Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Development of a breeding strategy for nitrogen use efficiency in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
Chan Navarrete, J.R. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Edith Lammerts van Bueren, co-promotor(en): Oene Dolstra; Gerard van der Linden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577961 - 161 p.
spinacia oleracea - spinach - plant breeding - nitrogen - nutrient use efficiency - genetic mapping - nitrogen fertilizers - fertilizer application - genetic diversity - nitrogen response - spinazie - plantenveredeling - stikstof - nutriëntengebruiksefficiëntie - genetische kartering - stikstofmeststoffen - bemesting - genetische diversiteit - stikstofrespons

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is one of the most consumed leafy vegetables worldwide and it is considered to be highly nutritious. Spinach is a short-cycle leafy crop that has a high demand for nitrogen in order to rapidly come to a harvestable product that has the required dark green colour within a reasonable harvest window. In commercial production of spinach the recovery of N is poor, which may result in environmental pollution. To increase sustainability of both organic and conventional spinach cultivation there is a need to reduce the dependency on high levels of nitrogen. Growers therefore urgently need cultivars with a satisfactory yield under reduced N input conditions. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), defined as the ability to produce high biomass per unit N applied, is low in spinach. The present study aims to evaluate spinach genotypes for selectable traits under varying N supply and provide tools and knowledge to facilitate the development of varieties with good yield, quality and stability under low N input. To minimise environmental variation affecting the identification of traits related to NUE a screening method was developed using a hydroponics system. The genetic diversity for NUE related traits was first studied with 24 commercial cultivars under contrasting levels of N supply based on the Ingestad model with a steady-state N application. This demonstrated that the hydroponics screening strategy as a pre-screening tool enabled reliable detection of heritable variation among cultivars for NUE-related traits under optimal as well as suboptimal N input. Shoot dry weight and leaf area were preferred selectable traits for the detection of heritable differences contributing to NUE in spinach. The effect of N application strategy was examined in seven cultivars grown under hydroponics conditions with low and high N levels supplied either as a single bulk N application resembling N fertilization in field cultivation, or a steady-state N application according to Ingestad. The latter application strategy provided more stable and reproducible conditions for determination of genetic differences in NUE under low N conditions for a short-cycle leafy vegetable crop. Several tools for molecular genetic evaluation of NUE in spinach were provided as well, including a SNP marker set for marker-assisted breeding, a genetic mapping population with a corresponding genetic map, and the identification of two major QTL regions contributing to growth under low N conditions. With these tools, an efficient strategy for breeding for NUE efficiency in spinach would include screening under controlled conditions at high and low N using leaf area, biomass and root to shoot ratio as selectable traits, and QTL identification of genetic factors that can be targeted and combined using marker-assisted selection. An in depth genotype by environment interaction analysis using six field trials showed that environmental factors like temperature, soil, and management strongly influence nitrogen availability in the soil in a short cycle crop like spinach. This severely complicates selection and breeding for NUE of spinach under field conditions, and emphasizes the importance of performing trials under better controllable conditions for genetic dissection of NUE and discovery of genetic factors contributing to NUE. It also underscores the importance of validating these findings in various field trials. Multi-environment field trials with different levels of N fertilization will then allow selection of cultivars that combine stable performance under various low input growing conditions with high yields under more favorable conditions.

Voedselveiligheid bij luchthavens : rapportage van gewasmetingen spinazie en boerenkool bij de luchthavens van Lelystad en Bremen
Simons, H.A.E. ; Dijk, C.J. van; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van - \ 2015
Nieuwegein : LBP/Sight - 35 p.
luchthavens - gewasanalyse - gewaskwaliteit - gewasteelt - gewasmonitoring - monitoring - voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - spinazie - boerenkool - airports - plant analysis - crop quality - crop management - crop monitoring - food safety - food quality - spinach - curley kales
In de Kabinetsreactie op het door de Alderstafel uitgebrachte advies omtrent de ontwikkeling van de luchthaven Lelystad, heeft het kabinet het advies overgenomen om Lelystad gecontroleerd te ontwikkelen naar een luchthaven met circa 45.000 vliegtuigbewegingen per jaar. Voor de uitwerking van het advies is door de Alderstafel Lelystad een werkprogramma opgesteld. In dit werkprogramma is opgenomen dat er een monitoringsprogramma wordt uitgewerkt om de effecten van de uitbreiding van de luchthaven op de duurzame landbouw te beoordelen. Dit monitoringsprogramma is in overleg met de betrokken partijen opgesteld en is in uitvoering. Onderdeel van het programma zijn gewasmetingen bestaande uit een nulmeting bij Lelystad en een referentiemeting bij Bremen (de luchthaven van Bremen komt qua aantal vliegbewegingen overeen met de toekomstige omvang van Lelystad). De onderzoeksopdracht behorende bij deze gewasmetingen is het beantwoorden van de volgende twee hoofdvragen. 1) Heeft een luchthaven als Lelystad een onderscheidenlijke invloed op de kwaliteit van de gewassen die in de omgeving geteeld worden? 2) Heeft de ontwikkeling naar circa 45.000 vliegtuigbewegingen per jaar een mogelijk onder-scheidenlijk effect op de kwaliteit van de gewassen die in de omgeving geteeld worden?
Storage of intact heads prior to processing limits the shelf-life of fresh-cut Lactuca sativa L.
Witkowska, I.M. ; Woltering, E.J. - \ 2014
Postharvest Biology and Technology 91 (2014). - ISSN 0925-5214 - p. 25 - 31.
growth stage - lollo-rosso - antioxidant capacity - induced senescence - leaf senescence - lettuce - quality - spinach - leaves - vegetables
Harvested lettuce heads are usually transported and stored for some period of time under a variety of conditions prior to processing. During storage, especially under suboptimal conditions, nutritional composition of the harvested produce continues to change. The possible impact of prior storage of the heads on the performance of the fresh-cut product has not been quantified, and was the aim of this study. The experiments were performed with three related genotypes of Lactuca sativa L. (butterhead lettuce): two green varieties and one red variety. The effect of prior storage on quality parameters in the stored whole heads and on subsequent fresh-cut quality performance was investigated. In addition, the effect of prior storage of heads with and without their root system and the application of light during storage were investigated. The changes in visual quality, the levels of energy reserves, and some selected senescence markers, i.e. chlorophyll content and electrolyte leakage were evaluated. Despite the relatively high storage temperature of 12 °C, the intact heads still looked fresh even after 17 days of storage. However, a decline in the soluble sugars, a decrease in chlorophyll, and an increase in electrolyte leakage were observed with advancing storage duration. Prior storage of intact heads greatly decreased the shelf-life of the fresh-cut product prepared from these heads. Storage of rooted heads and the continuous application of light (above the light compensation point) did not alter the effect of prior storage of the heads on the quality of the fresh-cut product
Voorkomen van schade door bonenvlieg : effectiviteit van zaad- en bodembehandelingen en aanvullende maatregelen om stamslabonen te beschermen tegen de maden van de bonenvlieg (2013)
Rozen, K. van; Vlaswinkel, M.E.T. - \ 2014
Lelystad : PPO AGV - 28
delia platura - insectenbestrijding - phaseolus vulgaris - gewasbescherming - vollegrondsgroenten - vollegrondsteelt - veldproeven - plagenbestrijding - groenteteelt - spinazie - insecticiden - insect control - plant protection - field vegetables - outdoor cropping - field tests - pest control - vegetable growing - spinach - insecticides
In de bonenteelt veroorzaken de maden van de bonenvlieg vraatschade in de kiem- en opkomstperiode, wat kan leiden tot plantwegval en vervolgens opbrengstverlies. Het toegelaten middelenpakket beperkt zich tot één insecticide waarmee het zaad wordt behandeld. Nieuwe middelen met een laag negatief milieuprofiel, insect werende producten en praktische teeltmaatregelen zijn gewenst tegen de verschillende stadia van de bonenvlieg. Dit rapport geeft de resultaten van een veldproef en een demo uitgevoerd in 2013 weer en is het vervolg op de deskstudie en het veldonderzoek in 2012.
Automatisch onkruid bestrijden PPL-094 : doorontwikkelen algoritmes voor herkenning onkruid in uien, peen en spinazie
Hemming, J. ; Barth, R. ; Nieuwenhuizen, A.T. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosysteemkunde - 21
akkerbouw - groenteteelt - veldgewassen - uien - penen - spinazie - precisielandbouw - onkruidbestrijding - gewasbescherming - geografische informatiesystemen - gegevensverwerking - arable farming - vegetable growing - field crops - onions - carrots - spinach - precision agriculture - weed control - plant protection - geographical information systems - data processing
Detectie van onkruiden in een volvelds gewas als spinazie heeft zeker kans van slagen. Op basis van het beschikbare beeldmateriaal zijn richtingen aangegeven hoe onkruid in volvelds gewassen herkend kan worden. Detectie van onkruiden in uien is mogelijk. Op basis van historisch beeldmateriaal op lage en hoge resolutie, aangevuld met een goede kasproef met beelden op hoge resolutie hebben aangetoond dat onkruid van geclusterde zaaiui kan worden onderscheiden. Voor detectie van onkruiden in peen gaat vrijwel hetzelfde op als beschreven bij de uien. Peen heeft namelijk ook een zeer sprieterig blad karakter. Belangrijk extra onderscheid is dat peen na de kieming twee verschillende karakteristieke vormen heeft.
Popeye gaat duurzaam! Groene Veredeling 12 juni 2013
Linden, Gerard van der - \ 2013
plant breeding - spinach - leafy vegetables - field vegetables - nutrient use efficiency - molecular breeding - sustainable agriculture - organic farming
Popeye gaat duurzaam! De ontwikkeling van een integrale veredelingsstrategie voor een duurzame spinazieteelt
Scholten, O.E. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2012
Wageningen UR en Louis Bolk Instituut
spinazie - bladgroenten - rassen (planten) - resistentie van variëteiten - stikstof - bemesting - duurzame landbouw - tests - vollegrondsgroenten - plantenveredeling - spinach - leafy vegetables - varieties - varietal resistance - nitrogen - fertilizer application - sustainable agriculture - field vegetables - plant breeding
In dit project wordt kennis en uitgangsmateriaal ontwikkeld voor een duurzame teelt van spinazie. Daarmee kunnen rassen ontwikkeld worden die met een lage stikstofbemesting een goede oogstzekerheid en kwaliteit bieden. Daarnaast wordt in een pilotstudie onderzocht of- en welk spinazie uitgangsmateriaal duurzame resistentie tegen ‘wolf’ bevat.
Vooral wilde soorten kunnen bijdragen aan tripresistentie in prei: volgend jaar resultaten kruisingen bekend (interview met O.E. Scholten en E.T. Lammerts van Bueren)
Doorn, Dieke van; Scholten, Olga ; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith - \ 2012
plant breeding - resistance breeding - thrips - leeks - nutrient use efficiency - spinach - leafy vegetables - field vegetables
Groene veredeling
Scholten, O.E. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2012
Wageningen [etc.] : Wageningen UR etc. - 16
plantenveredeling - duurzame landbouw - landbouwkundig onderzoek - akkerbouw - vollegrondsgroenten - aardappelen - preien - spinazie - tomaten - onderzoeksprojecten - plant breeding - sustainable agriculture - agricultural research - arable farming - field vegetables - potatoes - leeks - spinach - tomatoes - research projects
Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (EL&I) stimuleert de veredeling van nieuwe, robuuste rassen. Daarom heeft EL&I opdracht gegeven tot het onderzoeksprogramma Groene Veredeling. De robuuste rassen die met de verkregen kennis worden ontwikkeld, dragen bij aan het overheidsbeleid voor verdere verduurzaming van zowel gangbare als biologische landbouw. Deze brochure informeert direct betrokkenen van het onderzoeksprogramma Groene Veredeling – beleidsmakers, veredelaars, telers en onderzoekers – over de doelstellingen en de te verwachten resultaten.
Influence of organic and mineral fertilization on germination, leaf nitrogen, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth
Onyango, C. ; Harbinson, J. ; Imungi, J.K. ; Shibairo, S.S. ; Kooten, O. van - \ 2012
Journal of Plant Nutrition 35 (2012)3. - ISSN 0190-4167 - p. 342 - 365.
photosynthetic characteristics - use efficiency - nutrition - spinach - quality - growth - leaves - maize - light - productivity
The influence of manure and diammonium phosphate (DAP) mineral fertilizer on germination, leaf nitrogen content, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was investigated. Field trials were set up at the University of Nairobi Field Station at the Upper Kabete Campus during the long rains of March–May in 2007 and 2008. Trials were laid out as complete randomized block design with four fertilization treatments: 20, 40, and 60 kg nitrogen (N) ha-1 supplied by DAP (18:46:0), 40 kg N ha-1 supplied by cattle manure and an unfertilized control variant. The vegetables were harvested at three maturity stages at 6, 7, and 8 weeks after planting. Results indicated that there were significant differences between treatments in germination percentage, leaf nitrogen content, nitrate accumulation and vegetable yield. Plants that received manure had a higher germination percentage than those that received the same amount of N supplied by the chemical fertilizer DAP. The yields generally increased from week 6 to week 8. The highest yield was recorded in plots receiving 40 kg N ha-1 from DAP at eight weeks after planting. Plots that were supplied with manure recorded the lowest yield when compared to the fertilizer treated plots at all rates. Leaf nitrogen content increased with increasing rate of N but only when N was supplied by DAP fertilizer. The leaf nitrogen content decreased with increasing age of the plants. The leaf nitrate content increased with increase in DAP application rate. Results indicate that manure application produced quality vegetables in terms of low nitrate levels, but leaf nitrogen and vegetable yields were low. DAP application effected higher yields, but the vegetables had high though acceptable nitrate levels
Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb’s lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps
Treuren, R. van; Coquin, P. ; Lohwasser, U. - \ 2012
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59 (2012)6. - ISSN 0925-9864 - p. 981 - 997.
genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - bladgroenten - databanken - genenbanken - cichorei - slasoorten - spinazie - plant genetic resources - leafy vegetables - databases - gene banks - chicory - lettuces - spinach - cichorium-intybus l - species relationships - cultivated lettuce - globe artichoke - aflp markers - asteraceae - identification - conservation - populations - redundancy
Lettuce, spinach and chicory are generally considered the main leafy vegetables, while a fourth group denoted by ‘minor leafy vegetables’ includes, amongst others, rocket salad, lamb’s lettuce, asparagus, artichoke and rhubarb. Except in the case of lettuce, central crop databases of leafy vegetables were lacking until recently. Here we report on the update of the international Lactuca database and the development of three new central crop databases for each of the other leafy vegetable crop groups. Requests for passport data of accessions available to the user community were addressed to all known European collection holders and to the main collection holders located outside Europe. Altogether, passport data of 17,530 accessions from a total of 129 collections were collected. The four separate databases were made available on line via a common entry page accessible at Based on a literature study, an analysis of the gene pool structure of the crops was performed and an inventory was made of the distribution areas of the species involved. The results of these surveys were related to the contents of the newly established databases in order to identify the main collection gaps. Priorities are presented for future germplasm acquisition aimed at improving the coverage of the crop gene pools in ex situ collections.
Vers bloed voor spinazie (interview met C. Kik)
Nijland, R. ; Kik, C. - \ 2011
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 5 (2011)22. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
spinazie - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genenbanken - wilde verwanten - spinacia - zaad verzamelen - landrassen - bladgroenten - spinach - plant genetic resources - gene banks - wild relatives - seed collection - landraces - leafy vegetables
Chris Kik van het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland (CGN) keerde afgelopen weekend terug van een eenmansexpeditie door Azerbeidzjan, Georgië en Armenië. Resultaat van de reis: een koffer volgepropt met 53 witte linnen zakjes zaad van wilde en lokaal geteelde spinazie. Dat materiaal gaat dienen als vers bloed voor de veredelingsbedrijven, maar, zo benadrukt Kik, het verzamelen ervan is ook belangrijk voor behoud van de biodiversteit.
Phenotypic changes in different spinach varieties grown and selected under organic conditions
Serpolay, E. ; Schermann, N. ; Dawson, J.C. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Goldringer, I. ; Chable, V. - \ 2011
Sustainability 3 (2011)9. - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 1616 - 1636.
rassen (planten) - plantenvermeerdering - fenotypische selectie - fenotypen - spinacia oleracea - spinazie - conservering op het bedrijf - plantenveredeling - biologische landbouw - varieties - propagation - phenotypic selection - phenotypes - spinach - on-farm conservation - plant breeding - organic farming
Organic and low-input agriculture needs flexible varieties that can buffer environmental stress and adapt to the needs of farmers. We implemented an experiment to investigate the evolutionary capacities of a sample of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) population varieties for a number of phenotypic traits. Three farmers cultivated, selected and multiplied one or several populations over two years on their farms. The third year, the versions of the varieties cultivated and selected by the different farmers were compared to the original seed lots they had been given. After two cycles of cultivation and on-farm mass selection, all the observed varieties showed significant phenotypic changes (differences between the original version and the version cultivated by farmers) for morphological and phenological traits. When the divergence among versions within varieties was studied, the results show that the varieties conserved their identity, except for one variety, which evolved in such a way that it may now be considered two different varieties. The heterogeneity of the population varieties was assessed in comparison with a commercial F1 hybrid used as control, and we found no specific differences in phenotypic diversity between the hybrid and population varieties. The phenotypic changes shown by the population varieties in response to on-farm cultivation and selection could be useful for the development of specific adaptation. These results call into question the current European seed legislation and the requirements of phenotypic stability for conservation varieties
Popeye in de Kaukasus : zoektocht naar wilde spinazie (interview met C. Kik)
Nijland, R. ; Kik, C. - \ 2011
WageningenWorld (2011). - ISSN 2210-7908
spinazie - spinacia oleracea - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - kaukasus - plantenveredeling - genenbanken - spinach - plant genetic resources - caucasus - plant breeding - gene banks
Chris Kik van de Wageningse genenbank reisde door de zuidelijke Kaukasus om het zaad van wilde spinazie te verzamelen. Veredelingsbedrijven wachtten gretig op zijn terugkeer; zij zitten te springen om vers bloed voor de spinazieteelt.
Superspinazie voor de bioteelt
Linden, C.G. van der - \ 2011
Kennis Online 8 (2011)mei 2011. - p. 5 - 5.
spinazie - biologische plantenveredeling - plantenveredeling - bemesting - biologische landbouw - spinach - organic plant breeding - plant breeding - fertilizer application - organic farming
Nederland is ’s werelds grootste exporteur van spinaziezaad en het verst in de veredeling van deze bladgroente. Telers en zaad- en veredelingsbedrijven willen nu ook spinazie die beter geschikt is voor de biologische landbouw. Daarom zoekt Wageningen UR naar spinazie die toe kan met minder mest.
Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of ß-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique
Bouwman, C.A. ; Naber, T.H.J. ; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D. ; Dicke, H. ; Siebelink, E. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Russel, F.G.M. ; Schaafsma, G. ; West, C.E. - \ 2010
British Journal of Nutrition 103 (2010)12. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1836 - 1843.
mass-spectrometry - bioavailability - retinol - humans - volunteers - adults - bioefficacy - spinach - carrots - meals
The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent ß-carotene absorption as measured by the oral–faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study. Each subject followed both diets for 2 weeks: a diet containing vegetables low in ß-carotene content with supplemental ß-carotene in salad dressing oil (‘oil diet’; mean ß-carotene intake 3·1 mg/d) and a diet containing vegetables and fruits high in ß-carotene content (‘mixed diet’; mean ß-carotene intake 7·6 mg/d). Daily each subject consumed a mean of 190 µg [13C10]ß-carotene and 195 µg [13C10]retinyl palmitate in oil capsules. The vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene was calculated as the dose-corrected ratio of [13C5]retinol to [13C10]retinol in serum. Apparent absorption of ß-carotene was determined with oral–faecal balance. Isotopic data quantified a vitamin A equivalency of [13C10]ß-carotene in oil of 3·6:1 (95 % CI 2·8, 4·6) regardless of dietary matrices differences. The apparent absorption of (labelled and dietary) ß-carotene from the ‘oil diet’ (30 %) was 1·9-fold higher than from the ‘mixed diet’ (16 %). This extrinsic labelling technique can measure precisely the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in oil capsules, but it does not represent the effect of different dietary matrices
Minder en anders bemesten : voordelen van maaimeststoffen voor de teelt van najaarsspinazie : resultaten veldproef bij Joost van Strien in Ens
Scholberg, J.M.S. ; Berg, C. ter; Staps, J.J.M. ; Strien, J. van - \ 2009
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut (Rapport / Louis Bolk Instituut 2010-007 LbP) - 51
spinazie - groenbemesters - kringlopen - biologische landbouw - stikstof - bemesting - vollegrondsteelt - biologisch-dynamische landbouw - spinach - green manures - cycling - organic farming - nitrogen - fertilizer application - outdoor cropping - biodynamic farming
In 2009 heeft het Louis Bolk Instituut onderzoek verricht naar het gebruik van versgemaaide en ingekuilde maaimeststoffen voor de bemesting van najaarspinazie op het biodynamische bedrijf van Joost van Strien in de Noord Oost Polder. Vers gemaaide grasklaver, luzerne, en ingekuilde luzerne werden vergeleken met het gebruik van kippenmest. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat door gebruik van het systeem dat op het bedrijf van Joost van Strien is ontwikkeld, doelgericht gebruik kan worden gemaakt van meerjarige vlinderbloemige gewassen. Hierdoor worden zowel het bodemleven en bodemkwaliteit bevorderd terwijl de afhankelijkheid van biologische akkerbouw van externe dierlijke meststoffen sterk wordt verminderd door het sluiten van interne nutriëntenkringlopen.
Vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in healthy adults: limitation of the extrinsic dual-isotope dilution technique to measure matrix effect
Bouwman, C.A. ; West, C.E. ; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D. ; Siebelink, E. ; Versloot, P. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Lieshout, M. van; Russel, F.G.M. ; Schaafsma, G. ; Naber, T.H.J. - \ 2009
British Journal of Nutrition 101 (2009)12. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1837 - 1845.
mass-spectrometry - leafy vegetables - dark-green - bioavailability - retinol - humans - bioconversion - serum - consumption - spinach
Data on the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in food are inconsistent. We quantified the vitamin A equivalency (¿g) of ß-carotene in two diets using the dual-isotope dilution technique and the oral¿faecal balance technique. A diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study was conducted in twenty-four healthy adults. Each subject followed two diets for 3 weeks each: a diet containing vegetables low in ß-carotene with supplemental ß-carotene in salad dressing oil ('oil diet') and a diet containing vegetables and fruits high in ß-carotene ('mixed diet'). During all 6 weeks, each subject daily consumed a mean of 55 (sd 0·5) ¿g [13C10]ß-carotene and 55 (sd 0·5) ¿g [13C10]retinyl palmitate in oil capsules. The vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene was calculated as the dose-corrected ratio of [13C5]retinol to [13C10]retinol in serum and from apparent absorption by oral-faecal balance. Isotopic data quantified a vitamin A equivalency of [13C10]ß-carotene in oil of 3·4 ¿g (95 % CI 2·8, 3·9), thus the bio-efficacy of the ß-carotene in oil was 28 % in the presence of both diets. However, data from oral-faecal balance estimated vitamin A equivalency as 6:1 ¿g (95 % CI 4, 7) for ß-carotene in the 'oil diet'. ß-Carotene in the 'oil diet' had 2·9-fold higher vitamin A equivalency than ß-carotene in the 'mixed diet'. In conclusion, this extrinsic labelling technique cannot measure effects of mixed vegetables and fruits matrices, but can measure precisely the vitamin A equivalency of the ß-carotene in oil capsules
Seed quality in genetic resources conservation : a case study at the Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands
Groot, S.P.C. ; Groot, E.C. de - \ 2008
Wageningen : Centre for genetic resources (CGN) (Report / Centre for Genetic Resources 2008/11) - 47
zaden - kiemrust - zaadlevensduur - zaadkieming - zaadkwaliteit - zaadveroudering - zaadleeftijd - genenbanken - gewassen - zaad verzamelen - aardappelen - uien - spinazie - slasoorten - erwten - vicia faba - bonen - meloenen - komkommers - tomaten - vlas - graansoorten - akkerbouw - zaadproductie - ex-situ conservering - opslag van zaden - seeds - seed dormancy - seed longevity - seed germination - seed quality - seed aging - seed age - gene banks - crops - seed collection - potatoes - onions - spinach - lettuces - peas - beans - melons - cucumbers - tomatoes - flax - cereals - arable farming - seed production - ex situ conservation - seed storage
This report describes an analysis of the impact of workflow and storage conditions at the Centre for Genetic Resources the Netherlands (CGN) on the quality of seed samples in their genebank collection which is maintained under low temperature and low relative humidity conditions. Emphasis is placed on seed longevity and health.
Schaderelaties Meloidogyne chitwoodi
Korthals, G.W. ; Visser, J.H.M. - \ 2008
meloidogyne chitwoodi - oogstschade - nematoda - schade - gevoeligheid van variëteiten - aardappelen - penen - suikerbieten - cichorium intybus - erwten - peulvruchten - spinacia oleracea - spinazie - vollegrondsteelt - crop damage - damage - varietal susceptibility - potatoes - carrots - sugarbeet - peas - grain legumes - spinach - outdoor cropping
Dit project richt zich op het bepalen van schaderelaties tussen Meloidogyne chitwoodi en een aantal economisch belangrijke gewassen (aardappel, suikerbiet, waspeen, witlof, spinazie en erwt); onderzoek, resultaten en de praktijk
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