Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Ecosysteemdiensten van bomen en groen in de stad
Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
bomen - planten - biodiversiteit - ecosystemen - klimaat - luchtkwaliteit - regenwateropvang - stedelijke gebieden - trees - plants - biodiversity - ecosystems - climate - air quality - water harvesting - urban areas
Groen kost geld en de baten zijn slecht tastbaar. Het project 'Ecosysteemdiensten van boomkwekerijproducten' ontwikkelt instrumenten om de voordelen van groen beter te laten meewegen bij het nemen van beslissingen. Voordelen: verkoeling, luchtzuivering, waterberging en beleefbare biodiversiteit. In eerste instantie voor de productgroep bomen, later ook voor andere productgroepen.
Pionieren : De impact van innovatieve maatschappelijke initiatieven op een natuur-inclusieve samenleving
Salverda, I.E. ; Dam, R.I. van; Pleijte, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 64 p.
natuur - samenleving - participatie - stedelijke gebieden - sport - lopen - burgers - fondsgelden - weidevogels - bodem - nederland - nature - society - participation - urban areas - walking - citizens - funding - grassland birds - soil - netherlands
Pionieren : Jaarmagazine over het DEMOCRATISCH samenspel van groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden
Salverda, I.E. ; Kruit, J. ; Kuijper, Florien ; Koffijberg, M. ; Neefjes, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 39 p.
natuur - openbaar groen - stedelijke gebieden - burgers - participatie - innovaties - vergroening - democratie - nederland - nature - public green areas - urban areas - citizens - participation - innovations - greening - democracy - netherlands
Metropolitan solutions: Droge voeten in een groene stad
Hattum, T. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
klimaat - hittetolerantie - stedelijke gebieden - luchtkwaliteit - regenwateropvang - temperatuur - climate - heat tolerance - urban areas - air quality - water harvesting - temperature
Door klimaatverandering krijgen we steeds vaker te maken met hevige regenval en periodes van extreme hitte en droogte. Veel steden zijn hier niet tegen opgewassen en moeten anders ingericht gaan worden. Groene oplossingen kunnen wateroverlast beperken, de temperatuur verlagen en de luchtkwaliteit verbeteren. Tim van Hattum van Wageningen University & Research vertelt er alles over.
Groen, Gelijk en Eerlijk : Verkenning naar de relatie tussen sociale uitsluiting en de natuurlijke omgeving
Haas, W. de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport ) - 125 p.
Uitsluiting, - Rechtvaardigheid - Achterstandswijken - Armoede - Gezondheid - Natuurlijke omgeving - Groen - Steden - urban areas - management of urban green areas - stedelijke gebieden - groenbeheer
NL: In veel steden over de hele wereld worden groepen in achterstandswijken uitgesloten van het gangbare maatschappelijke verkeer. Dit is een complex fenomeen met vele oorzaken. Ook de natuurlijke omgeving (het groen) speelt hierin een rol. Een case study in vier steden laat zien dat ‘het groen’ op verschillende manieren een rol kan spelen bij het tegengaan van uitsluiting. Hierover is nog weinig bekend, daarom is nagegaan waar nader onderzoek zich op zou kunnen richten. Dit betreft: beter in kaart brengen van de relaties
tussen groen en uitsluiting; een drietal specifieke onderwerpen m.b.t. groen en gezondheid, groene wijkeconomie en ‘third space’; onderzoek gericht op participatie en stedelijk beleid en tenslotte onderzoek naar de grondslagen van groene rechtvaardigheid. UK: In many cities around the world people in deprived areas are excluded from the mainstream socio-economic development. This is a complex phenomenon with many causes. A case study in four cities shows that green measures can play a role in the fight against exclusion. Since little is known about this, the focus for further research is identified. This concerns the mapping of the relations between green and exclusion, three substantive topics (green and health, green district economy, ‘ third space ‘), research focused on participation and urban policy and finally studies into the foundation of environmental justice.
Gezondheidseffecten onder de loep : weldadig groen
Spijker, J.H. ; Vries, S. de - \ 2017
Stadswerk (2017)6. - ISSN 0927-7641 - p. 34 - 36.
gezondheid - warmtestress - temperatuur - kwaliteit - beplantingen - biodiversiteit - stedelijke gebieden - bevolking - stressfactoren - sociaal welzijn - klimaat - health - heat stress - temperature - quality - plantations - biodiversity - urban areas - human population - stress factors - social welfare - climate
Groen speelt een sleutelrol bij een gezonde leefomgeving. De gezondheidseffecten spelen op diverse manieren, maar vooral door de stressverlagende effecten van groen en de hittedempende werking op warme dagen. Het is daarbij wel belangrijk om niet alleen naar de kwantiteit maar ook naar de kwaliteit van het groen te kijken.
Eco-engineering for clarity : clearing blue-green ponds and lakes in an urbanized area
Waajen, Guido W.A.M. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer, co-promotor(en): Miguel Lurling. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431095 - 306
ponds - lakes - ecological engineering - urban areas - cyanobacteria - eutrophication - water quality - water management - plassen - meren - natuurtechniek - stedelijke gebieden - cyanobacteriën - eutrofiëring - waterkwaliteit - waterbeheer

Small lakes and ponds are common features in urban areas and they contribute to the quality of citizens’ life. A poor water quality, however, can easily give rise to nuisance. A major cause for a poor water quality is a high concentration of plant-nourishing nutrients, eutrophication. In (semi-)standing waters, eutrophication often results in a high biomass of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), turbid water and the disappearance of submerged aquatic plants. The cyanobacterial blooms can be accompanied with fish kills due to anoxia, the development of unpleasant surface scums and malodors. As cyanobacteria can produce potent toxins, they impose a serious risk for citizens’ health, pets and wildlife. The cyanobacterial blooms hamper the anthropogenic use of the water and can have negative economic impacts. Water managers experience that the reduction of cyanobacterial nuisance is arduous. As long-term positive effects of management interventions are not often achieved, there is need for effective approaches.

The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of promising methods to reduce cyanobacterial nuisance in city waters, targeting the clear water state and promoting the growth of aquatic plants. Various methods were tested, in the laboratory, in small and large compartments and were eventually applied in whole ponds and lakes. It is widely accepted that the reduction of nutrient inputs is essential for long-term positive effects. This study focused on the reduction of the input and the availability of the key-nutrient phosphorus. It was shown that cyanobacterial nuisance was wide spread in urban ponds and lakes in the Dutch province of North Brabant. The phosphorus inputs of four urban lakes in this province were addressed. The study lakes differed greatly in the phosphorus sources and loads, depending on site-specific characteristics. These differences affected the selection of measures. It was shown that in-lake measures were effective in realizing the long-term abatement of the cyanobacterial nuisance, provided the external phosphorus input was limited. If the external phosphorus input could not be limited sufficiently, in-lake measures did not result in the long-term reduction of cyanobacterial nuisance.

To reduce the bioavailable phosphorus stock in the lake with in-lake measures, sediment capping with a phosphorus-binding agent (lanthanum-modified bentonite, LMB) can be effective and cheaper than sediment removal by dredging. The additional use of a flocculant may have added value and suppressed cyanobacterial blooms quickly and effectively. Aquatic plants and macroinvertebrates responded positively to the achieved improvement of the water quality. Accumulation of lanthanum was shown in aquatic plants and fish, following LMB exposure. No toxic effects of lanthanum from LMB were observed. Depending on site-specific characteristics, dredging or LMB did not suffice to limit the available phosphorus stock in the lake. For this situation, the additional capping of the sediment with sand was tested and subsequently applied in a lake. Management of the fish biomass and lake reconstruction can support rehabilitation. The results of this study underpin the importance of a site-specific diagnosis (water system analysis). The diagnosis clarifies the underlying causes of cyanobacterial nuisances and is essential for a site-specific tailored set of measures. This study showed that a site-specific set of measures reduced cyanobacterial nuisance effectively for a long term.

As eutrophication control is not always feasible or might be effective only in the long run, curative measures are needed for symptom relief. Several curative end-of-pipe measures that are often suggested were evaluated: effective microorganisms (EM®), golden algae, plant extracts, ultrasound and artificial mixing of non-stratifying waters. No strong support for the efficacy of these measures could be shown. Next to the above mentioned application of flocculant, the use of freshwater quagga mussels is promising. The efficacy of the mussels was experimentally tested and it was shown that the introduction of mussels in a hypertrophic urban pond reduced the phytoplankton biomass, including cyanobacteria, and induced a clear water state. The quagga mussel is an invasive alien species and new introductions should be considered carefully.

Based on the results from this study, the thesis provides a road map for water managers for the reduction of cyanobacterial nuisances in urban ponds and lakes.

Citizen science voor natuur in Nederland : van onschatbate waarde en onderschat belang
Breman, Bas ; Vliet, Arnold van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2806) - 43
natuur - burgers - steden - stedelijke gebieden - biodiversiteit - monitoring - nature - citizens - towns - urban areas - biodiversity
Beschermde en bedreigde dieren en planten in de stad : een geografische analyse van geselecteerde Vogelrichtlijn-, Habitatrichtlijn-, en Rode Lijstsoorten
Lahr, Joost ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Lammertsma, Dennis ; Gooedhart, Paul ; Zee, Friso van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2776) - 103
bedreigde soorten - planten - dieren - stedelijke gebieden - vogelrichtlijn - habitatrichtlijn - biodiversiteit - geografische informatiesystemen - steden - endangered species - plants - animals - urban areas - birds directive - habitats directive - biodiversity - geographical information systems - towns
Towards Water Smart Cities : climate adaptation is a huge opportunity to improve the quality of life in cities
Hattum, Tim ; Blauw, Maaike ; Bergen Jensen, Marina ; Bruin, Karianne de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2787) - 60
water - waterbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - steden - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - water management - urban areas - towns - climatic change - climate adaptation
Groene daken in Tilburg : ervaringen, motieven en opschalingsmogelijkheden
Hendriks, Kees ; Hommes, Saskia - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2767) - 49
groene daken - groene gevels - beplantingen - warmtestress - stedelijke gebieden - welzijn - luchtkwaliteit - temperatuur - regenwateropvang - milieufactoren - openbaar groen - green roofs - green walls - plantations - heat stress - urban areas - well-being - air quality - temperature - water harvesting - environmental factors - public green areas
Green roofs can contribute to climate adaptation and a sustainable urban environment. Whether
municipalities for these or other reasons should encourage green roofs, depends on the goals that are
aimed at. For the municipality of Tilburg opportunities were investigated for usage of green roofs as
measure for climate adaptation and for scaling up green roof in Tilburg and other municipalities. In
three projects in Tilburg the opportunities for the application of green roofs and the attitude of actors
involved were investigated. Also, the experiences of six other municipalities, which are promoting
green roofs, were examined. The type of project, purpose, and insight in costs and benefits affect the
attitude of actors and hence the opportunities for application and scaling. In the examined
municipalities green roofs in general are stimulated with subsidy, communication and pilot projects.
The experience with green roofs in other municipalities are predominantly positive.
De Groene Agenda, topsectoronderzoek
Spijker, J.H. ; Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2016
Stadswerk 2016 (2016)7. - ISSN 0927-7641 - p. 56 - 57.
klimaat - luchtkwaliteit - bedrijven - waterbergend vermogen - gezondheid - welzijn - openbaar groen - beplantingen - kantoren - stedelijke gebieden - toegepast onderzoek - innovaties - arbeid (werk) - stress - warmtestress - sociaal welzijn - participatie - regenwateropvang - climate - air quality - businesses - water holding capacity - health - well-being - public green areas - plantations - offices - urban areas - applied research - innovations - labour - heat stress - social welfare - participation - water harvesting
Steeds meer mensen wonen in de stad. Dit is niet altijd een gezonde leefomgeving. Veel mensen ervaren stress, het ontbreekt aan sociale samenhang, de lucht is vervuild en het veranderende klimaat leidt tot toenemende hittestress en wateroverlast. Slim gebruik van groen is deel van de oplossing voor al deze uitdagingen.
Koninklijke Nederlandse Bosbouwvereniging: van bosbouw naar bosbeheer
Mohren, G.M.J. ; Wijdeven, Sander - \ 2016
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 13 (2016)127. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 26 - 28.
forestry - forest administration - professional associations - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - experiential value - natural value - timber production - urban areas - extension - woodlands - bosbouw - bosbeheer - beroepsverenigingen - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - belevingswaarde - natuurwaarde - houtproductie - stedelijke gebieden - voorlichting - bosgebieden
Bos en bosbeheer veranderen continu. Met de ontwikkeling van de productiegerichte bosbouw van vijftig jaar geleden naar een bosbeheer gericht op meervoudige functievervulling in een dichtbevolkte samenleving veranderde ook de rol van de beheerder. Dit vraagt om andere kennis en vaardigheden van de beroepsgroep en andere organisatievormen van onderwijs en onderzoek. De Koninklijke Nederlandse Bosbouw Vereniging (KNBV) fungeert sinds de oprichting in 1910 als vakvereniging door en voor mensen uit de sector, volledig draaiend op vrijwilligers. De veranderingen in de sector en het werkveld vragen ook om een andere rol van de beroepsvereniging.
In Pursuit of a Participatory Society: The Role of the participatory agent
Pineda Revilla, Beatriz ; Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2016
Urban Agriculture Magazine 31 (2016). - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 41 - 42.
urban areas - gardens - participation - stedelijke gebieden - tuinen - participatie
In the last decade, Dutch cities have witnessed a rise in the number of citizen-led initiatives-initiatives which have increasingly attracted the interest of science, the public and policy makers. This article focuses on the role of the "participatory agent", a civil servant whose main task is to bridge citizen and local government interests in a community garden in Amsterdam East.
The neurotoxin BMAA in aquatic systems : analysis, occurrence and effects
Faassen, E.J. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer, co-promotor(en): Miguel Lurling. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577855 - 194 p.
cum laude - neurotoxins - aquatic environment - urban areas - effects - environmental impact - daphnia magna - elisa - water quality - analytical methods - aquatic ecology - neurotoxinen - aquatisch milieu - stedelijke gebieden - effecten - milieueffect - waterkwaliteit - analytische methoden - aquatische ecologie

Eutrophication is a major water quality issue and in many aquatic systems, it leads to the proliferation of toxic phytoplankton species. The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is one of the compounds that can be present in phytoplankton. BMAA has been suggested to play a role in the neurodegenerative diseases Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although this hypothesis still needs to be confirmed. It is expected that the main human exposure pathways to BMAA are through direct contact with BMAA containing phytoplankton and through ingestion of BMAA contaminated food, such as fish and shellfish. However, reports on the occurrence of BMAA in aquatic systems have been conflicting and the cause of these reported differences was heavily debated. The use of different analytical methods seems to play a crucial role in the observed discrepancies, but initially, there was little consensus on which method produced most reliable results. The objectives of the work presented in this thesis therefore were to find out what has caused the differences in published results on BMAA concentrations, and to identify and produce reliable data on the presence of BMAA in aquatic systems. In addition, I aimed to determine the effect of BMAA exposure on a key species in many freshwater ecosystems, the grazer Daphnia magna.

The performances of different analytical techniques were compared, and LC-MS/MS analysis, either preceded by derivatisation or not, was found to produce most reliable results. LC-FLD and ELISA should not be used for BMAA analysis, as both methods risk misidentifying BMAA or overestimating its concentrations due to their low selectivity. When reviewing literature on the presence of BMAA in aquatic systems, it was found that the observed discrepancies in results could be explained by the use of unselective analytical methods in some studies, and by severe reporting deficiencies in others. When only studies that used appropriate analytical techniques and that correctly reported their work were taken into account, it was shown that BMAA could be present in phytoplankton and higher aquatic organisms, in concentrations of µg/g dry weight or lower. These results are in agreement with our findings of BMAA in cyanobacterial scums from Dutch urban waters. In a 2008 screening, BMAA was found to be present in 9 out of 21 analysed cyanobacterial scums, at concentrations ranging from 4 to 42 µg/g dry weight. When this screening was repeated 8 years later with 52 similar samples, BMAA was detected below the quantification limit in one sample and quantified in another sample at 0.6 µg/g dry weight.

In order to perform the work presented in this thesis, sensitive and selective analytical methods, mostly based on LC-MS/MS analysis without derivatisation, were developed. This resulted in a standard operating procedure for the underivatised LC-MS/MS analysis of BMAA in cyanobacteria. Also, a CYANOCOST initiated workshop was given, in which a group of scientists from 17 independent laboratories evaluated LC-MS/MS based methods in different matrices. A bound BMAA from found in the supernatant was the most abundant fraction in the positive samples that were tested: cycad seed, seafood and exposed D. magna. In addition, it was found that the deuterated internal standard used for quantification was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms, resulting in unprecise quantification of total BMAA.

BMAA was found to reduce survival, somatic growth, reproduction and population growth in D. magna. Animals did not adapt to BMAA exposure: exposed animals born from exposed mothers had a lower brood viability and neonate weight than animals exposed to BMAA, but born from unexposed mothers. In addition, D. magna was shown to take up BMAA from the growth medium and to transfer it to its offspring. D. magna therefore might be an important vector for BMAA transfer along the pelagic food chain, but whether BMAA plays a role in preventing zooplankton from controlling cyanobacterial blooms needs further investigation.

Although BMAA research has much progressed between the start of this thesis’ work and its completion, some important questions still require an answer. Most urgently, it should be determined whether BMAA is indeed involved in the neurological diseases mentioned above, and if so, which doses trigger the onset of these diseases. Human exposure pathways should then be more systematically quantified, and it might be prudent to investigate if the occurrence of BMAA is restricted to aquatic systems, or whether sources from terrestrial systems contribute to BMAA exposure as well.

Agrarisch Waterbeheer in de praktijk : Op zoek naar de gemene deler
Breman, B.C. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. - \ 2016
Het Waterschap 2016 (2016)6. - p. 7 - 9.
waterbeheer - waterschappen - duurzame energie - terugwinning - rioolwaterzuivering - zuiveringsinstallaties - landbouw - innovaties - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - water management - polder boards - sustainable energy - recovery - sewage treatment - purification plants - agriculture - innovations - climate adaptation - urban areas
In dit themanummer over Green Deals staan de volgende artikelen: 1) Green Deals: Code oranje, blauwe oplossing. 2) Op zoek naar de gemene deler: agrarisch waterbeheer in de praktijk. 3) Kraamkamer van innovatie. 4) Modern aanbesteden is kennis delen: marktvisie waterschappen. 5) De politicus Liesbeth van Tongeren: Niet langer in discussie met klimaatsceptici. 6) Er valt iets te kiezen: waterschappen integreren duurzame energieproductie succesvol in hun kerntaken. 7) Slimmer investeren: Strategisch asset management. 8) Creativiteit op het snijvlak van orde en chaos: Waterschap De Dommel flirt met paradoxen. 9) Open overheid, ook voor waterschappen. 10) Werken aan morgen is gisteren al begonnen: hoe ziet werken voor een waterschap er in 2026 uit?
Shaping tomorrow’s urban environment today : Environmental Policy Integration in urban planning: the challenges of a communicative approach
Grift-Simeonova, V.S. van der - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Arnold van der Valk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578364 - 215 p.
urban planning - environmental policy - urban areas - ecological network - communication - participation - nature conservation - bulgaria - netherlands - stedelijke planning - milieubeleid - stedelijke gebieden - ecologische hoofdstructuur - communicatie - participatie - natuurbescherming - bulgarije - nederland

The debate on sustainable development emphasizes the importance of integrating environmental policy into other policy sectors. It is increasingly recognized that such integration is needed at the national, regional and local levels of governance. Hence the Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) principle has been proposed, which is defined as “the incorporation of the environmental objectives into all stages of policy making in non-environmental policy sectors, with the recognition of this goal as the guiding principle for the planning and execution of policy”. Currently EPI is agreed upon in a number of EU commitments and is receiving the attention of urban planning scholars. The achievability of EPI, however, has not yet been well studied, particularly in the urban planning context, while its implementation often seems to be hindered by organizational fragmentation.

This thesis assesses the potential role of EPI as an operational principle for achieving sustainable urban development in Europe. It addresses the scientific premises of EPI and the current knowledge gaps in applying it in the urban planning domain. The research combines theoretical and empirical dimensions. The theoretical dimension includes evidence of the current knowledge gap regarding the integration of environmental aspects into urban planning and the emergence of EPI as a promising perspective in urban sustainability research and planning practice. This includes reflections on EPI’s definitions, interpretations and its different approaches. The empirical dimension of the thesis explores evidence regarding the EPI process in actual planning practices, with an assessment of the relevance of different EPI approaches. Based on the exploration of case studies within different planning contexts, the empirical research provides insights into the key challenges and barriers to achieving EPI in urban planning and identifies key success factors for local governments addressing specific environmental issues in urban land-use plans. The key objective of the thesis is, therefore, to explore the responses of planning systems to the current EPI challenges, with the twin goals of gaining insight into the role of EPI in integrating environmental concerns in urban land-use planning processes and of identifying the most promising approaches for achieving EPI. The thesis provides an answer about the potential benefits of, among other approaches, a communicative approach to achieve EPI in urban planning practice.

Stadslandbouw in 'gastropool' New York
Pineda Revilla, Beatriz ; Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2016
Agora 32 (2016)2. - p. 36 - 39.
stedelijke gebieden - voedselconsumptie - gezondheid - onderwijs - sociale gebruiken - urban areas - food consumption - health - education - social customs
In de metropool New York draait het leven voor een belangrijk deel om eten. Voedsel wordt steeds vaker gezien als een verbindend element in het dagelijks leven. Het raakt aan uiteenlopende zaken als gezondheid, onderwijs, ontspanning en sociale cohesie.
Tools voor klimaatbestendig inrichten van stedelijk gebied
Ven, Frans van der; Brolsma, R. ; Snep, R.P.H. ; Koole, S. - \ 2016
H2O online (2016)29 maart. - 7 p.
stedelijke gebieden - ruimtelijke ordening - waterbeheer - overstromingen - stedelijke planning - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - urban areas - physical planning - water management - floods - urban planning - climatic change - climate adaptation
Er zijn tools ontwikkeld waarmee ontwerpers, deskundigen en belanghebbenden samen conceptuele ontwerpen kunnen opstellen om te helpen de gebouwde omgeving waterrobuust en klimaatbestendig te maken. De Climate Adaptation App helpt deelnemers een long list van mogelijke maatregelen op te stellen. Vervolgens kan met de Adaptation Support Tool worden geschetst waar welke maatregelen getroffen kunnen worden en wordt direct berekend hoe doelmatig ze naar verwachting zullen zijn (rekenen en tekenen). Water- en klimaatopgaven worden op (kosten)effectieve wijze ingevuld en de toegevoegde waarde van ingrepen voor de leefbaarheid gemaximaliseerd. Deze werkwijze en tools zijn met succes toegepast in diverse ontwerpworkshops.
Land surface impacts on precipitation in the Netherlands
Daniels, E.E. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Bert Holtslag, co-promotor(en): Ronald Hutjes; G. Lenderink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576674 - 151 p.
precipitation - land surface - land - environmental impact - land use - climatic change - urban areas - weather patterns - netherlands - neerslag - aardoppervlak - milieueffect - landgebruik - klimaatverandering - stedelijke gebieden - weerpatronen - nederland
Dit proefschrift bestudeert de effecten van landgebruiksveranderingen uit het verleden en in de toekomst op neerslag in Nederland door middel van analyses van gemeten regendata en het gebruik van een weermodel.
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