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Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals
Sari, Y.W. ; Bruins, M.E. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2013
Industrial Crops and Products 43 (2013). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 78 - 83.
functional-properties - soy protein - antioxidant capacity - conversion factors - phenolic-acids - products - chemicals - biomass - alkaline - heat
Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae without prior oil removal was also tested. The extraction was performed varying temperature, pH, and type of enzyme. More protein was extracted at alkaline conditions, compared to acidic conditions. At alkaline pH, 80% protein of soybean meal and 15–30% protein of rapeseed and microalgae meals was extracted without enzyme addition. The addition of enzyme under this condition increased protein extraction yield to 90% for soybean meal and 50–80% for rapeseed and microalgae meals. Here, Protex 40XL, Protex P, and Protex 5L that work at alkaline pH assisted protein extraction particularly for rapeseed and microalgae meals. Microalgae without prior oil removal had the lowest protein extraction yield, illustrating that oil removal prior to protein extraction is beneficial for protein recovery. In general, protein extraction was influenced by pH, the type of biomass, and the addition of enzyme, but not by the type of enzyme that was used.
Jatropha seed protein functional properties for technical applications
Lestari, D. ; Mulder, W.J. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2011
Biochemical Engineering Journal 53 (2011)3. - ISSN 1369-703X - p. 297 - 304.
soy protein - antinutritional factors - curcas - films - concentrate - interfaces - extraction - oilseed - plant - foams
Jatropha press cake, by-product after oil expression from Jatropha seeds, contains 24–28% protein on dry basis. Objectives of this research were to investigate functional properties, such as solubility, emulsifying, foaming, film forming, and adhesive properties, of Jatropha press cake proteins and compared those with relevant industrial proteins. From our study, we found that protein extracted from press cake proteins had a solubility of about 90% above pH 9. Emulsifying properties of press cake protein were comparable to sodium caseinates and reached the highest value at pH 9–10. Jatropha proteins formed films with tensile strength of 0.4–1.8 MPa with 10–75% elongation, which were below soy protein or wheat-gluten. Further oil removal from press cake decreased emulsifying properties, while increased foaming and adhesive properties of the extracted proteins. Protein extracted from de-oiled press cake showed better foaming properties than sodium caseinate at pH 10, but lower than egg white protein at all pH. Furthermore, press cake protein showed better adhesive properties than casein adhesives at the same dry matter content. Based on these results, Jatropha press cake protein showed most promising results on adhesive and emulsifying properties, which indicate the potential of Jatropha press cake protein as emulsifier or paper adhesive.
No Effect of Red Clover-Derived Isoflavone Intervention on the Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in Women at Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer
Vrieling, A. ; Rookus, M.A. ; Kampman, E. ; Bonfrer, J.M.G. ; Bosma, A. ; Cats, A. ; Doorn, J. van; Korse, C.M. ; Witteman, B.J.M. ; Leeuwen, F.E. van; van't Veer, L.J. ; Voskuil, D.W. - \ 2008
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 17 (2008)10. - ISSN 1055-9965 - p. 2585 - 2593.
healthy postmenopausal women - hormone replacement therapy - randomized controlled-trial - igf-binding-proteins - factor-i - prostate-cancer - soy protein - premenopausal women - antioxidant status - dna microarray
Background: Increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II concentrations are related to increased colorectal cancer risk. Isoflavones have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, and may affect the IGF system because of their weak estrogenic activity. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of isolated isoflavones on serum concentrations of IGF system components. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover trial in four hospitals in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of an 8-week supplementation with red clover¿derived isoflavones (84 mg/d) on serum IGF-I concentrations. In addition, serum concentrations of IGF-II and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were assessed. Normal colorectal tissue biopsies were obtained after the first intervention period and mRNA expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and IGF-IR was evaluated. Our study population consisted of 34 postmenopausal women with a family history of colorectal cancer or a personal history of colorectal adenomas. Results: Isoflavone supplementation did not significantly affect serum concentrations of total IGF-I (mean relative within-person difference; IGF-I, ¿2.0%; 95% confidence interval, ¿8.0% to 3.9%). IGF-II and IGFBPs were also not significantly altered after isoflavone supplementation. Colorectal tissue mRNA expression of IGF system components did not significantly differ between individuals on isoflavone supplementation and those who received placebo. Conclusions: The results of our trial, supported by a qualitative review of soy trials published to date, suggest that isoflavones do not significantly affect circulating levels of IGF system components. Increased levels of IGF-I, as observed in most of these trials, are likely due to simultaneous protein suppl
Isolated Isoflavones do not affect the circulating insulin-like growth factor system in men at increased colorectal cancer risk
Vrieling, A. ; Rookus, M.A. ; Kampman, E. ; Bonfrer, J.M.G. ; Korse, C.M. ; Doorn, J. van; Lampe, J.W. ; Cats, A. ; Witteman, B.J.M. ; Leeuwen, F.E. van; van't Veer, L.J. ; Voskuil, D.W. - \ 2007
The Journal of Nutrition 137 (2007)2. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 379 - 383.
estrogen replacement therapy - red-clover - factor-i - postmenopausal women - binding protein-3 - soy protein - clinical characteristics - premenopausal women - antioxidant status - human health
Epidemiological studies show that increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are related to increased colorectal cancer risk. A reduced colorectal cancer risk has been associated with isoflavones, which might affect the IGF-system because of their weak estrogenic activity. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study to investigate the effect of an 8-wk isolated isoflavone supplementation (84 mg/d) on serum concentrations of total IGF-I, free IGF-I, total IGF-II, IGF binding protein (BP)-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3. Additionally, we investigated whether IGF-system component differences were related to concentrations of the more potent estrogenic isoflavone metabolite, equol. Our study population consisted of 37 men with a family history of colorectal cancer or a personal history of colorectal adenomas. Isoflavone supplementation did not significantly affect serum total IGF-I concentrations (relative difference between serum total IGF-I concentrations after isoflavone supplementation and after placebo: ¿1.3%, 95% CI ¿8.6 to 6.0%). Neither free IGF-I, nor total IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, or IGFBP-3 concentrations were significantly altered. Interestingly, the change in serum IGF-I concentrations after isoflavone supplementation was negatively associated with serum equol concentrations (r = ¿0.49, P = 0.002). In conclusion, isolated isoflavones did not affect the circulating IGF-system in a male high-risk population for colorectal cancer. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study that suggests isoflavones might have an IGF-I lowering effect in equol producers only. This underlines the importance of taking into account equol status in future isoflavone intervention studies
Protein-flavour interactions in relation to development of novel protein foods
Heng, L. ; Koningsveld, G.A. van; Gruppen, H. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Vincken, J.P. ; Roozen, J.P. ; Voragen, A.G.J. - \ 2004
Trends in Food Science and Technology 15 (2004)3-4. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 217 - 224.
pea pisum-sativum - bovine serum-albumin - soy protein - beta-lactoglobulin - saponin content - soyasaponin-i - functional-properties - mass-spectrometry - binding - model
Proteins are known to interact with relatively small molecules such as flavour compounds and saponins, and may thus influence the taste perception of food. In this study, the interactions of flavour volatiles with pea proteins, and the effects of heat on these interactions were investigated. The presence of saponins, which are non-volatile flavour compounds, was also explored. Saponins are known to contribute to the bitterness in pea and were found to interact with proteins. Pea proteins, legumin (11S) and vicilin (7S), were used for interaction studies with aldehydes and ketones using static headspace-gas chromatography (SH-GC). The binding of various flavour compounds as a function of concentration was studied at pH 7.6 and pH 3.8. Vicilin binds both aldehydes and ketones at pH 7.6 and pH 3.8. Legumin only showed binding to aldehydes at pH 7.6 and no binding to aldehydes or ketones at pH 3.8. The effect of heat on vicilin-flavour interactions was studied at pH 7.6. Heating of vicilin seemed to lead to a decrease in the binding of aldehydes and ketones to the protein. In addition, the presence of saponins in hulled pea flour was identified by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and three groups of saponins, A, B and DDMP saponins were found to be present, with group B saponins dominating. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Higher usual dietary intake of phytoestrogens is associated with lower aortic stiffness in postmenopausal women
Schouw, Y.T. van der; Pijpe, A. ; Lebrun, C.E.I. ; Bots, M.L. ; Peeters, P.H.M. ; Staveren, W.A. van; Lamberts, S.W.J. ; Grobbee, D.E. - \ 2002
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 22 (2002)8. - ISSN 1079-5642 - p. 1316 - 1322.
cardiovascular risk-factors - systemic arterial compliance - low-density-lipoprotein - stage renal-disease - pulse-wave velocity - cynomolgus monkeys - soy protein - atherosclerosis progression - plasma-lipids - all-cause
Objective¿ Phytoestrogens have been postulated to protect against cardiovascular diseases, but few studies have focused on the effect of Western dietary phytoestrogen intake. Methods and Results¿ Four hundred three women with natural menopause either between 1987 and 1989 or between 1969 and 1979 were selected from the baseline data of the PROSPECT study (n=17 395). Isoflavone and lignan intake was calculated from a food-frequency questionnaire. Aortic stiffness was noninvasively assessed by pulse-wave velocity measurement of the aorta. Linear regression analysis was used. After adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, mean arterial pressure, follow-up time, energy intake, dietary fiber intake, glucose, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increasing dietary isoflavone intake was associated with decreased aortic stiffness: -0.51 m/s (95% CI -1.00 to -0.03, fourth versus first quartile, P for trend=0.07). Increasing dietary intake of lignans was also associated with decreased aortic pulse-wave velocity: -0.42 m/s (95% CI -0.93 to 0.11, fourth versus first quartile, P for trend=0.06). Results were most pronounced in older women: for isoflavones, -0.94 m/s (95% CI -1.65 to -0.22, P for trend=0.02), and for lignans, -0.80 m/s (95% CI -1.85 to -0.05), fourth versus first quartile. Conclusions¿ The results of our study support the view that phytoestrogens have a protective effect on the risk of atherosclerosis and arterial degeneration through an effect on arterial walls, especially among older women