Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Foreign investment, organizational innovation and transformation in food supply chains : evidence from the Ethiopian barley sector
Tefera, Delelegne Abera - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jos Bijman; Maja Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437165 - 217
foreign investment - organizations - innovations - management science - food supply - supply chain management - farmers - barley - economic sectors - ethiopia - east africa - buitenlandse investering - organisaties - innovaties - bedrijfswetenschap - voedselvoorziening - ketenmanagement - boeren - gerst - economische sectoren - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Driven by rapid urbanization, economic growth, and changes in consumption patterns, food chains in emerging and developing economies are experiencing a fundamental transformation process. This transformation is usually characterized by increased vertical coordination, growth of modern distribution channels (e.g. supermarkets), consolidation of retail markets, and an increase in export orientation. The rapid growth in demand of modern food with higher quality and safety attracts multinational enterprises to invest in agriculture and food processing in emerging economies. The appearance of multinationals in the food systems of developing countries has been claimed to have a positive impact on economic development and reduction of poverty. The multinationals have adopted modern supply chain management practices for securing a large volume and consistent supply of high quality products. They introduce new technologies that boost productivity and post-harvest management for product upgrading.

While so far most research on the modernization of food systems has focused on export chains, there is growing interest in the transformation of domestic and staple food chains. Upgrading domestic food chains is needed for a more efficient supply to fast growing urban markets and to sustain access to affordable food for the rapidly growing urban consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. As domestic food value chains are more inclusive than high-value export chains, upgrading these food chains can contribute more to poverty reduction and food security. However, much remains to be understood about the process of modernization in domestic food chains and its implications for rural development. The overarching aim of this dissertation was to deepen our understanding on how organizational innovations facilitate modernization of domestic food chains using case studies from the Ethiopian barley sector. In particular, the thesis examines the effectiveness and impacts of foreign direct investments (FDI), contract farming arrangements (CFAs), producer organizations (POs), and partnerships on the upgrading of malt barley value chains and welfare of local suppliers. To address this objective, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Data were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric econometric models.

The findings from the empirical chapters show that: First, our analysis reveals that the appearance of foreign companies in the malt barley chain has brought important changes in the structure and economics of the barley value chain, resulting in the development of a modern chain next to the conventional chain. It is also shown that participation in modern supply chains is determined by a range of factors that include farmer and farm characteristics. Second, the results show that participation in modern supply chains has a positive and significant impact on commercialization, intensification, quality improvement and farm gate prices, ultimately resulting in increased farmer income and spillovers towards productivity of other food crops. Third, we found that POs perform diverse economic functions to enhance rural development , but tighter coordination in food value chains demands alignment of chain activities among actors which leads to changes in the strategies and functions of POs. Fourth, we showed that POs have a positive impact on farm productivity and smallholder income. However, this positive impact of POs come at the expense of inclusiveness, i.e. POs are less inclusive. Thus, there is a tension between business performance and inclusiveness of POs. Moreover, the results show that the motivation to participate in a PO is determined by demographic and economic factors. Lastly, we found that the determinants of quality improvement at farm level are socioeconomic, technological and institutional factors. Specifically, the identified factors are farmers’ level of education, age (as a proxy for farming experience), entrepreneurial attitude, PO membership, CFA participation, and type of improved seed varieties. The thesis concludes that enhancing the modernization of food value chains involving smallholders requires organizational innovation that facilitate coordination and collaborative activities among chain actors.

Diversity of coordination mechanisms to support transactions : farmer - buyer relationships and farmer performance in the Brazilian pork chain
Müller Martins, Franco - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta; Jacques Trienekens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436366 - 146
supply chain management - pigmeat - pig farmers - farmers - piglets - buying groups - consumers - brazil - south america - ketenmanagement - varkensvlees - varkensboeren - boeren - biggen - inkoopcombinaties - consumenten - brazilië - zuid-amerika

In the last decades consumers preferences have continuously triggered changes in quality regulations and the implementation of various private quality standards. New quality demands also imply new coordination arrangements to support transactions between food companies and their suppliers. To coordinate these transactions, food companies (i.e. buyers) use different types of governance structures (GSs) made up of different coordination mechanisms (CMs). These mechanisms are used to coordinate aspects such prices, quality, and allocation of resources (e.g. services, inputs). The general goal of this thesis is to analyse the complexity behind the GSs used to support transactions in the Brazilian Pork Chain (BPC). Furthermore, this thesis examines how these GSs impact on farmer performance and farmer investment. Brazil is the fourth world producer and exporter of pork. The quality standards and GSs used in this supply chain offer an interesting background to be examined with implications for theory and management. Chapter 1 presents a general introduction depicting the research problem, the research questions and the theoretical framework used in this thesis hich is grounded on Transaction Costs Economics, Supply Chain Management and Networks Theory. Chapter 2 examines, through an exploratory approach, the relationships between quality requirements and CMs. This study allows us to demonstrate that, in the BPC, chain actors use a wide array of CMs to support a non-diverse set of quality requirements. Quality requirements are based on public regulations and on a few specific requirements set by specific customers. The differences in CMs regard aspects such as base prices, criteria for bonuses, control on inputs and processes and resource allocation. Chapter 3 addresses the complexity of CMs embedded in a GS and the use of plural forms of coordination by individual buyers. A framework setting values of CMs on price, volume, quality and resource allocation, was used to demonstrate that a single GS (e.g. a contract) may include CMs on distinct positions within the market-hierarchy continuum. In addition, this framework is used, in four case studies, to support analyses on how and why individual buyers use plural CMs to support similar transactions. The main explanations that were found were the need to handle market fluctuations, the implementation of new and specific quality requirements, to adopt to CMs used by competitors, and to deal with bargaining power of specific groups of farmers. Chapter 4 applies structural equation modelling (SEM) to analyse influences of vertical (buyer-farmer) and horizontal relationships (farmer-farmer) on performance of pig farmers. Data were obtained through a survey questionnaire applied to 269 pig farmers. The results demonstrate that vertical and horizontal relationships improve performance and that horizontal relationships improve information exchange. In addition, the findings suggest that the context in which transactions take place (i.e. spot market, contracting), may affect these relationships. Chapter 5 analyses, based on the farmer survey, influences of buyer support on famer performance and farmer investments. A SEM analysis was applied to 199 farmers that deliver pigs through contracts. The results demonstrate positive influences of buyer support on farmer performance and farmer investment capacity. Chapter 6 provides a general discussion including theoretical, policy and management implications.

Multi-objective optimization for eco-efficient food supply chains
Banasik, Aleksander - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard; Jack van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Frits Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430944 - 147
food chains - supply chain management - food production - mushrooms - decision support systems - production planning - models - voedselketens - ketenmanagement - voedselproductie - paddestoelen - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - productieplanning - modellen

Until recently, food production focused mainly on delivering high-quality products at low cost and little attention was paid to environmental impact and depletion of natural resources. As a result of the growing awareness of climate change, shrinking resources, and increasing world population, this trend is changing. A major concern in Food Supply Chains (FSCs) is food waste. To remain competitive, FSCs are challenged to adopt new technologies that reduce or valorize food waste. These technologies can contribute to maintaining or increasing economic output and concurrently reduce the environmental impact of current operations, i.e. achieving what has been defined as eco-efficiency. Designing eco-efficient supply chains requires complex decision support models that can deal with multiple dimensions of sustainability while taking into account the specific characteristics of products and their supply chain. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), a research field within Operations Research, is particularly suitable to support decision making when multiple and (mostly) conflicting criteria are involved. In this research, multi-objective optimization was used to quantify trade-offs between conflicting objectives and derive eco-efficient solutions, i.e. solutions in which environmental performance can only be improved at higher cost. The overall objective of this thesis was to support decision making in FSCs by developing dedicated decision support models to optimize and re-design FSCs by balancing the economic and environmental criteria. The emphasis is directed towards valorization of product flows by means of closing loops and waste management at a chain level. In line with this overall objective, four research questions were defined, which are addressed in Chapters 2 to 5.

In Chapter 2, the use of MCDM approaches for designing Green Supply Chains (GSCs) is reviewed; GSCs extend traditional supply chains to include activities that minimize the environmental impact of a product throughout its life cycle. A conceptual framework was developed to find relevant publications and categorize papers with respect to decision problems, indicators, and MCDM approaches. The analysis shows that the use of MCDM approaches for designing GSCs is a new but emerging research field. Most publications focus on production and distribution problems, and there are only a few inventory models with environmental considerations. Most papers assume all data to be deterministic. Moreover, little attention has been given to minimization of waste in studies on FSCs, and numerous indicators are used to account for eco-efficiency, indicating the lack of standards. Chapter 2, therefore, identifies the need for more multi-criteria models for real-life GSCs, especially with respect to supply chains dealing with food production, and with inclusion of uncertainty in parameters.

Environmental concerns and scarcity of resources encourage decision makers in supply chains to consider alternative production options that include preventing the production of waste streams and simultaneously reusing and recycling waste materials. Until now, quantitative modelling approaches on closing loops in FSCs have been rare in the literature. The aim of Chapter 3 was to develop a mathematical model that can be used for quantitative assessment of alternative production options associated with different ways of dealing with waste in FSCs, i.e. prevention, recycling, and disposal of food waste. A multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model was developed to derive a set of eco-efficient solutions corresponding to production planning decisions. The environmental performance of the chain is expressed by an indicator based on exergy analysis, which has the potential to capture other commonly used indicators, such as energy consumption, fuel consumption, and waste generation, in a single value. This simplifies the calculation of the eco-efficient frontier and enables its intuitive graphical representation, which is much easier to communicate to the decision makers. The applicability of the model is demonstrated on a real-life industrial bread supply chain in the Netherlands. The results confirm the findings from the literature that prevention is the best waste management strategy from an environmental perspective. The advantages of using exergy as an indicator to capture the environmental performance is demonstrated by comparing the outcomes with other commonly used indicators of environmental performance. The potential of studying food production planning decision problems in a multi-objective context is illustrated and the applicability of the model in the assessment of alternative production options is demonstrated.

In contrast to closed-loop studies in industry involving discrete parts, in FSCs the value of the final product usually cannot be regained. However, the components used for production, such as organic matter or a growing medium, can be recycled. The aim of Chapter 4 was to reveal the consequences of closing loops in a mushroom supply chain. A multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model was proposed to quantify trade-offs between economic and environmental indicators and to explore alternative recycling technologies quantitatively. The model was developed to re-design the logistical structure and close loops in the mushroom supply chain. It was found that adopting closing loop technologies in industrial mushroom production has the potential to increase the total profitability of the chain by almost 11% and improve the environmental performance by almost 28%. It is concluded that a comprehensive evaluation of recycling technologies and re-designing logistical structures requires quantitative tools that simultaneously optimize managerial decisions at strategic and tactical levels.

Multi-objective optimization models are often developed under the assumption that all information required for model parameterization is known in advance. In practice, however, not all the required information is available in advance because of various sources of uncertainty in FSCs. In Chapter 5, a multi-objective two-stage stochastic programming model was proposed to analyse and evaluate the economic and environmental impacts to account for uncertainty in FSCs. A mushroom supply chain in the Netherlands is presented as an illustrative case study. Optimal production planning decisions calculated with a two-stage stochastic programming model are compared with the results of an equivalent deterministic model. It is demonstrated that taking uncertainty into account at the production planning phase in an FSC can bring substantial economic and environmental benefits.

The research presented in this thesis contributes to the scientific literature on eco-efficient FSCs by providing decision support models for use by decision makers to assess alternative logistical structures and quantify the economic and environmental implications of closing loop technologies. This thesis shows that technological innovations, which allow for reuse and recycling of waste streams, have the potential to improve the economic and environmental performance of an FSC substantially. The case studies illustrate that it is worthwhile investing in research on technological innovations (and their development) for closing loops in FSCs. The greatest benefits are brought about by using materials to their full potential by valorizing waste streams as much as possible.

Richtlijn koelketen Chrysant : op basis van onderzoek binnen project GreenCHAINge
Wissink, Edo ; Mensink, Manon ; Hogeveen-van Echtelt, Esther - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research rapport 1704) - ISBN 9789463430630 - 7
chrysanten - ketenmanagement - koeling - richtlijnen (guidelines) - chrysanthemums - supply chain management - chilling - guidelines
Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit : an interdisciplinary study on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) value chain
Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Matthijs Dekker; Ruud Verkerk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579859 - 190
physalis peruviana - value chain analysis - supply chain management - keeping quality - storage life - storage - phytochemicals - andean group - waardeketenanalyse - ketenmanagement - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - bewaartijd - opslag - fytochemicaliën - andesgroep

Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and governance nature. This research is an interdisciplinary study on the Colombian cape gooseberry value chain. It aimed to evaluate quality attributes of the fruit during the supply chain, including the changes in the contents of health-promoting compounds; and also assessed the current situation of the value chain regarding degree of alignment of the actors.

Findings show that cape gooseberry is a source of health-promoting compounds and has antioxidant activity properties. Such health promoting compounds in cape gooseberry are subject to thermal degradation or formation but not to the extent that they are no longer present after heating. Vitamin C and β-carotene were relative stable after storage time during post-harvest. The main issue for shelf-life of fresh cape gooseberry is the growth of fungi. The intake assessment conducted based on the current consumption of cape gooseberry, concluded that the contribution of this fruit to the daily recommendation intake of vitamin C and β-carotene in Colombian and Dutch adult population is negligible.

Cape gooseberry is indeed a very low consumed fruit because is not well-known in international markets. However, it has potential to improve performance by first facing alignment issues, integrate the value chain and develop strategies to effectively plan the route to follow in order to scale up.

The assessment of advanced pre-treatment chains. TO2 Advanced pre-treatment of biomass; Task A3
Meesters, K.P.H. ; Annevelink, E. ; Keijsers, E.R.P. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - ISBN 9789462577213 - 23 p.
value chain analysis - supply chain management - biomass - biobased materials - biobased economy - bioenergy - biorefinery - modeling - pretreatment - waardeketenanalyse - ketenmanagement - biomassa - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - bio-energie - bioraffinage - modelleren - voorbehandeling
The overall objective of the TO2 project ‘Advanced pre-treatment of biomass’ was to design optimal energy-driven refinery chains for the susta inable valorization of non-woody biomass to biobased commodities. Therefore optimal combination s need to be found of upstream biorefining and the production of high-quality (sol id) energy carriers from a broad spectrum of non-woody biomass streams. Task A3. within this TO2 project focused on modelling chains and performing an economic evaluation of these chains. Three cases of biomass chains were modelled and evaluated in this report.
Typering van consumenten geeft de groenteketen een houvast : betrokken consumenten proeven beter
Labrie, Caroline - \ 2016
consumer surveys - consumption - fruit - vegetables - consumer preferences - supply chain management
The transmission and management of price volatility in food supply chains
Assefa, Tsion Taye - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579835 - 132
food prices - agricultural prices - volatility - cap - food - supply chain management - price controls - voedselprijzen - landbouwprijzen - vluchtigheid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - voedsel - ketenmanagement - prijsbewaking

The 2006-2011 period has been marked by increased volatility in food an agricultural commodity prices at a global level. In the EU, the continuous liberalization of agricultural markets under the Common Agricultural Policy has led to the exposure of EU agricultural to increasing market price volatility. This thesis has investigated the transmission and management of price volatility in EU food supply chains. The transmission of price volatility in various food supply chains is first investigated through a literature review followed by an empirical analysis of price volatility transmission in the case of the German fresh pork supply chain. The effect of market power was also taken into account in the latter empirical analysis. Next, the management of price volatility was investigated through interviews conducted with actors of selected EU food supply chains. This was followed by the analysis of the effectiveness of selected price volatility management strategies. Lastly, in light of the policy support for agricultural insurance within the Common agricultural policy, premium rates of an agricultural revenue insurance contract were calculated for the Dutch ware potato sector.

One of the gaps identified in the reviewed literature is the lack of attention given to the effects of contextual factors on price volatility transmissions in food supply chains. Contextual factors include market power in the chain and pricing strategies (e.g. contracts) by chain actors. Results of the price volatility transmission analysis conducted in this thesis in the case of the German pork chain show that retail market power limited both the transmission of price levels and price volatility. This thesis shows that price volatility is perceived as risky by all actors in the food supply chain. Deviations of prices by more than 10 to 15 % from expected levels were perceived as price volatility by a majority of the chain actors. Results further show that price volatility management strategies in EU food chains are diverse and well beyond traditional instruments such as futures and forward contracts. Contrary to expectations, price fixing contracts were not found to be desirable by interviewed chain actors. This thesis also found that the effectiveness of contracts in reducing price volatility depended on how the contract price was set.

Results of this thesis further show that premium rates of a revenue insurance contract for the Dutch ware potato sector across categories of farms. The average premium rates calculated were 32.1%, 22.2%, 33.1% and 24.0% on guaranteed revenue per hectare for the high expected yield, low expected yield, high yield variance to expected yield ratio and low yield variance to expected yield ratio categories of farm, respectively. The difference in premium rates across categories of farms implies that charging the same average premium rate to all Dutch ware potato farms can lead to adverse selection.

Environmental governance of pesticides in Ethiopian vegetable and cut flower production
Mengistie, Belay - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579491 - 254
pesticides - policy - ethiopia - private sector - supply chain management - agriculture - vegetables - cut flowers - environmental protection - pesticiden - beleid - ethiopië - particuliere sector - ketenmanagement - landbouw - groenten - snijbloemen - milieubescherming

Pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe to prevent or control pests, diseases, and weeds. In this process, improper pesticide registration, distribution and use has become more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental and human health risks in many parts of the world. This holds especially true for developing countries, including Ethiopia where good agricultural practices are often poorly implemented. To safeguard human health and the environment, a strict regulatory policy is essential. In line with this, Ethiopia has developed pesticide registration and control procedures, which are regulations and directives in which the country also included different international agreements related to agropesticides. Therefore, the overall policy with respect to pesticide plays a key role in improving the environment, the health of growers and the surrounding community and stimulates the economic performance of the Ethiopian agricultural sector. However, there was no clear answer to the question whether the policy on pesticide registration, distribution and use was implemented in an effective and sustainable way. Arguably, governance failures are the origin of many environmental and human health problems regarding pesticides in developing countries. This paper argues that the influence of state and non-state actors and the relative importance of their interactions are the major structural characteristics of pesticide governance. However, it is still important to ask what governing mechanisms and actors are available and what can be developed further to promote sustainable pesticide governance. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to investigate the pesticide policy-and-practice nexus, which includes the roles of governmental actors, private actors(traders) and farmers, and to review the actual and potential contribution from various governance actors in changing the existing (unsafe) pesticide practices in vegetables and cut flowers sector in which pesticides are used intensively.I have to conclude that both state and private actors hardly contribute to significant improvements in achieving sound pesticide management in Ethiopia. The state regulatory system has revealed an inability in controlling proper registration, distribution and safe use. Pesticide registration systems are not well established. A major challenge in pesticide registration is the double/ triple registration of pesticides with the same active ingredient (ai) but under different commercial names. Importing unregistered pesticides (only with import permits) by most flower growers allowed them to use extremely harmful/chemicals toxic to the environment and workers for higher risks. The government’s political commitment in this regard has never been observed in the floriculture industries, where there is no supervision or monitoring at all. In addition, commercial pesticide traders prove unable/unwilling to comply with regulations prescribed by the government proclamation. Among other problems, importation of pesticides with the wrong labels, conflicts of interest between importers (registrants) and double/triple registration of pesticides with the same (ai) under different commercial names cause confusion for retailers and farmers. Moreover, importation without obtaining a prior import permit and requests to import unregistered pesticides have grown over time. At the same time, the responsibility for controlling the pesticide market (inspection) failed in terms of quality control in distribution and use. The retailing of pesticides has been handled by unqualified and unlicensed retailers in shops and open markets with other commodities. Finally, this challenge is particularly critical at farm (local) level. There is substantial overuse, misuse and abuse of pesticides by end users, especially by smallholder farmers, due to lack of knowledge, technical support and training on hazards and risks associated with pesticides. Challenges to pesticide governance throughout the pesticide supply chain has resulted in negative policy outcomes for the environment and human health, particularly with the failure of state authorities to actively engage non-state actors in the complex pesticide registration, distribution and use system. Following the findings in this thesis, these situations call for the reshaping of the pesticide governance system throughout the country. To effectively address the human health and environmental impacts of pesticides requires a pesticide governance system that facilitates agricultural and environmental sustainability.

Sustainable growth of the Kenyan dairy sector : a quick scan of robustness, reliability and resilience
Rademaker, Corné J. ; Omedo Bebe, Bockline ; Lee, Jan van der; Kilelu, Catherine ; Tonui, Charles - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen Livestock Research (Report 3R Kenya/WLR 979) - 66
dairy farming - dairy industry - supply chain management - governance - constraints - kenya - melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - ketenmanagement - beperkingen
This report provides an overview of how the Kenyan dairy sector performs in three analytical domains: the robustness of the supply chains, the reliability of institutional governance and the resilience of the innovation system. Analysis is by literature review, stakeholder interviews and a validation workshop guided by a SWOT framework to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The findings inform the existing opportunities and challenges that potentially impede growth in the sector. The report is a first step towards documenting and sharing insights that support the move towards a more Robust, Reliable and Resilient (3R) dairy sector. The findings and recommendations presented will guide policy engagement and action in the transition of Dutch government bilateral engagement in Kenya from development aid–support to a trade approach in the agricultural sector, with a focus on partnering opportunities to drive competitive market-oriented dairy sector development that attracts investments.
Inventory control for a perishable product with non-stationary demand
Pauls-Worm, K.G.J. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Eligius Hendrix; Rene Haijema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578500 - 142 p.
logistics - food products - supply chain management - food wastes - industrial wastes - inventories - logistiek - voedselproducten - ketenmanagement - voedselafval - industrieel afval - inventarisaties

Globally, around one-third of the edible parts of perishable food products is wasted every year. Adequate logistics management of the food supply chain is of importance. Inventory control of processed fresh food with a best-before or use-by date deals with the questions how much to order and how often, and how to review the inventory position. For perishable products, there exists a trade-off between desired product-availability and waste. A high order quantity or frequent ordering may result in high product-availability but also waste. A small order quantity or less frequent ordering results in lower inventory levels, but may cause out-of-stock. For the inventory control of a perishable product the age-distribution of the items should be considered. This is influenced by order picking at a food producer or warehouse, or consumer behaviour at a supermarket, picking First In First Out (FIFO), where first the oldest items are used, or Last In First Out (LIFO), where first the freshest items of the product are used. This thesis investigates periodic review order policies for a food producer and a retailer for a perishable product with a fixed lifetime and a non-stationary demand. For a food producer as well as a retailer, it is not always economically feasible to reorder in every period. For planning purposes it is desirable to set the timing of the orders in advance.

The aim of this thesis is to contribute to better decision making regarding inventory control in the food supply chain from food producer to supermarket, in the trade-off between product-availability and waste. Methods are designed to generate practical order policies using commercial solvers for business rather than custom made solution procedures, where at least the timing of ordering or production is set beforehand. The practical inventory control problems discussed in this thesis are characterised by a perishable product with a fixed lifetime, non-stationary stochastic demand, a single-echelon production/inventory situation in a finite time horizon. The product has a service level requirement to ensure a certain product-availability. The decision problems deal with fixed setup or ordering cost, holding cost and disposal cost for wasted items. The age-distribution of the items in stock is considered in specific theoretical Stochastic Programming (SP) problems that deal with the service level requirement as a chance constraint or fill rate constraint. The studied problems vary in planning characteristics.

Fluctuations in demand combined with fixed setup or ordering costs imply that regular production or ordering is probably not optimal. This situation requires a strategy to deal with the fluctuations. In inventory literature, non-stationary demand for a perishable product with a fixed lifetime is hardly studied, and consequently also strategies to deal with it are little investigated. In this thesis, methods have been designed to generate practical order policies using commercial solvers, where at least the timing of ordering or production is set beforehand. The practical order policies have been benchmarked with custom made solution procedures. The developed practical policies are applicable in the practice of fresh food producers and in retail organisations, on the level of the store, as well as on the level of the distribution centre. An interesting conclusion is that the policies with fixed order timing are hardly more costly than the investigated policy with flexible order timing. The fixed order timing increases the ease of planning.

The studied cost functions in the models comprise disposal cost for which the value of the disposal cost in the experiments was varied. The results show that in the models with fixed order timing and corresponding order-up-to levels, increasing the disposal cost can reduce the percentage of waste, maintaining the service level. In setting a (fictitious) value for the disposal cost, one can steer the percentage of waste in determining the order policy, and thus contribute to better decision making in the food supply chain from food producer to supermarket in the trade-off between product-availability and waste.

Smallholder Dairy Value Chain Interventions; The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) – Status Report
Rademaker, I.F. ; Koech, R.K. ; Jansen, A. ; Lee, J. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-018 ) - 70 p.
dairy farming - value chain analysis - supply chain management - small businesses - farmers - milk production - marketing - kenya - melkveehouderij - waardeketenanalyse - ketenmanagement - kleine bedrijven - boeren - melkproductie
The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) is a 4.5-year programme funded by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and implemented by SNV Netherlands Development Organisation in collaboration with stakeholders in the dairy industry. The overall goal of KMDP is to contribute to the development of a vibrant and competitive private sector-driven dairy sector in Kenya, with beneficiaries across the value chain. KMDP has two pillars, or strategic intervention levels. The first pillar is the smallholder dairy value chain, which has the objective to increase efficiency, effectiveness and inclusiveness in this production and marketing channel. The second pillar concerns systemic issues in the sector, where the objective is to promote and support interventions and innovations in feed and fodder supply, milk quality, practical skills development and the policy or regulatory environment. Work in the second pillar partly supports work in the first pillar and partly addresses issues in the enabling environment and supporting systems. In the smallholder dairy value chain, KMDP has engaged with eighteen farmer-owned milk collection and bulking enterprises (CBEs), dispersed over three main milksheds in Kenya: North Rift region, Central region, and Eastern region (Meru). In addition, KMDP works with two processors that receive and process milk from a number of the eighteen supported CBEs. This report describes the work of KMDP in the smallholder dairy value chain. It looks at the response of CBEs, processors and farmers to KMDP’s interventions, which cover five themes: 1. Capacity building of CBEs in governance and financial management; 2. Training and extension activities for farmers; 3. Fodder development and preservation at CBE- and farmer level; 4. Business development through linkages with input suppliers and service providers; 5. Milk procurement and milk quality along the value chain.
Financial value-chain analysis : tuna, shrimp, soy and beef
Duijn, A.P. van; Beukers, R. ; Cow an, Roberta B. ; Judge, L.O. ; Pijl, W. van der; Römgens, Indra ; Scheele, Fleur ; Steinweg, Tim - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Brochure / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-029) - 50 p.
supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - commodities - retail marketing - finance - tuna - shrimps - glycine (fabaceae) - beef - world - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - basisproducten - marketing voor de detailhandel - financiën - tonijn - garnalen - rundvlees - wereld
This brochure offers a detailed analysis of the financial vehicles and mechanisms that drive the expansion of production of the following four commodities: skipjack canned tuna; cultured shrimp; soy; and beef. The commodities were selected in view of their global economic importance and their potentially adverse impact on the environment. The financial sector (investors, lenders, insurers, funds, etc.) serves as a gate-keeper to capital flows that are critical in supporting companies’ expansions of operational capacity. This sector can significantly influence how these businesses exploit renewable resources. In this brochure therefore:  The supply chains for each commodity were verified by geography;  The top companies in each segment of the supply chain were identified (e.g. farmers, primary processors, etc.); and  Primary sources of financing were identified.
Financial value-chain analysis : tuna, shrimp, soy and beef
Duijn, A.P. van; Beukers, R. ; Cowan, Roberta B. ; Judge, L.O. ; Pijl, Willem van der; Römgens, Indra ; Scheele, Fleur ; Steinweg, Tim - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-028) - 80 p.
supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - retail marketing - commodities - finance - tuna - shrimps - glycine (fabaceae) - beef - world - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - marketing voor de detailhandel - basisproducten - financiën - tonijn - garnalen - rundvlees - wereld
This study is a detailed analysis of which parts of the tuna, shrimp, soy and beef supply chains are most open to constructive engagement through financial vehicles and mechanisms. The study indentifies the largest market shares in the various supply chains. For the retail sector, the objective was to analyse the openness of the retail sector to financial influence taking into account the latest sector trends.
Waarin een klein land groot kan zijn : Reacties op Dutch Farming visie van Agrifirm
Fresco, Louise - \ 2015
agriculture - supply chain management - management - netherlands - innovations

Onder de titel Dutch Farming laat Agrifirm zien hoe agrarisch ondernemers samenwerken in de keten om tot betere resultaten te komen. Is Dutch Farming herkenbaar en is dit concept bruikbaar om de Nederlandse land- en tuinbouw vooruit te helpen? We spraken met vier bestuurders in verschillende agroketens. En we legden deze vragen voor aan Louise Fresco, sinds ruim een jaar voorzitter van de raad van bestuur van Wageningen UR.

From freight trains to cold chains : Building China's new supply chains for fresh food
Bosch, P. ; Zhang, Xiao Yong ; Chew, Ping ; Pan, Chenjun ; Sawyer, Wil ; Chiang, Lief ; Fan, Ning - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - 55 p.
fresh products - supply chain management - refrigerated transport - logistics - rail transport - china - verse producten - ketenmanagement - koeltransport - logistiek - railtransport
Programa Nacional de Agrologística : Informe 5: Análisis territorial preliminar
Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 80 p.
logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - geographical information systems - physical planning - data collection - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - geografische informatiesystemen - ruimtelijke ordening - gegevens verzamelen
National Agrologistics Program : report 5: Preliminary territorial analysis
Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 80 p.
logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - geographical information systems - physical planning - structural policy - data collection - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - geografische informatiesystemen - ruimtelijke ordening - structuurbeleid - gegevens verzamelen
Programa Nacional de Agrologística : informe 1: Resumen ejecutivo
Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 87 p.
logistics - agroindustrial sector - agricultural products - food products - supply chain management - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - ketenmanagement
National Agrologistics Program : report 3: Strategy
Ravensbergen, P. ; Langelaan, H.C. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 82 p.
logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - management science - performance - guidelines - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - bedrijfswetenschap - prestatieniveau - richtlijnen (guidelines)
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