodig met Rhizobium bacteriën. Over hoeveel knolletjes er per plant nodig zijn om in de N-behoefte te kunnen voorzien bestaat nog grote onduidelijkheid. Ook is niet duidelijk of een N-bemesting bij soja kan leiden tot hogere en stabielere opbrengsten.
Ontwikkeling van de sojateelt in Zuidoost Nederland
Timmer, R.D. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2014
Lelystad : PPO AGV - 15
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - akkerbouw - peulvruchten - sojabonen - nederland - zuid-nederland - oost-nederland - veevoeding - rassen (planten) - proeven op proefstations - opbrengst - sustainability - arable farming - grain legumes - soyabeans - netherlands - south netherlands - east netherlands - livestock feeding - varieties - station tests - outturn
Gedurende het seizoen werden de belangrijkste raseigenschappen, zoals stevigheid en vroegrijpheid, vastgelegd en van alle velden werd de opbrengst en het vochtgehalte bij de oogst bepaald. Aan een monster werd bij BLGG via de Kjeldahl-methode het N-gehalte bepaald waaruit het eiwitgehalte is te berekenen. Eén van de belangrijke eigenschappen van een goed sojaras is dat het tot aan de oogst overeind blijft staan en niet gaat legeren. Op die manier kan het gewas optimaal produceren en kunnen de bonen zonder al teveel verliezen geoogst worden.
Ontwikkeling van de sojateelt in Noord Nederland
Timmer, R.D. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2014
Lelystad : PPO AGV - 17
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - peulvruchten - akkerbouw - sojabonen - nederland - noord-nederland - veevoeding - sustainability - grain legumes - arable farming - soyabeans - netherlands - north netherlands - livestock feeding
In Europa wordt voor non-GMO soja een premie betaald van zo'n 150 euro per ton. Dit geldt voor soja voor de humane voeding zoals sojadrinks en vleesvervangers. Het volume van deze markt is beperkt, maar in Hamburg staat een fabriek die graag Nederlandse soja koopt terwijl inmiddels ook een Nederlands sojabedrijf zijn oog heeft laten vallen op “Nedersoja”. De genoemde premie geldt ook voor de niche-markten van vleesproducten die met non-GMO soja zijn geproduceerd. Deze markt is groter maar heeft wel grotere volumes nodig. De vraag is nu welke kansen deze ontwikkeling biedt voor Noord Nederland. Dit gebied heeft enerzijds een grote melkveehouderij en anderzijds een groot akkerbouwareaal. Op de eerste plaats liggen er kansen voor de Noord Nederlandse melkveehouderij om soja te gebruiken die in de regio geteeld is. Dat moet wel voldoende volume hebben om soja regionaal te extruderen om de soja verteerbaar te maken. Op de tweede plaats kan het akkerbouwareaal gebruikt worden om soja te produceren voor in eerste plaats de non-GMO sojamarkt.
Praktijknetwerk: soja van eigen bodem
Timmer, R.D. - \ 2014
akkerbouw - veldgewassen - sojabonen - peulvruchten - teeltsystemen - voedergewassen - voederpeulvruchten - arable farming - field crops - soyabeans - grain legumes - cropping systems - fodder crops - fodder legumes
De Europese consument is niet happig op genetisch gemodificeerde soja, of sojabonen uit voormalige regenwouden. Maar een groeiende groep pioniers laat zien dat de teelt van soja ook in Nederland mogelijk is. ‘Behalve naar nóg meer pioniers, zijn we nu vooral op zoek naar nieuwe rassen die meer opbrengen en eerder afrijpen’, zegt ing. Ruud Timmer, onderzoeker bij Wageningen UR in Lelystad.
Replacement of soybean meal in compound feed by European protein sources : effects on carbon footprint
Boer, H.C. de; Krimpen, M.M. van; Blonk, H. ; Tyszler, M. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research report 819) - 46
eiwitbronnen - voedingswaarde - koolstof - emissie - voer - varkens - eiwitleverende planten - sojabonen - protein sources - nutritive value - carbon - emission - feeds - pigs - protein plants - soyabeans
The overall aim was to investigate if soybean products from South American can be replaced by protein sources produced in Europe in a sustainable way. Based on data from literature, and based on the systematics of the FeedPrint programme, the nutritional value and the carbon footprint (CFP) of these protein sources is determined. These protein sources are used in feed optimizations of a starter diet for pigs, thereby maintaining the nutritional value of the diet. Subsequently, the CFP of the grower diet is calculated. The results and conclusions will be discussed in this report.
Sojaverbruik in de Nederlandse diervoederindustrie 2011-2013 : Inventarisatie in opdracht van Stichting Ketentransitie verantwoorde soja
Hoste, R. - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 14-098) - 24
diervoeding - mengvoer - sojaproducten - sojabonen - voer - duurzame landbouw - veevoederindustrie - animal nutrition - compound feeds - soyabean products - soyabeans - feeds - sustainable agriculture - feed industry
In opdracht van de Stichting Ketentransitie verantwoorde soja heeft LEI Wageningen UR het sojaverbruik in de veevoederindustrie in Nederland in kaart gebracht. Hierbij is uitgegaan van het bekende verbruik van veevoer plus de uit de industrie verzamelde gehaltes aan sojaschroot, -olie, - bonen en -hullen per voersoort. Deze studie is een actualisatie van de inventarisatie uit 2010 over de jaren 2008, 2009 en voorjaar 2010.
Soja- Glysine Max / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
glycine max - sojabonen - voedselgewassen - voedergrassen - olieleverende planten - eiwitbronnen - gewassen - akkerbouw - biobased economy - plantaardig eiwit - soyabeans - food crops - fodder grasses - oil plants - protein sources - crops - arable farming - plant protein
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas soja. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Prenylated isoflavonoids from soya and licorice : analysis, induction and in vitro estrogenicity
Simons, R. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen, co-promotor(en): Jean-Paul Vincken. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859437 - 176
isoflavonoïden - sojabonen - zoethout - plantenoestrogenen - oestrogene eigenschappen - isoflavonoids - soyabeans - liquorice - plant oestrogens - oestrogenic properties


Prenylatedisoflavonoids are found in large amountsin soya bean (Glycine max) germinated under stress and in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Prenylation of isoflavonoids has been associated with modification of theirestrogenic activity.
The aims of this thesis were (1) to provide a structural characterisation of isoflavonoids, in particular the prenylated isoflavonoids occurring in soya and licorice, (2) to increase the estrogenic activity of soya beans by a malting treatment in the presence of a food-grade fungus, and (3) to correlate the in vitroagonistic/antagonistic estrogenicity with the presence of prenylated isoflavonoids.
A reversed-phase UHPLC-DAD-MSn-based screening method was developed that allowed the tentative identification of all prenylated flavonoids in licorice extracts using neutral losses diagnosticfor prenylation. Moreover, both the chain and pyran ring can be discriminated. This method was also employed on extracts from soya seedlings, which were challenged with the food-grade fungus Rhizopusspp. Besides known prenylated pterocarpans, also novel prenylated isoflavones and coumestans were found in soya.
Subsequently, a licorice root extract was fractionated and the fractions were screened for estrogenic activityusing an in vitro yeast ER bioassay.Several fractions were considered estrogenically active on one or both ER-subtypes (α and β). The estrogenic activity of some fractions was associated with the presence of glabrene, a prenylated isoflavene. The predominant phytoestrogen of licorice root, glabridin, did not show any agonistic activity, but was found to bea potent ERα antagonist.
Large-scale Rhizopus-challenging of soya seedlings resulted in a 10 to 12 fold increase of the isoflavonoid content, in a diversification of isoflavonoid composition, andin an increase of estrogenic activity. The measured estrogenicity of the extracts on both ERs was lower than the theoretically calculated estrogenicity, indicating the presence of antagonists. This antagonistic activity was hypothesized to be associated with the presence of prenylated isoflavonoids.


Sustainability of current GM crop cultivation : Review of people, planet, profit effects of agricultural production of GM crops, based on the cases of soybean, maize, and cotton
Franke, A.C. ; Breukers, M.L.H. ; Broer, W. ; Bunte, F.H.J. ; Dolstra, O. ; Engelbronner-Kolff, F.M. d'; Lotz, L.A.P. ; Montfort, J. ; Nikoloyuk, J. ; Rutten, M.M. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Zijl, M. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 386)
transgene planten - gewassen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - glycine max - sojabonen - zea mays - maïs - gossypium hirsutum - katoen - risicoschatting - akkerbouw - transgenic plants - crops - sustainability - soyabeans - maize - cotton - risk assessment - arable farming
This report adresses the question whether the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops abroad for import in the Netherlands, as compared to the cultivation of their conventional (non-GM) counterparts, is in line with Dutch policy and societal aims striving after more sustainable forms of agriculture worldwide and the utilization of the benefits offered by biotechnology in a responsible manner. Three crops were selected as case study objects: sybean, maize and cotton. The sustainability of GM and non-GM crop production was compared with each other based on a review of scientific and other literature. This comparison followed characteristics and criteria associated with the sustainability concept of 'people, planet, profit'.
Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges
Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Dufera Gurmesa, N. ; Lute, J.C.M. ; Loo, E.N. van - \ 2011
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2011-016) - ISBN 9789086155057 - 128
zonnebloemzaden - zonnebloemolie - sojabonen - sojaolie - economische haalbaarheid - economische analyse - agro-industriële ketens - agronomische kenmerken - ethiopië - sunflower seeds - sunflower oil - soyabeans - soyabean oil - economic viability - economic analysis - agro-industrial chains - agronomic characteristics - ethiopia
This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.
Sojaverbruik in Nederland
Hoste, R. ; Bolhuis, J. - \ 2010
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Markt &amp; ketens ) - ISBN 9789086154630 - 32
sojabonen - veevoeding - voer - mengvoer - soyabeans - livestock feeding - feeds - compound feeds
Op verzoek van de Task Force Duurzame Soja heeft het LEI onderzoek gedaan naar het totale sojaverbruik in Nederland, met de nadruk op soja in veevoeding. Uitgaande van de nationale mengvoerproductie en van sojagehaltes in het veevoer is het sojaverbruik berekend. Het totale verbruik van sojaproducten in de Nederlandse veevoedings¬industrie is berekend op 1,8 mln. ton per jaar.
Bioactive components of fermented soya beans effective against diarrhoea-associated bacteria
Roubos-van den Hil, P.J. - \ 2010
University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering; Harry Gruppen, co-promotor(en): Rob Nout. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857136 - 152
tempé - sojabonen - diarree - enzymactiviteit - arabinose - fermentatie - bioactieve verbindingen - tempeh - soyabeans - diarrhoea - enzyme activity - fermentation - bioactive compounds
Tempe is a fermented food, obtained by fungal fermentation of soya beans. During the processing specific flavour, texture and nutritional properties are achieved. Previous research has indicated that tempe reduced the incidence and severity of diarrhoea. In this thesis the bioactive effects of tempe on diarrhoea-associated bacteria are described.
Tempe appeared to be antibacterial against Bacillus cereus cells and spores, but not against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Nevertheless, tempe was found to inhibit the adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells.
Experiments showed that the inhibition of adhesion was caused by an interaction between ETEC and tempe extracts. A range of ETEC strains was shown to be sensitive for the anti-adhesive component, making the bioactivity of broader interest for applications in feed matrices.
Furthermore, several substrates (legumes and cereals) were fermented and all fermented legumes tested were equally bioactive as the fermented soya beans, whereas the fermented cereals were not active. The use of different starter cultures showed that Bacillus spp., moulds and some yeasts were capable to release or form the bioactive component during fermentation, thus the bioactivity was not specific for one microbial species.
After heating, defatting and protease treatment of the bioactive tempe extracts, they remained bioactive. On the contrary, after treatment with polysaccharide degrading enzyme mixtures the bioactivity was lost. This suggests that the bioactive component contains carbohydrates, and explains the interaction between ETEC and tempe extracts, which could indeed be established by carbohydrates of the tempe extract. Ultra-filtration revealed the bioactive component to have molecular masses >30 kDa. Further purification yielded an active fraction with an increased carbohydrate content. Monosaccharide analysis showed the importance of arabinose in the bioactive components.
In conclusion, the bioactive component is released or formed during fermentation by enzymatic degradation of legumes. The bioactive component is of carbohydrate nature and contains arabinose, which originates from arabinan or arabinogalactan chains of the pectic cell wall polysaccharides of legumes.
The institutional and legal environment for GM soy in Brazil
Franke, A.C. ; Greco, F.M. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Noordam, M.Y. ; Roza, P. ; Eaton, D.J.F. ; Bindraban, P.S. ; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 298) - 42
glycine - sojabonen - gewasproductie - genetische transformatie - wetgeving - handel - brazilië - soyabeans - crop production - genetic transformation - legislation - trade - brazil
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