Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Carbon Sequestration in a Large Hydroelectric Reservoir: An Integrative Seismic Approach
Mendonca, R. ; Kosten, S. ; Sobek, S. ; Cole, J.J. ; Bastos, A.C. ; Albuquerque, A.L. ; Cardoso, S.J. ; Roland, F. - \ 2014
Ecosystems 17 (2014)3. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 430 - 441.
lake-sediments - organic-carbon - burial - cycle - stratigraphy - terrestrial - phosphorus - emission
Artificial reservoirs likely accumulate more carbon than natural lakes due to their unusually high sedimentation rates. Nevertheless, the actual magnitude of carbon accumulating in reservoirs is poorly known due to a lack of whole-system studies of carbon burial. We determined the organic carbon (OC) burial rate and the total OC stock in the sediments of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir by combining a seismic survey with sediment core sampling. Our data suggest that no sediment accumulation occurs along the margins of the reservoir and that irregular bottom morphology leads to irregular sediment deposition. Such heterogeneous sedimentation resulted in high spatial variation in OC burial-from 0 to 209 g C m(-2) y(-1). Based on a regression between sediment accumulation and OC burial rates (R (2) = 0.94), and on the mean reservoir sediment accumulation rate (0.51 cm y(-1), from the seismic survey), the whole-reservoir OC burial rate was estimated at 42.2 g C m(-2) y(-1). This rate was equivalent to 70% of the reported carbon emissions from the reservoir surface to the atmosphere and corresponded to a total sediment OC accumulation of 0.62 Tg C since the reservoir was created. The approach we propose here allows an inexpensive and integrative assessment of OC burial in reservoirs by taking into account the high degree of spatial variability and based on a single assessment. Because burial can be assessed shortly after the survey, the approach combining a seismic survey and coring could, if applied on a larger scale, contribute to a more complete estimate of carbon stocks in freshwater systems in a relatively short period of time.
Synthesis of ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the Netherlands shows the need to consider environmental fluctuations in adaptation measures
Bodegom, P.M. van; Verboom-Vasiljev, J. ; Witte, J.P.M. ; Vos, C.C. ; Batholomeus, R.P. ; Geertsema, W. ; Cormont, A. ; Veen, M. van der; Aerts, R. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 933 - 942.
klimaatverandering - ecosystemen - dispersie - ecohydrologie - climatic change - ecosystems - dispersion - ecohydrology - plant traits - species distribution - range shifts - water-flow - models - vegetation - biodiversity - conservation - conductance - terrestrial
Climate change impacts on individual species are various and range from shifts in phenology and functional properties to changes in productivity and dispersal. The combination of impacts determines future biodiversity and species composition, but is difficult to evaluate with a single method. Instead, a comparison of mutually independent approaches provides information and confidence in patterns observed beyond what may be achieved in individual approaches. Here, we carried out such comparison to assess which ecosystem types in the Netherlands appear most vulnerable to climate change impacts, as arising from changes in hydrology, nutrient conditions and dispersal limitations. We thus combined meta-analyses of species range shifts with species distribution modelling and ecohydrological modelling with expert knowledge in two respective impact studies. Both impact studies showed that nutrient-poor ecosystems and ecosystem types with fluctuating water tables—like hay meadows, moist heathlands and moorlands—seem to be most at risk upon climate change. A subsequent meta-analysis of species–environmental stress relations indicated that particularly endangered species are adversely affected by the combination of drought and oxygen stress, caused by fluctuating moisture conditions. This implies that adaptation measures should not only aim to optimise mean environmental conditions but should also buffer environmental extremes. Major uncertainties in the assessment included the quantitative impacts of vegetation-hydrology feedbacks, vegetation adaptation and interactions between dispersal capacity and traits linked to environmental selection. Once such quantifications become feasible, adaptation measures may be tailor-made and optimised to conserve vulnerable ecosystem types
Synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem service supply, biodiversity, and habitat conservation status in Europe
Maes, J. ; Paracchini, M.L. ; Zulian, G. ; Dunbar, M.B. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. - \ 2012
Biological Conservation 155 (2012). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 1 - 12.
terrestrial - framework - france
In the European Union (EU) efforts to conserve biodiversity have been consistently directed towards the protection of habitats and species through the designation of protected areas under the Habitats Directive (92/43/ECC). These biodiversity conservation efforts also have the potential to maintain or improve the supply of ecosystem services; however, this potential has been poorly explored across Europe. This paper reports on a spatial assessment of the relationships between biodiversity, ecosystem services, and conservation status of protected habitats at European scale. We mapped at 10 km resolution ten spatial proxies for ecosystem service supply (four provisioning services, five regulating services and one cultural service) and three proxies for biodiversity (Mean Species Abundance, tree species diversity and the relative area of Natura 2000 sites). Indicators for biodiversity and aggregated ecosystem service supply were positively related but this relationship was influenced by the spatial trade-offs among ecosystem services, in particular between crop production and regulating ecosystem services. Using multinomial logistic regression models we demonstrated that habitats in a favourable conservation status provided more biodiversity and had a higher potential to supply, in particular, regulating and cultural ecosystem services than habitats in an unfavourable conservation status. This information is of utmost importance in identifying regions in which measures are likely to result in cost-effective progress towards both new biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services targets adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020.
Diet selection of African elephant over time shows changing optimization currency
Pretorius, Y. ; Stigter, J.D. ; Boer, W.F. de; Wieren, S.E. van; Jong, C.B. de; Knegt, H.J. de; Grant, R.C. ; Heitkonig, I.M.A. ; Knox, N. ; Kohi, E. ; Mwakiwa, E. ; Peel, M.J.S. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Slotow, R. ; Waal, C. van der; Langevelde, F. van; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2012
Oikos 121 (2012)12. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 2110 - 2120.
mammalian herbivores - geometrical approach - loxodonta-africana - national-park - food - quality - forage - trees - terrestrial - complexity
Multiple factors determine diet selection of herbivores. However, in many diet studies selection of single nutrients is studied or optimization models are developed using only one currency. In this paper, we use linear programming to explain diet selection by African elephant based on plant availability and nutrient and deterrent content over time. Our results indicate that elephant at our study area maximized intake of phosphorus throughout the year, possibly in response to the deficiency of this nutrient in the region. After adjusting the model to incorporate the effects of this deficiency, elephant were found to maximize nitrogen intake during the wet season and energy during the dry season. We reason that the increased energy requirements during the dry season can be explained by seasonal changes in water availability and forage abundance. As forage abundance decrease into the dry season, elephant struggle to satisfy their large absolute food requirements. Adding to this restriction is the simultaneous decrease in plant and surface water availability, which force the elephant to seek out scarce surface water sources at high energy costs. During the wet season when food becomes more abundant and energy requirements are satisfied easier, elephant aim to maximize nitrogen intake for growth and reproduction. Our study contributes to the emerging theory on understanding foraging for multiple resources
Land-atmosphere coupling explains the link between pan evaporation and actual evapotranspiration trends in a changing climate
Heerwaarden, C.C. van; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. ; Teuling, A.J. - \ 2010
Geophysical Research Letters 37 (2010). - ISSN 0094-8276 - 5 p.
convective boundary-layer - united-states - hydrologic-cycle - soil-moisture - terrestrial - regions - dry
Decreasing trends in pan evaporation are widely observed across the world as a response of the climate system to changes in temperature, precipitation, incoming radiation and wind speed. Nevertheless, we only partially understand how trends in actual evapotranspiration are linked to those trends. Here, we use a model to show that regulation of the near-surface temperature and humidity by land-atmosphere feedbacks results in a strong connection between pan evaporation, actual evapotranspiration and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) depending on the climate forcings. When climate change occurs, the feedbacks direct the system towards a different combination of the three variables. If we know the trends in pan evaporation, VPD and wind speed, we can therefore infer the change in the forcings and estimate the trend in actual evapotranspiration.
Global River Nutrient Export: A Scenario Analysis of Past and Future Trends
Seitzinger, S.P. ; Mayorga, E. ; Bouwman, A.F. ; Kroeze, C. ; Beusen, A.H.W. ; Billen, G. ; Drecht, G. van; Dumont, E.L. ; Fekete, B.M. ; Garnier, J. ; Harrison, J. - \ 2010
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24 (2010). - ISSN 0886-6236 - 16 p.
aquatic ecosystems - marine ecosystems - nitrogen - world - eutrophication - terrestrial - phosphorus - inputs - ocean - water
An integrated modeling approach was used to connect socioeconomic factors and nutrient management to river export of nitrogen, phosphorus, silica and carbon based on an updated Global NEWS model. Past trends (1970–2000) and four future scenarios were analyzed. Differences among the scenarios for nutrient management in agriculture were a key factor affecting the magnitude and direction of change of future DIN river export. In contrast, connectivity and level of sewage treatment and P detergent use were more important for differences in DIP river export. Global particulate nutrient export was calculated to decrease for all scenarios, in part due to increases in dams for hydropower. Small changes in dissolved silica and dissolved organics were calculated for all scenarios at the global scale. Population changes were an important underlying factor for river export of all nutrients in all scenarios. Substantial regional differences were calculated for all nutrient elements and forms. South Asia alone accounted for over half of the global increase in DIN and DIP river export between 1970 and 2000 and in the subsequent 30 years under the Global Orchestration scenario (globally connected with reactive approach to environmental problems); DIN river export decreased in the Adapting Mosaic (globally connected with proactive approach) scenario by 2030, although DIP continued to increase. Risks for coastal eutrophication will likely continue to increase in many world regions for the foreseeable future due to both increases in magnitude and changes in nutrient ratios in river export
Climate-dependent CO2 emissions from lakes
Kosten, S. ; Roland, F. ; Motta Marques, D.M.L. Da; Nes, E.H. van; Mazzeo, N. ; Sternberg, L.S.L. ; Scheffer, M. ; Cole, J.J. - \ 2010
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24 (2010)2. - ISSN 0886-6236
aquatic ecosystems - carbon-dioxide - metabolic balance - atmospheric co2 - surface waters - shallow lakes - boreal lakes - respiration - heterotrophy - terrestrial
Inland waters, just as the world's oceans, play an important role in the global carbon cycle. While lakes and reservoirs typically emit CO2, they also bury carbon in their sediment. The net CO2 emission is largely the result of the decomposition or preservation of terrestrially supplied carbon. What regulates the balance between CO2 emission and carbon burial is not known, but climate change and temperature have been hypothesized to influence both processes. We analyzed patterns in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in 83 shallow lakes over a large climatic gradient in South America and found a strong, positive correlation with temperature. The higher pCO2 in warmer lakes may be caused by a higher, temperature-dependent mineralization of organic carbon. This pattern suggests that cool lakes may start to emit more CO2 when they warm up because of climate cha
Traffic mortality and the role of minor roads
Langevelde, F. van; Dooremalen, C. van; Jaarsma, C.F. - \ 2009
Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 660 - 667.
badger meles-meles - vehicle collisions - populations - mitigation - fragmentation - terrestrial - management - landscape - patterns - turtles
Roads have large impacts on wildlife, as they form one of the principal causes of mortality, and disturbance and fragmentation of habitat. These impacts are mainly studied and mitigated on major roads. It is, however, a widespread misconception that most animals are killed on major roads. In this paper, we argue that minor roads have a larger impact on wildlife with respect to habitat destruction, noise load and traffic mortality. We use data on traffic related deaths in badgers (Meles meles) in The Netherlands to illustrate that traffic mortality is higher on minor roads. We ask for a more extensive investigation of the environmental impacts of minor roads. Moreover, we argue that the success of mitigation on roads drastically increases when both major and minor roads are integrated in the planning of traffic flows. Therefore, we propose a strategy based on the concept of a ¿traffic-calmed area¿. Traffic-calmed areas create opportunities for wildlife by decreasing limitations for animal movement. We ask for further studies to estimate what size traffic-calmed areas should be to maintain minimum viable animal populations
Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest
Lelieveld, J. ; Butler, T. ; Crowley, J.N. ; Dillon, T.J. ; Fischer, H. ; Ganzeveld, L.N. ; Harder, H. ; Lawrence, M.G. ; Martinez, M. ; Taraborelli, D. ; Williams, J. - \ 2008
Nature 452 (2008)7188. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 737 - 740.
volatile organic-compounds - isoprene - chemistry - hydrocarbons - emission - model - thermotolerance - terrestrial - simulation - budget
Terrestrial vegetation, especially tropical rain forest, releases vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere1, 2, 3, which are removed by oxidation reactions and deposition of reaction products4, 5, 6. The oxidation is mainly initiated by hydroxyl radicals (OH), primarily formed through the photodissociation of ozone4. Previously it was thought that, in unpolluted air, biogenic VOCs deplete OH and reduce the atmospheric oxidation capacity5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Conversely, in polluted air VOC oxidation leads to noxious oxidant build-up by the catalytic action of nitrogen oxides5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 (NOx = NO + NO2). Here we report aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases performed over the pristine Amazon forest. Our data reveal unexpectedly high OH concentrations. We propose that natural VOC oxidation, notably of isoprene, recycles OH efficiently in low-NOx air through reactions of organic peroxy radicals. Computations with an atmospheric chemistry model and the results of laboratory experiments suggest that an OH recycling efficiency of 40¿80 per cent in isoprene oxidation may be able to explain the high OH levels we observed in the field. Although further laboratory studies are necessary to explore the chemical mechanism responsible for OH recycling in more detail, our results demonstrate that the biosphere maintains a remarkable balance with the atmospheric environment
Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: an example for plants exposed to nickel in soil
Semenzin, E. ; Temminghoff, E.J.M. ; Marcomini, A. - \ 2007
Environmental Pollution 148 (2007)2. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 642 - 647.
donnan membrane technique - chemical speciation - heavy-metals - trace-metals - terrestrial - toxicity - phytotoxicity - systems - growth
The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the `free¿ nickel (Ni2+) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account.
Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland
Vliet, P.C.J. van; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Ma, W.C. - \ 2005
Environmental Pollution 138 (2005)3. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 505 - 516.
cadmium - copper - zinc - bioavailability - contamination - availability - terrestrial - systems - lead
We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. The accumulation of metals by earthworms is species dependent and affected by flooding.
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