Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Three pillars of sustainability in fisheries
Asche, F. ; Garlock, Taryn M. ; Anderson, J.L. ; Bush, S.R. ; Smith, Martin D. ; Anderson, Christopher M. ; Chu, Jingjie ; Garrett, K.A. ; Lem, Audun ; Lorenzen, K. ; Oglend, Atle ; Tveteras, Sigbjorn ; Vannuccini, Stefania - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2018). - ISSN 0027-8424 - 5 p.
seafood - sustainability - social - economic - environmental
Sustainability of global fisheries is a growing concern. The United Nations has identified three pillars of sustainability: economic development, social development, and environmental protection. The fisheries literature suggests that there are two key trade-offs among these pillars of sustainability. First, poor ecological health of a fishery reduces economic profits for fishers, and second, economic profitability of individual fishers undermines the social objectives of fishing communities. Although recent research has shown that management can reconcile ecological and economic objectives, there are lingering concerns about achieving positive social outcomes. We examined trade-offs among the three pillars of sustainability by analyzing the Fishery Performance Indicators, a unique dataset that scores 121 distinct fishery systems worldwide on 68 metrics categorized by social, economic, or ecological outcomes. For each of the 121 fishery systems, we averaged the outcome measures to create overall scores for economic, ecological, and social performance. We analyzed the scores and found that they were positively associated in the full sample. We divided the data into subsamples that correspond to fisheries management systems with three categories of access—open access, access rights, and harvest rights—and performed a similar analysis. Our results show that economic, social, and ecological objectives are at worst independent and are mutually reinforcing in both types of managed fisheries. The implication is that rights-based management systems should not be rejected on the basis of potentially negative social outcomes; instead, social considerations should be addressed in the design of these systems.
Political Consumerism for Sustainable Tourism: A Review
Lamers, M.A.J. ; Nawijn, Jeroen ; Eijgelaar, Eke - \ 2018
In: The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism / Boström, Magnus, Micheletti, Michelle, Oosterveer, Peter, Oxford University Press (Oxford Handbook Online ) - ISBN 9780190629038 - 21 p.
tourism - sustainability - political consumerism - carbon - inconsistency - home and away gap - social practices
Over the last decades a substantial and growing societal and academic interest has emerged for the development of sustainable tourism. Scholars have highlighted the contribution of tourism to global environmental change and to local, detrimental social and environmental effects as well as to ways in which tourism contributes to nature conservation. Nevertheless the role of tourist consumers in driving sustainable tourism has remained unconvincing and inconsistent. This chapter reviews the constraints and opportunities of political consumerism for sustainable tourism. The discussion covers stronger pockets and a key weak pocket of political consumerism for sustainable tourism
and also highlights inconsistencies in sustainable tourism consumption by drawing on a range of social theory arguments and possible solutions. The chapter concludes with an agenda for future research on this topic.
Data from: Towards smarter harvesting from natural palm populations by sparing the individuals that contribute most to population growth or productivity
Jansen, M. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Bongers, F. ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Zuidema, P.A. - \ 2018
Chamaedorea - forest management - harvest simulations - individual heterogenity - Integral Project Model - leaf harvesting - NFTP - sustainability - Chamaedorea elegans
1. Natural populations deliver a wide range of products that provide income for millions of people and need to be exploited sustainably. Large heterogeneity in individual performance within these exploited populations has the potential to improve population recovery after exploitation and thus help sustaining yields over time. 2. We explored the potential of using individual heterogeneity to design smarter harvest schemes, by sparing individuals that contribute most to future productivity and population growth, using the understorey palm Chamaedorea elegans as a model system. Leaves of this palm are an important non-timber forest product and long-term inter-individual growth variability can be evaluated from internode lengths. 3. We studied a population of 830 individuals, half of which was subjected to a 67 % defoliation treatment for three years. We measured effects of defoliation on vital rates and leaf size – a trait that determines marketability. We constructed integral projection models in which vital rates depended on stem length, past growth rate, and defoliation, and evaluated transient population dynamics to quantify population development and leaf yield. We then simulated scenarios in which we spared individuals that were either most important for population growth or had leaves smaller than marketable size. 4. Individuals varying in size or past growth rate responded similarly to leaf harvesting in terms of growth and reproduction. By contrast, defoliation-induced reduction in survival chance was smaller in large individuals than in small ones. Simulations showed that harvest-induced population decline was much reduced when individuals from size and past growth classes that contributed most to population growth were spared. Under this scenario cumulative leaf harvest over 20 years was somewhat reduced, but long-term leaf production was sustained. A three-fold increase in leaf yield was generated when individuals with small leaves are spared. 5. Synthesis and applications This study demonstrates the potential to create smarter systems of palm leaf harvest by accounting for individual heterogeneity within exploited populations. Sparing individuals that contribute most to population growth ensured sustained leaf production over time. The concepts and methods presented here are generally applicable to exploited plant and animal species which exhibit considerable individual heterogeneity.
Tradeoffs in the quest for climate smart agricultural intensification in Mato Grosso, Brazil
Gil, Juliana D.B. ; Garrett, Rachael D. ; Rotz, Alan ; Daioglou, Vassilis ; Valentim, Judson ; Pires, Gabrielle F. ; Costa, Marcos H. ; Lopes, Luciano ; Reis, Julio C. - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)6. - ISSN 1748-9318
climate scenarios - integrated crop-livestock systems - low carbon agriculture - pasture intensification - sustainability

Low productivity cattle ranching, with its linkages to rural poverty, deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, remains one of the largest sustainability challenges in Brazil and has impacts worldwide. There is a nearly universal call to intensify extensive beef cattle production systems to spare land for crop production and nature and to meet Brazil's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution to reducing global climate change. However, different interventions aimed at the intensification of livestock systems in Brazil may involve substantial social and environmental tradeoffs. Here we examine these tradeoffs using a whole-farm model calibrated for the Brazilian agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, one of the largest soybean and beef cattle production regions in the world. Specifically, we compare the costs and benefits of a typical extensive, continuously grazed cattle system relative to a specialized soybean production system and two improved cattle management strategies (rotational grazing and integrated soybean-cattle) under different climate scenarios. We found clear tradeoffs in GHG and nitrogen emissions, climate resilience, and water and energy use across these systems. Relative to continuously grazed or rotationally grazed cattle systems, the integreated soybean-cattle system showed higher food production and lower GHG emissions per unit of human digestible protein, as well as increased resilience under climate change (both in terms of productivity and financial returns). All systems suffered productivity and profitability losses under severe climate change, highlighting the need for climate smart agricultural development strategies in the region. By underscoring the economic feasibility of improving the performance of cattle systems, and by quantifying the tradeoffs of each option, our results are useful for directing agricultural and climate policy.

Special Issue: Christian Philosophical Perspectives on Sustainable Development
Massink, Henk ; Jochemsen, Henk - \ 2018
Philosophia Reformata 83 (2018)1. - ISSN 0031-8035 - p. 3 - 18.
Christian philosophy - environment - Herman Dooyeweerd - modal aspects - modernization - normative practice - sustainability

In this introductory article, the authors first briefly present the debate on the meaning of sustainability and consider the question of how to connect the concept of sustainability with a Christian-in particular, Reformational-way of doing philosophy. After examining the various uses of Dooyeweerdian philosophy in this regard, this introduction closes with an overview of the contributions to this special issue.

Perception of livestock ecosystem services in grazing areas
Leroy, G. ; Hoffmann, I. ; From, T. ; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Gandini, G. - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - 12 p.
breed - multivariate analysis - survey - sustainability
This study investigates how the ecosystem services (ES) linked to livestock grazing are perceived across countries. A total of 82 case studies collected from 42 countries via survey (53.7% cases from Europe and 46.3% from outside of Europe) have been analysed through a multivariate approach. In all, 18 non-provisioning ES were considered. Overall, the reported impacts of livestock grazing on the different ES were much more positive than negative. Notably, a large proportion of respondents reported either positive or very positive impacts for some cultural ES, namely cultural, historic and natural heritage (84%), knowledge systems and educational values (77%), landscape values (74%), and for some supporting and regulating ES, namely habitat provision (66%), nutrient cycling (65%), and bush encroachment/fire control (66%). Based on multiple regression analysis, geographic origin, stakeholder type and species category, as well as protection status of the grazing area, had significant effects on the perception of the impacts. Respondents reported those impacts as more positive in Europe, in protected areas and where several species were present in the grazing area. A significantly larger proportion of respondents reported recognition of ES provided by the grazing livestock population in European countries (40.9%) compared with non-European countries (23.7%). Based on the survey responses it appears that in non-European countries absence of formal recognition, especially by policy makers, is a major challenge for the continued provision of ES in grazing systems. In Europe, where such recognition is already often included in legislation, the long-term sustainability of related policies and incentives to provide such services is viewed as a major issue by the respondents.
Composite indicators and sustainable development of regional agriculture applied to the Stavropol Territory in Russia
Chaplitskaya, Anastasia ; Heijman, W.J.M. ; Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 2017
APSTRACT: Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce 11 (2017)3-4. - ISSN 1789-221X - p. 81 - 88.
sustainability - composite indicators - principle component analysis - agricultural policy
The aim of this paper is to nderstand and evaluate agricultura; sustainability in the Stavropol Territory by means of a composite indicator. In particular, the paper applies principal component analses to calculate a composite sustainability index by integration of selected economic, social and environmental indicators. The results demonstrate the utilityof analyzing several indicators in conjunction. The results also may indicate which variables influence development of regional agriculture. This information is important in order to design Agricultural support policy and to implement an increase the sustainability of the agriculture sector.
Biobased materialen, circulaire economie en natuurlijk kapitaal
Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 109) - 37
biomassa - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - bioplastics - hernieuwbare energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobrandstoffen - recycling - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biomass - biobased materials - renewable energy - sustainability - biofuels - biobased chemistry
This preliminary study investigates the amount of biomass that would be needed in the Netherlands to replace the fossil raw materials used in the manufacture of plastics and how this transition to biobased plastics can be achieved. It is based on desk research and calculations of the area of agricultural land that would be needed to produce sufficient biobased material to meet Dutch demand for biobased plastics. In addition, interviews were held with experts on the institutional obstacles to such a transition. Far too little agricultural land is available in the Netherlands to produce the required amount of biomass needed to replace fossil plastics. Research with the aim of increasing the contribution made by biobased materials to the circular economy should focus on assessing the options for producing sustainable raw materials and on a comprehensive assessment of the sustainable use of biomass in various applications.
New tuna regimes
Yeeting, Agnes David - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Simon Bush, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard; M. Bailey. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438308 - 154
fisheries - marine fisheries - tuna - sustainability - environmental policy - governance - economic policy - pacific ocean - environmental economics - visserij - zeevisserij - tonijn - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubeleid - economisch beleid - grote oceaan - milieueconomie
governing sustainability and equity in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean
Measuring the bioeconomy: Economics and Policies
Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Braun, Joachim von - \ 2017
Annual Review of Resource Economics 9 (2017). - ISSN 1941-1340 - p. 275 - 298.
bioeconomy - real option - sustainability - tecnical change - technology policy - value added
The emerging concept of bioeconomy offers several opportunities to address
societal challenges. The bioeconomy is mainly driven by advances in
microbiology, which can be applied to various processes that use biological
resources by shifting consumer preferences and by yielding new insights
into resource constraints related to such issues as climate and land. Although
expectations are high, less is known about the economic importance of the
bioeconomy. This article reviews the methodological challenges of measuring
the bioeconomy, the approaches used, and the outcomes reported. The
results show that measuring the bioeconomy is still in its infancy and faces a
number of methodological challenges. Bioeconomy cuts across sectors and
therefore cannot be treated as a traditional sector in economics. Economics
must catch up with bioeconomy realities. For a comprehensive economic assessment,
information about bioeconomy resources, compounds, and product
flows is required. We outline innovations in data storage and analytical methods that would realize bioeconomy opportunities and help guide policy.
A comprehensive assessment of agriculture in lowlands of south Brazil: characterization and comparison of current and alternative concepts
Theisen, Giovani - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Niels Anten, co-promotor(en): Lammert Bastiaans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436380 - 234
cropping systems - farming systems - crop management - lowland areas - wetlands - pampas - brazil - intensification - sustainability - productivity - indicators - soil management - rice - flooded rice - oryza sativa - maize - zea mays - glycine max - cover crops - livestock - rotation - mixed farming - seedbed preparation - farm machinery - teeltsystemen - bedrijfssystemen - gewasteelt - laaglandgebieden - pampa's - brazilië - intensivering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - productiviteit - indicatoren - bodembeheer - rijst - natte rijst - maïs - dekgewassen - vee - rotatie - gemengde landbouw - zaaibedbereiding - landbouwwerktuigen

Agriculture in the lowlands of south Brazil is of strategic importance at the national level, since it supplies around 80% of the rice consumed by the Brazilian population. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state in Brazil, three million hectares of lowlands are ready for grain-based agriculture. Of this area, about half is fallow, partly used for cattle grazing, and irrigated rice is the predominant crop, cultivated annually on 1.1 million ha. The remaining area is used for soybean and other crops. The predominant cropping system is a combination of irrigated rice and cattle. Over the last decades, rice yields have steadily increased, but this rise in yield level has to a large extent been obtained at the expense of a continuously higher use of external inputs. The recent introduction of soybean in rotation with rice has partially improved the system, but in most areas the situation is becoming incompatible with the modern demands for sustainability. This thesis presents a long-term study (2006-2015) of five cropping systems for lowlands. Next to monocrop rice and two rice-soybean rotations conducted in either conventional or minimum tillage, the experiment contained two novel systems based on large ridges, on which soybean and maize were combined with either cover crops or crop-livestock integration in winter. In these last systems, 8-m-wide ridges were built to avoid flooding, thus allowing for diversification of cash crops and the cultivation of cover crops or pastures in winter time, as well as the use of no-tillage. All systems were evaluated at process-level, including soil preparation, seeding, plant nutrition, pest management, irrigation, harvesting, transport and cattle management, as well as regarding their performance for the different dimensions of sustainability, particularly environment, land productivity, economics, energy-use and labour. Next to system assessment, two additional experiments were conducted for the evaluation of two specific technologies for soil management in these areas. Crop livestock integration on the ridge-based system offered the best balance between food production, environmental impact and economics. This system is well suited to be used in fields that are kept fallow, thereby enlarging the agricultural productivity of the lowlands. The additional experiments revealed that a knife-roller can successfully substitute plough-and-harrow for soil preparation after rice harvest, and that germination of weed seeds can be reduced if crop seeding is conducted at a lower speed or using a no-tillage seeder equipped with an improved cutting mechanism. Overall the results show that by using alternative cropping systems that allow for diversification and new methods of field management it is possible to simultaneously attain a larger agricultural production and improved sustainability in the lowlands.

Agronomic and socioeconomic sustainability of farming systems : A case in Chencha, South Ethiopia
Dersseh, Waga Mazengia - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Rogier Schulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436830 - 157
potatoes - solanum tuberosum - ethiopia - food security - farming systems - mixed farming - sustainability - optimization - efficiency - farm surveys - household surveys - socioeconomics - self sufficiency - profits - training - agronomic characteristics - productivity - soil fertility - rotation - animal feeding - improved varieties - inorganic fertilizers - aardappelen - ethiopië - voedselzekerheid - bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - optimalisatie - efficiëntie - bedrijfsonderzoeken - huishoudonderzoeken - sociale economie - zelfvoorziening - winsten - opleiding - agronomische kenmerken - productiviteit - bodemvruchtbaarheid - rotatie - diervoedering - veredelde rassen - anorganische meststoffen

Potato has multiple benefits and thus can play a vital role in ensuring food security in Ethiopia. However, for diverse reasons, its productivity is low. The farming systems in Ethiopia in which potato is grown, are predominantly mixed farming systems.

Most of the research in Ethiopia is focused on crop-specific constraints and thus there is limited research in which the interrelations between crop and livestock management practices are investigated. There is also not enough research focused on combined analysis of soil nutrient and animal feed balances and agronomic and socioeconomic efficiencies at farm level.

This study assessed production constraints and agronomic and socioeconomic sustainability of the farming systems in South Ethiopia and explored the possible synergetic options to alleviate major constraints. More specifically, the study intended to quantify the variation in input and output among farms, to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production, to evaluate the sustainability of the farming systems at farm level, to identify constraints of sustainable intensification, and to explore synergetic solutions for the major constraints. Different research approaches were used ranging from lab analysis, household surveys, group discussions, to farm surveys.

Results showed that constraints related to input and product use in potato production vary across households indicating a need for a pluriform advisory model recognizing (and building upon alleviation of) the diversity of constraints identified in this analysis. The sustainability of the farming system is constrained by low agricultural productivity, low soil fertility, poor labour efficiency and limited economic return associated with improper crop rotation, inappropriate soil fertility management practices, shortage of animal feed, labour- and economically inefficient farm practices and labour shortage. However, there is ample scope to overcome the major constraints and simultaneously to optimize farm management.

The core messages of the study can be summarized as follows:

1) the current potato production is characterized by low productivity and economic returns due to various socioeconomic, agronomic and biological factors;

2) the soil fertility is low and there is uneven distribution of nutrients over plots with relatively high fertility levels in the homestead areas;

3) the current labour shortage can be attributed to mainly inefficiency of agricultural management practices and labour migration to towns for economic reasons indicating that the farming system is not sustainable in terms of labour;

4) considering the direct return from animal production, most of the farms had very low gross margin with the current management system and this reduced the overall operating profit of farms. The low return from animal rearing was offset by the relatively high profit from crop production indicating the benefit of mixed farming system in sustaining agricultural production; and

5) each farm can have a wide range of optimized solutions mainly through introduction of improved technologies and subsequent redesigning of the farm managements.

In general, the findings of the current study indicate that it is worthwhile to assess the sustainability of agricultural production in different farming systems and agro-ecologies of Ethiopia. In addition, the combined effect of introducing improved agricultural technologies and subsequent reconfiguring the farm management is very crucial to increase and sustain agricultural production.

More food, lower footprint : How circular food production contributes to efficiency in the food system
Scholten, M.C.T. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - cycling - environment - sustainability - nutrition - biomass - renewable energy - residual streams - agricultural wastes - organic wastes - crop residues - food production - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - kringlopen - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voeding - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - reststromen - agrarische afvalstoffen - organisch afval - oogstresten - voedselproductie
Martin Scholten on circular food production. Ideas about how circular food production can contribute to the sustainable food security.
Methodology for the case studies
Smits, M.J.W. ; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2017
EU (Circular impacts ) - 19 p.
economics - cycling - projects - renewable energy - recycling - sustainability - durability - politics - policy - environment - economie - kringlopen - projecten - hernieuwbare energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheid (durability) - politiek - beleid - milieu
This document is about the methodology and selection of the case studies. It is meant as a guideline for the case studies, and together with the other reports in this work package can be a source of inform ation for policy officers, interest groups and researchers evaluating or performing impact assessments of circular economy policies or specific circular economy projects. The methodology was developed to ensure that the case studies focus on the overall im pacts of the circular economy. The frame of the methodology is a s tep - by - step approach, which will be described in section s 3 and 4 of this document. In section 2 we describe the selection of the case studies.
'Meer reststromen benutten in veevoer'
Gerrits, Walter - \ 2017
residual streams - animal nutrition - sustainability - food - food production - livestock farming
Towards sustainable tuna fishing: understanding the role of private incentive mechanisms
Tolentino-Zondervan, Frazen - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Simon Bush, co-promotor(en): Paul Berentsen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436236 - 205
tuna - fishing - sustainability - sea fishing - marine fisheries - marine animals - environmental protection - value chain analysis - decision making - philippines - south east asia - business economics - tonijn - vis vangen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sportzeevisserij - zeevisserij - zeedieren - milieubescherming - waardeketenanalyse - besluitvorming - filippijnen - zuidoost-azië - bedrijfseconomie

Unsustainable fishing practices, including the use of non-selective fishing methods and Illegal Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing, contribute to the decline of tuna fish stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO). This has led to emergence of different public and private governance arrangements to foster the sustainable exploitation of tuna stocks. This thesis focuses on the performance of three innovative private incentive mechanisms: Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs), International Seafood Sustainability Foundation’s Pro-active Vessel Register and eco-FADs, and Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification, to deliver economic incentives for improved production. The overall objective of this thesis is to evaluate the extent to which private incentive mechanisms influence Filipino fishers’ decision to improve their fishing practices.

In order to address the overall objective, this thesis first analyses and compares the ways existing private incentive mechanisms influence the upgrading strategies of Filipino tuna fishers in the value chains (in chapter 2). Second, it evaluates the important determinants for small-scale handline fishers’ decisions to participate in two FIPs for yellowfin tuna in the Philippines (in chapter 3). Third, it examines the effect of MSC certification on the allocation of fishing days by Filipino purse seiners operating in Parties to Nauru Agreement (in chapter 4). And finally, it analyses the profitability of investments in measures needed to comply with private incentive mechanisms by Filipino purse seiners (in chapter 5).

The findings show that overall, the incentive mechanisms are able to improve the practices of fishers, however only to a limited extent. The first two chapters (chapters 2 and 3) show that producers first need to have the capabilities to meet the requirements of private incentive mechanisms, so that they can be included in the value chain and that they can realise the incentives offered by these mechanisms. However, being capable does not guarantee that producers will improve their practices. As shown in the last two chapters (chapters 4 and 5), producers must also have the willingness to upgrade, based on their risk attitude and on the ability of the economic incentive to cover the additional costs and to compensate for the increase of the risks of participation of producers. Given that producers have the availability of capabilities to upgrade and that the benefit is sufficient to opt for participation, then producers may decide to improve their practices, which may contribute to the sustainability improvement goal of private incentive mechanisms. As a consequence of this finding, the incentives, inclusiveness, and improvements must be taken into account in both the design and implementation of private incentive mechanisms.

Are school meals a viable and sustainable tool to improve the healthiness and sustainability of children´s diet and food consumption? A cross-national comparative perspective
Oostindjer, Marije ; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica ; Wang, Qing ; Skuland, Silje Elisabeth ; Egelandsdal, Bjørg ; Amdam, Gro V. ; Schjøll, Alexander ; Pachucki, Mark C. ; Rozin, Paul ; Stein, Jarrett ; Lengard Almli, Valerie ; Kleef, Ellen van - \ 2017
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57 (2017)18. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 3942 - 3958.
children - food behavior - health - learning - School meals - sustainability

There is little agreement among governments, institutions, scientists and food activists as to how to best tackle the challenging issues of health and sustainability in the food sector. This essay discusses the potential of school meals as a platform to promote healthy and sustainable food behavior. School meal programs are of particular interest for improving public diet because they reach children at a population scale across socio-economic classes and for over a decade of their lives, and because food habits of children are more malleable than those of adults. Current research on the history and health implications of school meal programs is reviewed in a cross-national comparative framework, and arguments explored that speak for the need of a new developmental phase of school meals as an integrative learning platform for healthy and sustainable food behavior. Nutritional, social, practical, educational, economical, political, and cultural perspectives and challenges linked to the implementation of healthy and sustainable school meals are discussed. Finally, the need for long-term interventions and evaluations is highlighted and new research directions are proposed.

Socio-ecological analysis of multiple-use forest management in the Bolivian Amazon
Soriano Candia, Marlene - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren, co-promotor(en): Marielos Pena Claros; N. Ascarrunz. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436557 - 220
forest management - timber production - nuts - multiple use - bertholletia excelsa - forest ecology - amazonia - sustainability - community forestry - bosbedrijfsvoering - houtproductie - noten - meervoudig gebruik - bosecologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - gemeenschapsbosbouw

Community families throughout tropical regions derive an important share of their income from multiple forest products, with generally positive outcomes on their livelihoods. The production of these products in a multiple-use forest management scheme (MFM, the production of multiple forest products within a single management unit) encompasses many (yet) unknown socioeconomic and ecological feedbacks. In particular, MFM entailing timber and non-timber production may be affecting the future availability of valuable timber and non-timber tree species due to the extraction of vital plant components, which may have undesired outcomes on the income that community families derive from forests. In this thesis, I evaluated the social, economic, and ecological viability of an important MFM scheme widely practiced by community households in the Bolivian Amazon: the production of Amazon or Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and timber from other tree species. Data was obtained from a two-year (2014 and 2015) survey questionnaires of 24 community households in six campesino communities with community forest management plans (CFMPs) and from ecological surveys of 72 2 ha permanent research transects (three transects per household forest) harvested at varying Amazon nut and logging intensities. A CFMP entails the planning and execution of logging activities in compliance with formal rules intended to secure the long-term provision of timber at community-owned forest. Household-level decisions to harvest Amazon nut and to log timber allowed us to account for household forest as our sampling unit. We used multi-model inference and structural equation modelling techniques to determine the impact of socio-ecological factors on the income that community families derived from Amazon nut and timber (chapter 2), and regression and matrix modelling techniques to determine the impact of Amazon nut harvest and logging intensity on Bertholletia (chapter 3) and commercial timber species (chapter 4).

In general, we found that few socioeconomic and biophysical factors of community households, together with a general positive response of studied species to timber logging and customary silvicultural intervention, make the production of Amazon nut and timber production of other tree species viable in a MFM scheme. In chapter 2, we found that community households could reduce their dependency on forest resources by increasing income opportunities from other existing livelihood activities. Amazon nut represented the largest source of household income (44% of the total household net income); and off-farm (salary, business and gifts; 21%), husbandry (generally subsistence agriculture, animal rising, and agroforestry; 21%), and timber (9%) incomes were complementary to their livelihood. Increased skills and ecological knowledge of community households enhanced household income derived from forest products. For example, an increase in the number of management practices reduced the need for timber income by increasing Amazon nut production; decreasing further pressure on timber of other tree species.

In chapter 3, logging intensity was found to increase Bertholletia’s seedlings and saplings growth rate, and liana cutting was found to increase Amazon nut production rate. Both, logging and liana cutting intensities played a key role on Bertholletia population growth rate. Increased logging and liana cutting intensities counteracted the negative impact of Amazon nut harvesting intensity on the number of new recruits (i.e., due to nut harvest), indicating a trade-off between logging, liana cutting and Amazon nut harvesting intensities.

Considering the overall stem density of commercial timber species (chapter 4), we found that 17% of the species present at unlogged sites (3 species out of 17: Swietenia macrophylla, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Terminalia sp.) were not present at sites six years after logging; and a larger percentage (71%) of the species present at unlogged sites in the harvestable size (trees>minimum diameter cutting – MDC) were not present at sites six years after logging, e.g., Cedrela spp. Stem density and timber volume of five of the eight most abundant commercial timber species under study differed among community-owned forests, after accounting for the effects of logging intensity and time since logging as indicated by our best models; whereas, potentially harvestable and harvestable timber volume differed between communities for only two and three species, respectively. Best models indicated that logging intensity increased either stem density or timber volume of Apuleia leiocarpa, Cedrela odorata, Dipteryx micrantha and Hymenaea parvifolia, decreased potentially harvestable timber volume of T. serratifolia, and had no effect on the other three species investigated. We also investigated the impact of logging intensity on congeneric species given that lumping congeneric species for logging is a common simplification during forest inventories and censuses, and is accepted in CFMPs assuming that closely related species respond to timber logging in a similar way. However, logging intensity had a differentiated effect on congeneric species. Logging intensity favoured growth rate of C. odorata trees >10 cm DBH and had no effects on Cedrela fissilis. Regarding Hymenaea congeneric species, logging intensity favoured H. parvifolia survival of individuals <10 cm DBH, but decreased growth rates of H. courbaril trees >10 cm DBH.

In conclusion, Amazon nut harvest and timber logging of other tree species are compatible under certain socioeconomic and biophysical conditions, and as long as commercial timber species differential response to harvesting are accounted for in managing these species in a MFM scheme. This compatibility is due to existing socioeconomic complementarity of both activities and to the positive impact of logging intensity levels as practiced in the region on Amazon nut production and on most commercial timber species. Community families’ better negotiation skills to obtain better prices for Amazon nut, and increased implementation of management practices to increase Amazon nut production (e.g., liana cutting) helped families to increase their income and also decrease pressure on timber. These results highlight the need to look at both socioeconomic and ecological aspects when assessing the long-term sustainability of MFM schemes.

Results of this research have important implications for policy to support the sustainable development of community forestry in the Bolivian Amazon. The compatibility found between Amazon nut and timber production calls for the investigation of the compatibility of timber production with other valuable NTFPs commonly harvested by community families throughout the tropics. We argue that management needs to be done at species-specific level, rather than at the level of products or at the level of species groups. This may result prohibitively expensive for communities and smallholders. Thus, we urge governments and the international community to revalorize local ecological knowledge of community people to manage their forests, while supporting the development of technologies, such as the ones based on hyperspectral LiDAR technology, to develop tools that could help reduce management costs of tropical forests at the required level. Such policies need to be accompanied by capacity building programs on different management tasks and negotiation skills to enhance the income obtained from MFM schemes. The research approaches used here could be used in other contexts and scales involving natural resources management to get a better understanding of the systems.

Simulating pigs : Understanding their motivations, behaviour, welfare and productivity
Boumans, Iris - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Eddy Bokkers; Gert Jan Hofstede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432122 - 200
pigs - pig farming - sustainability - motivation - animal behaviour - behaviour disorders - animal welfare - simulation models - animal production - varkens - varkenshouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - motivatie - diergedrag - gedragsstoornissen - dierenwelzijn - simulatiemodellen - dierlijke productie

The transition towards sustainable pig production systems is receiving increasing attention nowadays. Pig behaviour plays a central role in sustainability, as it is an important indicator for pig welfare and can also affect other sustainability issues. Understanding behaviour and related welfare consequences requires to understand motivations underlying behaviour. The two aims of this thesis were: 1) to assess the use of agent-based modelling for understanding pig behaviour and underlying motivation, and 2) to apply agent-based modelling for increasing our understanding of pig behaviour, and related animal welfare and productivity performance.

We first explored the use of agent-based modelling with tail biting behaviour in pigs as a case study. An agent-based model was developed to understand the causation of tail biting behaviour. Subsequently, we developed a mechanistic and dynamic simulation model to gain more understanding of feeding behaviour and internal (physiological) factors. The model integrates knowledge from physiology and ethology, and combines growth with a behavioural decision model based on motivation. This model included motivations underlying feeding behaviour and various feeding patterns of an individually housed growing pig. To deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying feeding patterns of pigs within 24 hours, hormonal circadian rhythms were included in the model in a follow-up study. The circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin explained the alternans pattern, a small peak of feed intake at the beginning of the day and a larger peak at the end of the day, of feeding in pigs. Next, an agent-based model of feeding and social interaction in commercially group-housed pigs was developed to deepen our understanding of the complex interaction between internal physiological factors and external social factors. Social factors (e.g. competition level and social facilitation) and behavioural strategies (e.g. avoidance and approach) affected social interactions among pigs and feeding behaviour. The causation of variation among pigs was further explored in this model. Pig characteristics were important in various feeding, social interaction and growth patterns in pigs.

In general, agent-based modelling proved to be a useful method to understand animal behaviour and underlying motivations. It contributed to further understanding of tail biting, feeding and social behaviour in pigs. Furthermore, agent-based modelling showed to be a novel method to find and assess behaviours as welfare indicators, and to contribute to understanding trade-offs and synergies between sustainability issues, such as animal welfare and productivity.

Chobe district integrated land use plan
Sluis, Theo van der; Cassidy, Lin ; Brooks, Chris ; Wolski, Piotr ; VanderPost, Cornelis ; Wit, Piet ; Henkens, Rene ; Eupen, Michiel van; Mosepele, K. ; Maruapula, O. ; Veenendaal, Elmar - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2813) - 181
land use - sustainability - tourism - ecosystems - savannas - botswana - landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - toerisme - ecosystemen - savannen
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