Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Leveraging social networks for agricultural development in Africa
Ross, Martha - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Maarten Voors. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431910 - 174
social networks - agricultural development - economic development - agricultural production - networks - technology transfer - innovations - innovation adoption - diffusion - interpersonal relations - communication - observation - social learning - social interaction - sociale netwerken - landbouwontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwproductie - netwerken - technologieoverdracht - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - diffusie - intermenselijke relaties - communicatie - observatie - sociaal leren - sociale interactie

This thesis contributes to a growing literature that explores relationships between social networks and innovation diffusion within a developing country context. Given this context, the networks of interest within this thesis are the offline interpersonal relationships between community members. Diffusion channels for new innovation are therefore limited to word-of-mouth communication, observation, and personal experience.

Chapter 2 of this thesis analyses two policy tools in targeting these information gaps. The first is through social learning as part of a farmer extension program. The second combines social learning with experiential learning, reducing the cost to personal experimentation with subsidized improved input packages. Our results indicate that farmers who are exposed to both social learning and learning-by-doing more significantly impacts farmer productivity relative to those receiving no intervention and those exposed only to social learning. I interpret this result as an indication of learning-by-doing combined with social learning being a more effective strategy for facilitating adoption of technologies that have more heterogeneous returns to adoption.

Chapter 3 of this thesis tests the difference in diffusion patterns that result by varying the network contact- point. Specifically, network contact-points are selected as being either the most central or least central individuals within the network. I find evidence that centrality affects the speed of distribution but does not affect the width of diffusion nor which individuals are participating within the diffusion process. Furthermore, large attenuation is observed throughout the diffusion process, which suggests the importance of selecting a sufficiently large set of lead community members for the spread of new technology.

Chapter 4 combines a community-wide polling of network entry-points combined with detailed community network and socio-economic data. First we explore what attributes are prioritized by community members in nominating a resident farmer as an extension contact-point. Second, we use simulations to compare the diffusion spread of top-nominated individuals as network entry-points compared to entry-points that achieve maximal spread within diffusion simulations. We find that community members prioritize network connectedness, pro-social preferences, and socioeconomic indicators of gender, age, formal leadership, and education levels within their nomination decisions. Furthermore, receiving the top three most amount of nominations is found to be significantly correlated with selection as an optimal entry-point within the diffusion simulation. These results suggest that community-wide polling offers a less data-intensive opportunity to realize gains in diffusion warranted through network-based seeding.

Chapter 5 explore whether an individual’s observed social preferences is correlated with an individual’s centrality within the network structure. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality are more trusting and more trustworthy than individuals with lower centrality. Moreover, individuals with low centrality are treated worse in these interactions—people trust them less initially, and return less money to them. Within a group context, little evidence is found of more central individuals displaying more cooperative behavior. Instead, for group cooperation, when a single monitor can observe contribution decisions, the presence of a direct link and more mutual network connections with a monitor correlates to more cooperative behavior by that individual. Our results suggest that network centrality and pro-social preferences are related but more localized network ties are more strongly correlated with pro-sociality than overall network connectedness.

Hightech kas voor subtropisch klimaat Taiwan
Hemming, S. ; Os, E.A. van - \ 2015
Kas techniek 2015 (2015)5. - p. 56 - 57.
glastuinbouw - kastechniek - technologieoverdracht - bouwconstructie - klimaatregeling - productiegroei - doelstellingenmanagement - kasgewassen - milieubeheersing - cultuurmethoden - kennisoverdracht - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - technology transfer - building construction - air conditioning - crop production - management by objectives - greenhouse crops - environmental control - cultural methods - knowledge transfer
Taiwan is een van de meest innovatieve landen in de wereld als het gaat om technologische ontwikkelingen. Dat geldt echter in mindere mate als het gaat om de lokale productie van verse groenten in kassen. De Taiwanese overheid heeft daarom een strategie uitgezet om de lokale tuinbouwsector te moderniseren, de bijdrage aan de nationale economie te verhogen en de positie op binnen- en buitenlandse markten te versterken. Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw speelt daarin een belangrijke rol.
Internationale marktkansen voor Innovatie en Demonstratie Centra?
Ruijs, M.N.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1352) - 36
glastuinbouw - innovaties - kennisoverdracht - technologieoverdracht - tuinbouwbedrijven - demonstratiebedrijven, landbouw - buitenland - kennisvalorisatie - onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - innovations - knowledge transfer - technology transfer - market gardens - demonstration farms - foreign countries - knowledge exploitation - research
In het kader van het project Kennis en innovatie IDC Westland-Oostland is, door WUR Glastuinbouw en LEI, bij stakeholders binnen de Greenport Westland-Oostland nagegaan of de huidige Innovatie en Demonstratie Centra (IDC) ook internationale activiteiten van het tuinbouwbedrijfsleven kunnen ondersteunen. Een IDC kan op internationaal terrein een goede functie hebben door zich te richten op het demonstreren van nieuwe technologieën en methoden en het uitwisselen van kennis. Dit kan het beste worden bereikt door in het buitenland dicht bij de klant te zitten om rekening te kunnen houden met de lokale omstandigheden en problemen en vraagstukken (integrale benadering). Aanbevelingen zijn geformuleerd om de kans op succes van een ‘internationale’ IDC te vergroten. Ook zijn aanbevelingen gedaan om de betekenis van de huidige IDC’s (Energie, Water, LED, Smaak, Digitaal telen en Robotica) nog verder te vergroten.
Ontwikkeling kennis- en innovatiesystemen in de Greenportregio’s: regionale aanpak gouden driehoek
Geerling-Eiff, Florentien - \ 2015
horticulture - knowledge transfer - innovations - economic cooperation - agricultural regions - regional development - monitoring - innovation adoption - technology transfer - best management practices
De leerervaringen en oogst van Greenport Holland International
Hoes, A.C. ; Groot, N.S.P. de - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 14-084) - 20
tuinbouw - wereldmarkten - export - internationale samenwerking - internationale handel - nederland - ondernemerschap - kennisoverdracht - technologieoverdracht - horticulture - world markets - exports - international cooperation - international trade - netherlands - entrepreneurship - knowledge transfer - technology transfer
Ervaringen uit het recente verleden tonen aan dat het een uitdaging is om de Nederlandse tuinbouw te internationaliseren. Hoewel Nederlandse tuinbouwproducten (zoals bloemen) ver over de Nederlandse grenzen worden geëxporteerd, is dit niet het geval voor de Nederlandse tuinbouwexpertise. Het Businessplan Greenport Holland International (2011) schetst dat de trends van urbanisatie en stijging van koopkracht zorgen voor opkomende markten die behoefte hebben aan lokale grootschalige tuinbouw. Nederland zou een rol kunnen spelen in het vervullen van deze behoefte. GHI onderneemt verschillende activiteiten om de internationalisering van de Nederlandse Tuinbouw te ondersteunen. Zo organiseert GHI onder andere buitenlandse missies, neemt deel aan internationale conferenties en laat marktverkenningsstudies uitvoeren. Welke lessen zijn er geleerd met betrekking tot de gehanteerde werkwijze van GHI? In hoeverre hebben de activiteiten van GHI Founding Fathers geholpen met de internationalisering van hun ondernemingen?
Beyond technology transfer: an integrative analysis of plans, practice, and know-how in Ethiopian floriculture
Debele, D.A. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571402 - 170
bloementeelt - technologieoverdracht - technologie - gedragscode - ethiopië - floriculture - technology transfer - technology - code of practice - ethiopia

Ethiopia has become the second largest flower producer and exporter in Africa, next to Kenya. EU markets are the country’s major export destinations, which are demanding in terms of product quality, sustainability of production, and corporate social responsibility. The Ethiopian Horticulture Producers Exporters Association (EHPEA) introduced a code of practice to facilitate compliance with international standards such as Global GAP. Exporters and flower farms, and public policy in Ethiopia supporting the code of practice try to find ways to involve (foreign) experts and university graduates, and to import hardware, such as equipment and crop varieties, in order to be able to perform in the global market. In a newly emerging sector, requirements in international markets and new forms of governance impact on the way problems are solved and production is managed in the greenhouses.

The research is motivated by the observation that floriculture in Ethiopia resembles a knowledge-intensive industry and is confronted with increasing demands in the international market to comply with standards for environmentally benign production and corporate social responsibility. Yet, the thesis is critical about the default mechanism to revert to training of individuals. It aims to develop a grounded understanding of how capabilities are formed or emerge in the daily practices and interactions of people and teams within firms operating in the context of less developed regions.

The thesis seeks to explore how the practices stipulated in the code of practice are enacted in the everyday realities of workers, technicians, and managers in the floriculture sector. The research investigates these practices by focusing on: (1) a complicated agronomic problem, namely pest and disease management (Chapter 2 and 3), (2) the functioning of university graduates employed by flower farms (Chapter 4), and (3) the relationship between flower farms and the surrounding community relations in the context of shared use of a common pool resource, namely water from the lake (Chapter 5).

To explore problem solving capabilities, the study builds on the scholarly work of practice based and socio-material approaches to agriculture, science and technology studies, organizational studies, and workplace learning. It primarily draws upon two methodological approaches: (1) technography and socio-materiality. These two approaches have an interesting synergy as both: (1) focus on situated action, (2) reject an exclusive focus on either social or material and take an integrative perspective on socio-material interactions, and (3) emphasize technology in use rather than design. Typically, both approaches take seriously the role of material environments by showing how problem solving is relational and distributed among people, activities, standard procedures and biophysical environments. Further, they regard capabilities as situated; hence, know-how emerges in a particular practice. Through in-depth analysis of problem solving, the study examined how technicians, farm managers, and workers in a case study export flower farm in Ethiopia use standards and expert knowledge with the general objective of producing quality flowers for international markets. More specifically, the study sought to understand the inextricable relationships between plans, practice, and know-how.

The investigation of pest and disease management practices within the case study farm (Chapters 2 and 3) explores how people use a code of practice for good agricultural activities. Specifically, these chapters study how people use an integrated pest management (IPM), as preferred by the code. Chapter 2 examines technical details of pest and disease management problems and looks at the way teams coordinated actions, responded to the technical and managerial challenges, and took corrective measures. Chapter 3 explores how members of a team using IPM translated practices into codified information and work protocols and used these codified practices in solving practical problems. It demonstrates in what ways the process of codification involved skills, techniques, and knowledge of people performing various tasks, and illustrates how people abstract actual practices to codes by referring to elements in the material environments such as tools, growing plants, pests, predators and the prevailing weather data. Chapter 4 examines the extent to which graduates make use of knowledge and practices transferred to them during their formal university training and discusses the emergence of know-how in workplaces as blending of pre-defined attributes of individual graduates and skills developed during pest and disease management.

The scope of the investigation was extended to another part of the code of practice, i.e. the articles referring to corporate social responsibility (CSR), which defines guidelines on how commercial farms are supposed to deal with surrounding communities (Chapter 5). The research studied how a cluster of farms, including the case study farm, interacted with a select group of farmer / community representatives and public officials in finding ways to arrange access to and use of water as a common pool resource. The findings suggests that companies tend to opt for hardware, such as building a hospital, and technical solutions, such as constructing new water points, and are less skilful in including multiple interests and values expressed by community leaders in solutions outside its direct span of influence .

The general discussion ( Chapter 6) analyses problem solving capabilities as know-how beyond the pre-defined features such as codes and attributes of individual graduates and translates the main findings into implications for policy, practice, and education.

'Gaat de onderzoekskraan dicht, dan staat sector over enkele jaren droog'(interview met Sjaak Bakker)
Staalduinen, J. van; Bakker, J.C. - \ 2013
Onder Glas 10 (2013)9. - p. 30 - 31.
glastuinbouw - landbouwkundig onderzoek - financieren - toegepast onderzoek - innovaties - beleid - verspreiding van onderzoek - technologieoverdracht - greenhouse horticulture - agricultural research - financing - applied research - innovations - policy - diffusion of research - technology transfer
Nu het Productschap Tuinbouw is weggesaneerd, is het ook gedaan met de collectieve financiering van onderzoek. Volgens Sjaak Bakker, business unit manager van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, dient de sector haar eigen bijdrage aan strategisch toegepast onderzoek snel op de rit te krijgen. Lukt dat niet, dan zullen ook de subsidiestromen vanuit Den Haag en Brussel opdrogen. Dat kan onherstelbare schade aanrichten. Vooralsnog blijft hij optimistisch.
Export van kennis en technologie door het Nederlandse agrocomplex: Verschijningsvormen, maatstaven en prestaties
Berkum, S. van; Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Pronk, A. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR : Onderzoeksveld Internationaal beleid ) - 29
overheidsbeleid - kennisvalorisatie - innovaties - kennisoverdracht - landbouwindustrie - landbouwsector - technologieoverdracht - informatieverspreiding - government policy - knowledge exploitation - innovations - knowledge transfer - agribusiness - agricultural sector - technology transfer - diffusion of information
Conform de EU Strategy 2020 is investeren in een kennisintensieve economie een van de speerpunten van de Nederlandse overheid teneinde overeind te blijven in de mondiale concurrentie. Dat innovatie ook in het huidige kabinetsbeleid een belangrijke plaats inneemt, komt onder meer tot uiting in de vorming van het ministerie van Economische zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie in 2011. Voor doelmatig en effectief beleid ter stimulering van innovatie is het noodzakelijk goed inzicht te hebben in de huidige kennisintensiteit en daarmee samenhangende concurreDe vraag over de kennisintensiteit van het agrocomplex wordt in deze beschouwing uitgewerkt in twee onderdelen. Het eerste onderdeel richt zich op een conceptueel raamwerk rond kennis en de export ervan: hoe leidt kennis (en technologie) tot (meer) export en in welke verschijningsvormen doet kennis zich voor? Het tweede deel richt zich op de operationalisering van het conceptuele raamwerk: hoe meet je de kennis-intensiteit van producten en diensten die door het agrocomplex worden geëxporteerd? Daarvoor worden enkele suggesties gegeven, waarna via een aantal voorbeelden een korte beschouwing volgt over de complexiteit van de relaties tussen kennis, de kennisintensiteit van producten en diensten en export van die goederen en diensten. De beschouwing sluit af met enkele voorstellen voor mogelijke vervolgstappenntiekracht van de Nederlandse economie, en die van het agrocomplex in het bijzonder.
Technology development and market access: from a food sovereignty perspective
Quaye, W. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel; Guido Ruivenkamp, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734952 - 169
vignabonen - markten - kleine landbouwbedrijven - ghana - technologieoverdracht - gewasproductie - voedselsoevereiniteit - cowpeas - markets - small farms - technology transfer - crop production - food sovereignty

The concepts of ‘relevant social groups’ and ‘technical code’ are used to investigate the social relations in cowpea variety development (technology studies) and also the relationship of small-scale farmers to the Ghana School Feeding Program (market access) against the background of food sovereignty. For the technology studies, empirical findings reveal the wider socio-cultural context within which cowpea production, processing and consumption are organized and the differences in social meanings constructed for cowpea varieties among relevant social groups (RSGs) in the local cowpea network. Farmers attach social meanings to variety choices in relation to the purpose of cultivation, either primarily for household food provision or for commercial purposes, and select varieties on the basis of these social meanings alongside other, technical considerations, such as yield and tolerance to diseases and pests. There is another, sharper contrast between social meanings ascribed to cowpea variety choice by (small-scale) processors and consumers from that of the farmers. Processor and consumer cowpea variety preferences are tied to bean characteristics, such as white seed colour, short cooking time and taste, which aremore attuned to the social relevance of consumption than technical functionality for cultivation.

There are different desires for different traits and thus different varieties of cowpea among the various RSGs, yet empirical findings show that the technical codes in variety designs do not reflect these. In particular, the social meanings constructed for preferred cowpea varieties among the RSGS in the user (processor/consumer, as opposed to producer) category go unrecognised in the variety designs produced in Ghana. Basically, empirical findings confirm a mismatch between what farmers grow and what consumers want. Thereis thus a demand on the Ghanaian cowpea market that local farmers fail to take advantage of, an opportunity that has been taken instead by foreign producers. To understand why the variety preferences of some RSGs have been neglected in Ghanaian cowpea variety development, we unearth the structural and asymmetric power relations among the RSGs in constructing the technical codes of variety designs.

Research reveals three major phases in the social organisation of cowpea variety development in Ghana: the upstream breeding, downstream breeding and validation and release. A core element in the upstream breeding is the development of technical codes in variety designs or exotic lines using local germplasm as raw material at the international breeding centres. These codes have both technical specifications and in-built socio-cultural assumptions that become explicit through critical reflection on the variety development process. In the downstream breeding phase, the core element of the variety development process becomes the adaptability of the exotic lines to the local environment, basically involving evaluation of and selection from the variety designs developed upstream. At the validation and release phase, interpretative differences and design flexibility come to a closure as the National Variety Release Committee (NVRC) determines a proposed improved variety to be an improvement over already existing varieties.

There is a strong influence of international researchers in the development of exotic lines upstream, largely due to power imbalances between this and other RSGs, such as in technical know-how, research infrastructure and funding resources. This asymmetric relationship means that downstream breeding activities are centrally controlled through the functioning of standardized breeding procedures developed by international breeding institutions at the upstream breeding phase working with the basic intention of a universal applicability of (cowpea) variety design. This research thus points especially to the need for institutional rearrangements that encourage a greater engagement of local researchers in upstream breeding and the inclusion of other RSGs in the user category in the breeding process. And in order to enhance flexibility in attuning exotic lines developed at international organisations to locality specific contexts in downstream breeding, this study recommends the establishment of localized (rather than global) breeding frameworks, with clear (sets of) RSG defined breeding objectives that consider the differences in variety preferences at production and consumption levels, for both market and household consumption. Indeed, small-scale farmers can enhance their access to the domestic market and their food sovereignty if demand driven varieties are produced.

The market access study using the Ghana School Feeding Program (GSFP) typifies a food re-localisation strategy which elaborates on the relationship of market access for smallholder farmers to their food sovereignty situations. Similarly to the empirical findings from the technology studies, the code analysis of the market access study shows structural limitations and unequal power relations among GSFP RSGs. Despite the good intentions of decentralizing decisions pertaining to the GSFP, this research reveals a top-down bureaucratic approach to program conceptualization and implementation that has effectively negated some RSGs. The GSFP was implemented with little involvement by small-holder farmers who are supposed to represent one of the beneficiaries of the programme (by supplying the market it creates) The local (district and school) level bodies supposed to be responsible for mobilizing community support and linking smallholders to the GSFP market were not empowered to perform. They were given little support or direction as to their roles and responsibilities and there were funding shortages for food purchases. This situation gave traders and other food suppliers the power to use their money to take advantage of the market opportunities created.

The asymmetry of power influence among the RSGs in the GSFP network is reflected in the choice of food procurement model. A code analysis of the market access study shows three procurement models to be operative in the GSFP: i) theSupplier Model, which employs the use of contractors or suppliers to supply food items to the schools, ii) the School-Based Model,which involves thecommunity mobilization of resources and purchase of raw foodstuffs from local farmers, and iii) theCaterer Model, which involves the handling of food purchases and food preparations by contracted qualified caterers. In practice, the caterer model is found to be mostly used largely due to convenience and power imbalances, even though it is the school-based model that best fits the programme objectives. This is shown to be a significant cause of the failure of smallholders to access the GSGP market and their ‘replacement’ by traders and other food suppliers.

Nevertheless, assessment of the socio-economic impact on the group of farmers (less than 30% of 100 farmers interviewed in GSFP participating communities) who have been able to access the GSFP market shows a very positive relationship between market access and household food sovereignty. In the space of a year, production of the crop sold (rice) went up 30%, food stocks rose by a half (from six to nine months) and farmers’ incomes increased by 80%. Notably, these farmers were organised, by a development agency, which also provided various inputs (including credit and technical assistance) and, acting as the link to the GSFP, guaranteed the market.

Several factors are found to have limited and continue to restrict effective implementation of the GSFP, but from the code analysis it is clear that the GSFP can be socially reconstructed to seek specific goals. Despite the constraints limiting smallholder farmer access to the GSFP market, critical investigations into the procurement models open-up possibilities for reconstructing the GSFP market and making it an endogenous structure that can facilitate smallholder access. Identification also of the factors enabling access on the part of some farmers also suggests ways in which interventions in social relations can enable localised producer-consumer linkages through the GSFP that promote food sovereignty.

Since resource constraints favour the use of supplier and caterer procurement models, it is recommended that contract agreements specify food purchases from local farmers. Concrete proposals for endogenizing the GSFP to facilitate the linkage between local food production and school feeding (local consumption) include i) strengthening collaboration efforts with strategic partners working with farmer groups, ii) developing social relations between farmers and caterers or school kitchen centres, and iii) affirming the roles and responsibilities of actors who have the capacity to develop farmer-GSFP linkages through performance contract agreements and regular monitoring. The Ministry of Food and Agriculture and FONG, an apex organisation of farmers’ groups, were identified as actors that could be developed for important, nationwide roles at the local level.

This research shows a link betweenendogenous development andhousehold food sovereignty. Empirical findings from the GSFP analysis provide a test case of what actually happens to the food sovereignty situation of small-scale farmers who have good access to a domestic market. Using a range of measures at the household level as proxy for food sovereignty, this study shows a positive linkage between domestic market access for smallholder farmers and food sovereignty. However, it is realised that farmers in marginalized areas, especially those in hunger hotspots, cannot just produce for the GSFP market unless it is organised in a way that reflects endogenous capacities and improves small-scale farmers’ access to production resources.

The technological studies and market access parts of this research both reveal the importance ofparticipation by RSGs – the former especially through genuinely participatory plant breeding programmes and the latter through the need for communities and farmers’ groups to be proactively introduced into and involved in the organisation of food procurement. Underscoring this, the linkage of fundamental failures, again in both programmes – both in breeding (at the upstream phrase) and school feeding (conceptualisation and implementation) – to asymmetric social power relations attest to the need to confront and restructure these in practical, creative ways.

Videoimpressie Masterclass Tuinbouw
PPO BBF Bloembollen, ; Os, G.J. van - \ 2011
Lisse : PPO
agrarisch onderwijs - leerlingen - kennisoverdracht - technologieoverdracht - landbouwkundig onderzoek - onderzoekers - agricultural education - pupils - knowledge transfer - technology transfer - agricultural research - research workers
Videopresentatie van de Masterclass Tuinbouw geproduceerd in samenwerking met PPO, waarbij leerlingen van verschillende opleidingen ook aan het woord komen.
Clean Seas Maritime Technology Network - eindrapportage
Glorius, S.T. ; Karman, C.C. - \ 2011
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C143/11) - 29
milieubescherming - marien milieu - schepen - transport over water - emissie - lawaaibestrijding - luchtverontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - kennisoverdracht - technologieoverdracht - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - netwerken (activiteit) - environmental protection - marine environment - ships - water transport - emission - noise abatement - air pollution - water pollution - knowledge transfer - technology transfer - sustainability - networking
Verbetering van de milieuprestaties van (zee-)scheepvaart en andere maritieme activiteiten is een centraal thema geworden. Soms is de ontwikkelende regelgeving de drijvende kracht achter het ‘vergroenen’ van de sector, maar steeds vaker nemen de bedrijven zelf het initiatief om hun activiteiten te verduurzamen. Het is daarom van belang dat zowel aan de regelgeving als aan de marktinitiatieven gerichte aandacht aan wordt gegeven. Duurzaamheid wordt in veel innovatieprogramma’s en –projecten als randvoorwaarde gezien, maar vrijwel nooit als doel. Verduurzaming van de maritieme sector betekent in dit licht dat geredeneerd dient te worden vanuit het ecosysteem. Het beschouwen van enkelvoudige (meestal gasvormige) emissies is onvoldoende geworden. Het is van belang de impact te kennen van alle emissies – zowel naar de lucht als naar het water –om van daaruit “vergroeningsopties” te kunnen prioriteren. Benodigde rekenmethoden en (achtergrond-) informatie zijn op dit moment niet of op zeer beperkte schaal beschikbaar. Daar waar wel methode beschikbaar zijn, zijn deze veelal gebaseerd op emissies en niet op impact (bv. CO2-index) en vooral toepasbaar op transportschepen en veel minder op, voor Nederland minstens zo relevant, werkschepen. In het Clean Seas Maritime Technology Network (ook wel Clean Seas thematisch netwerk) is in een serie bijeenkomsten kennis gedeeld tussen bedrijven en kennisinstellingen om een impuls te geven aan de ontwikkeling van een duurzame maritieme sector. Hiervoor zijn bijeenkomsten georganiseerd met als doel om kennisinstellingen, overheden en de industrie (werven, reders en toeleveranciers) bij elkaar te brengen en kennis te delen om zo helder te krijgen wat de huidige stand van de techniek is en tevens vast te stellen wat er nodig is voor een effectieve verduurzaming (vergroening) van de sector. Deze bijeenkomsten waren gericht op: Indices voor het meten van milieuprestaties; Emissies naar de lucht; Onderwatergeluid; Emissies naar het water. In dit rapport wordt verslag gedaan van het Clean Seas Maritime Technology Network, op basis van een korte weergave van de voorstudie (uitgebreide resultaten zijn apart gerapporteerd), een impressie van de bijeenkomsten en een overzicht van initiatieven die zijn ontstaan uit het netwerk.
Nieuwe kennis sneller naar de praktijk brengen: Eerst de techniek, meteen daarna kennis adopteren en gebruiken (interview met Eric Poot en marc Grootscholten))
Bezemer, J. ; Poot, E.H. - \ 2010
Onder Glas 7 (2010)11. - p. 56 - 57.
teelt onder bescherming - teeltsystemen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kwekers - onderzoeksimplementatie - technologieoverdracht - doelstellingenmanagement - glastuinbouw - kennisoverdracht - economische samenwerking - ketenmanagement - protected cultivation - cropping systems - sustainability - growers - implementation of research - technology transfer - management by objectives - greenhouse horticulture - knowledge transfer - economic cooperation - supply chain management
Vorig jaar ging ‘Samenwerken aan Vaardigheden’ uit de startblokken, een project met Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw en het Improvement Centre aan het roer. Eén van de doelstellingen is nieuwe kennis uit onderzoek sneller in de praktijk te krijgen. Daarom zijn telers, toeleveranciers en overheden bij het initiatief betrokken. De vaart zit er inmiddels goed in.
De bijdrage van technologie aan systeeminnovaties
Vogelezang, J.V.M. ; Wijnands, F.G. - \ 2010
Syscope Magazine 2010 (2010)26. - p. 3 - 6.
landbouwsector - innovaties - technologie - aangepaste technologie - bedrijfssystemen - technologieoverdracht - landbouwtechniek - informatieverspreiding - technische vooruitgang - systeeminnovatie - duurzame ontwikkeling - agricultural sector - innovations - technology - appropriate technology - farming systems - technology transfer - agricultural engineering - diffusion of information - technical progress - system innovation - sustainable development
Technologische vernieuwingen leveren een essentiële bijdrage aan de verduurzaming van de agrarische sector. Maar hoe is die bijdrage vanuit de techniek aan systeemverandering te karakteriseren? En hoe kunnen we met technologie het innovatieproces sturen en versnellen?
Living Lab voor Informatiemanagement in Agri-Food
Wolfert, J. - \ 2010
Agro Informatica 23 (2010)5. - ISSN 0925-4455 - p. 10 - 13.
agro-industriële sector - informatieontsluiting - technologieoverdracht - informatiesystemen - innovaties - procesoptimalisatie - agroindustrial sector - information retrieval - technology transfer - information systems - innovations - process optimization
Het Living Lab is een specifieke open innovatie aanpak waarbij in feite het laboratorium naar de praktijk wordt gebracht. het Agri-Food Living lab is een informatiemanagementsysteem specifiek voor de agri-food sector.
Game-theoretic analysis of international climate agreements: the design of transfer schemes and the role of technological change
Nagashima, M.N. - \ 2010
University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): R.B. Dellink; Hans-Peter Weikard. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856078 - 145
klimatologie - klimaatverandering - internationale verdragen - internationale samenwerking - speltheorie - besluitvorming - technologieoverdracht - modellen - opwarming van de aarde - milieubeleid - climatology - climatic change - international agreements - international cooperation - game theory - decision making - technology transfer - models - global warming - environmental policy
Global warming is one of the crucial challenges that the world is facing now. The allocation of
reduction efforts among regions has long been negotiated and it will not be an easy task to achieve a
full cooperation with stringent targets.
The thesis examines the formation of international climate agreements (ICAs) in a game-theoretic
framework. I analyse strategic behaviour of a number of regions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions. Game-theoretic approaches have been widely used to examine an interaction between
countries in the negotiations on climate change, and have emphasised difficulties in designing such a
voluntary agreement. This thesis provides a systematic approach to examine the impacts of designs of
the ICAs on the success of ICAs.
In Chapter 2, I present the basic structure of the STACO-2.1 model, composed of a game-theoretic
framework and applied features, with specifications and calibrations of the functions used in the
model. I analyse the results for (i) the All Singletons coalition structure, (ii) the Grand coalition
structure, and (iii) all stable coalition structures. This case can serve as a suitable reference point for
the analysis of the various mechanisms in the following chapters. The results show that a coalition of
EU15 and Japan is stable. Both regions have an interest in cooperation, because of their higher
marginal benefits from abatement. The results suggest that regions with relatively lower marginal
abatement costs and lower marginal benefits would be worse off when they cooperate as they bear the
largest burden of abatement but obtain the least benefits. This suggests that transfer schemes can be
effective to stabilise larger coalitions.
In Chapter 3, I analyse the impact of pragmatic and optimal transfer schemes on the incentives for
regions to join international climate agreements. With an applied model that comprises twelve world
regions I investigate: (i) a benchmark without transfers, (ii) scenarios with allocation-based rules
where coalition members receive tradable emission permits proportional to initial or future emissions,
(iii) scenarios with outcome-based rules where the coalition surplus is distributed proportional to the
emissions, and (iv) a scenario based on an optimal sharing rule where the coalition surplus is
distributed proportional to outside option payoffs.
I find that when the transfer scheme is poorly designed in the sense that it increases incentives to
free-ride, the best performing stable coalition may be worse than in the case of no transfers. In our
applied setting this occurs for the initial-emissions-based tradable permit system (grandfathering).
Improvements of the initial-emissions-based tradable permit system, such as a tradable permit system
based on the full path of emissions or a surplus sharing scheme, do enhance stability of coalitions. For
the optimal transfer scheme we find that larger coalitions, which include key players such as the
United States and China, can be stable, but no transfer scheme is capable of stabilising the Grand
Coalition. The results show that optimal transfers perform much better than more pragmatic transfer
schemes. Such schemes, however, require detailed insight into the incentive structures of the regions.
Therefore, there is a trade-off between more pragmatic schemes that may be easier to implement but
are hardly effective and optimal transfers which may be hard to achieve in actual negotiations.
In Chapter 4, I explore how different technology spillover mechanisms among regions can
influence the incentives to join and stabilise an international agreement. Several theories on the impact
of technology spillovers are evaluated by simulating a range of alternative specifications: (i) no
spillovers, (ii) internal spillovers, (iii) global spillovers, (iv) coalitional spillovers, and (v) extended
spillovers (all possible technology spillovers).
I find that spillovers are a good instrument to increase the abatement efforts of coalitions and
reduce the associated costs. In our setting, however, they cannot overcome the strong free-rider
incentives that are present in larger coalitions. Therefore, technology spillovers do not substantially
increase the success of international environmental agreements. This conclusion is robust with respect
to the specification of technology spillovers.
In Chapter 5, I relax the assumption of exogenous technological change analysed in the previous
chapters and explore the impacts of induced technological change (ITC) on the stability of an
international climate agreement. To examine the impacts of different specifications of technological
change in reducing abatement costs on regional incentives, three scenarios are investigated: (i) no
technological change (noTC), (ii) exogenous technological change (ExTC), and (iii) induced
technological change (ITC). Technological change is induced by the abatement targets. It reduces
emissions through regional R&D investments, which lowers abatement costs over time. The results
reveal that the set of best-performing stable coalitions and the associated indicator of success hardly
change between the scenario of noTC and ExTC, but ITC does produce a different set of stable
coalitions. Coalitions that are stable in all three scenarios can achieve the highest NPV of payoffs in
the case of ITC. The results indicate that coalition members increase their investments and abatement
substantially when they cooperate in the case of ITC. As a result of increased global abatement, not
only coalition members but also singletons obtain high benefits, which leads to decrease (increase) in
the number of internally (externally) stable coalitions. Therefore, ITC might improve global payoffs,
however, at the same time it tends to increase free-rider incentives due to the public good nature of
global warming. I find that the indicator of success is quite robust with respect to the productivity of
R&D. Furthermore, the number of internally (externally) stable coalitions decreases (increases) with
the value of the productivity of R&D, as free-riding incentives increase. I find that stability is sensitive
with respect to changes of the discount rate. The number of stable coalitions increases with the value
of discount rate. In both cases, the dominating mechanism is that higher productivity of R&D or a
lower discount rate increase the payoffs of regions, and thus increase the gains of cooperation, but also
increase free-rider incentives.
Overall, the main finding of this thesis is that well-designed mechanisms can facilitate successful
formation of partial coalitions, although global cooperation is still hard to achieve. The reason lies in
the public good nature of global warming and regional characteristics of benefits and costs. Following
insights of the current literature on transfer schemes, our systematic analysis supports the fact that an
incentive to join the agreement is highly sensitive to the design of transfers. For different designs of
transfer schemes, there is a trade-off between feasibility and effectiveness. Allocation-based transfer
schemes are easier to implement than an optimal transfer scheme which can achieve more successful
coalition formation in the context of global payoffs and CO2 emissions.
The role of technological change has received significant attentions to reduce a significant amount
of emissions. Two types of sources of technological change are investigated in the thesis: (i)
technology spillovers and (ii) R&D investment. If technology spillovers are treated as private goods, a
country with higher abatement technology can be an attractive partner for other countries to cooperate
with, as cooperation on abatement will lead to reduction in abatement costs without paying for
technology improvement. Within the context of assumptions used here, quantitative results suggest
that the spillovers between cooperating regions may not be effective enough to overcome the freeriding
incentives for non-cooperative countries, as large emission reduction by cooperating countries
will bring large benefits also to non-cooperating countries.
In the case of induced technological change, regional R&D investments improve the stock of
knowledge which leads to low abatement costs. When cooperating with other regions, signatories can
obtain higher payoffs than in All Singletons, which is driven by increased investment after cooperation
on abatement. ITC plays a significant role in increasing global payoffs, however, it also increases freerider
incentives as non-signatories also benefit from a large reduction made by signatories. As long as
R&D investments increase payoffs under cooperation on abatement and the gains from cooperation
are large, the difference in the source of technological change will not provide any significant
differences in terms of improvement in the success of a climate agreement.
The Kyoto Protocol was the first significant step that provided stimulus for search for successful
international cooperation on climate change policies, although there are issues to be improved. Now,
negotiation on the post Kyoto framework has been taking place with an aim of large cooperation on
tackling climate change among countries. Flexible measures which lead to a win-win cooperation for
the countries involved will continue to play a crucial role in achieving a successful cooperation and the
search for well-designed mechanisms will be further pursued.
Tuinbouwbedrijven hebben meer contacten met kennisinstellingen
Galen, M.A. van; Ge, L. - \ 2009
Agri-monitor 2009 (2009)sept. - ISSN 1383-6455
tuinbouwbedrijven - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - onderzoeksinstituten - technologieoverdracht - landbouwkundig onderzoek - innovaties - ondernemerschap - kennismanagement - kennisoverdracht - market gardens - farm management - research institutes - technology transfer - agricultural research - innovations - entrepreneurship - knowledge management - knowledge transfer
Agrarische ondernemers gebruiken kennisinstellingen voor scholing, kennisvergaring en co-innovatie. Contacten met kennisinstellingen vergroten de kans op innovatieve ideeën bij de ondernemers. Voor de kennisinstellingen is het ook belangrijk om contact te houden met de praktijk. In de jaarlijkse Innovatiemonitor registreert het LEI de contacten van agrarische ondernemers met kennisinstellingen
Vorming en aanpassingsvermogen van intersectorale technologisch georiënteerde onderzoeksconsortia : Analyse technische kokerview
Cuijpers, Y. ; Lokhorst, C. ; Bos, A.P. - \ 2008
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Vertrouwelijk rapport / Wageningen UR, Animal Sciences Group 146) - 32
landbouwtechniek - precisielandbouw - remote sensing - telemetrie - sensors - technologieoverdracht - draadloze sensornetwerken - systeeminnovatie - agricultural engineering - precision agriculture - telemetry - technology transfer - wireless sensor networks - system innovation
ASG werkt samen met een breed scala aan partijen aan de ontwikkeling en toepassing van nieuwe generaties draadloze sensornetwerken. In de consortia LOFAR en WASP werken bedrijven, instituten en universiteiten samen in de toepassingsgebieden landbouw, ouderenzorg, automobielindustrie, astronomie en geofysica. Deze toepassingsgebieden leveren interessante casussen voor de technologie-toepassing en tegelijkertijd zijn zij een belangrijke inspiratiebron voor toepassingen in de landbouw. Samenwerken met verschillende regimes zal leiden tot een spanning tussen uitgangspunten, regels, doelen en werkwijzen. Dit heeft mogelijk zijn uitwerkingen op het functioneren van een consortium. Het doel van dit onderzoek is om inzicht te verkrijgen in het proces van totstandkoming van dit soort consortia, en of ze in staat zijn om zichzelf aan te passen. ASG wil deze inzichten gebruiken bij de verdere vormgeving van onderzoek voor (systeem)innovatie in de landbouw in dergelijke consortia
Milieutechnologie: snelweg naar een duurzame ontwikkeling
Rulkens, W.H. - \ 2008
Afvalwaterwetenschap 7 (2008)2. - ISSN 1568-3788 - p. 72 - 92.
aangepaste technologie - milieubeheersing - milieubescherming - technologieoverdracht - toegepast onderzoek - onderzoeksprojecten - afvalwaterbehandeling - milieutechnologie - duurzame ontwikkeling - appropriate technology - environmental control - environmental protection - technology transfer - applied research - research projects - waste water treatment - environmental technology - sustainable development
In het onderhavige artikel, dat voor een belangrijk deel is gebaseerd op de ervaringen met milieutechnologie binnen de Sectie Milieutechnologie van Wageningen Universiteit, wordt een schets gegeven van de betekenis van de milieutechnologie voor het ontwikkelen van een duurzame samenleving. De opvatting hierover is de afgelopen decennia sterk veranderd. Het is nu algemeen aanvaard dat de oplossing voor de wereldwijde klimaat- en milieuproblematiek voor een zeer belangrijk deel zal moeten komen van de technologie, met name van de milieutechnologie, aldus Rulkens
Position paper on the potential and scope of collaboration between IBM - Big Green Innovations and the climate and water communities
Loon, A.F. van; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Vellinga, P. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre - 31
waterbeheer - innovaties - simulatiemodellen - weersvoorspelling - voorspellingen - klimaatverandering - informatieverwerking - technologieoverdracht - publiek-private samenwerking - Nederland - water management - innovations - simulation models - weather forecasting - forecasts - climatic change - information processing - technology transfer - public-private cooperation - Netherlands
A major concern for companies and governments is the robustness of their activities and investments in view of a changing climate. The water sector is in need of technological innovations to be able to cope with the effects of changing climate on the water system. IBM is searching for a way to utilize the computational power of its supercomputers and its expertise and capabilities on sensor networking, date streaming and visualization, to satisfy the needs of the water sector. Commissioned by IBM, the Centre for Water and Climate of Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR) has carried out a study in cooperation with European research partners that resulted in this position paper. The aim of the paper is to present an overview of the opportunities for improving and utilizing monitoring systems and sensors, weather/climate prediction systems, and their coupling to hydrologic models, hydrological forecasting tools and use in water management. In Europe water-related issues are dealt with in international collaboration, both institutionally and scientifically, with countries like Germany, United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway, France, the Netherlands, etc. In this paper we focus on the water sector in the Netherlands within this European context
Stelling: Innovatie kan zonder dialoog met de samenleving
Noorduyn, L. - \ 2007
Syscope Magazine (2007)14. - p. 14 - 15.
innovatie adoptie - technologieoverdracht - productontwikkeling - communicatie - kennisoverdracht - maatschappelijk draagvlak - systeeminnovatie - innovation adoption - technology transfer - product development - communication - knowledge transfer - public support - system innovation
Dialoog met de samenleving is nodig om innovatie tot ontwikkeling te laten komen, wordt vaak gezegd. Maar is dat wel zo? Is het altijd nodig om die dialoog aan te gaan, voordat een innovatie een succes kan worden? Zes reacties uit het veld
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