Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Instrumental characterisation of textural properties of fluid food
Sala, G. ; Scholten, E. - \ 2015
In: Modifying Food Texture Woodhead Publishing - ISBN 9781782423522 - p. 107 - 131.
fluid foods - rheological behavior - viscosity - lubrication properties - texture - instrumental characterisation of texture - fat replacers
To control or modify the textural properties of food, it is important to understand how the ingredients affect the product structure and how the product is perceived by the consumer. The relationship between these aspects is complex, and a complete understanding of the mechanisms relating structure to sensory perception is still lacking. With this regard, the instrumental characterization of the physical properties of food plays a fundamental role. In this chapter, an overview of the rheological and tribological properties of fluid food as well as of the instrumental techniques to determine these properties is given. The presented physical parameters are linked to a variety of mouthfeel attributes. The significance of the choice of the instrumental techniques and that of the measuring conditions to be able to link instrumental measurements to sensory attributes are analyzed. Examples of how ingredients interactions are related to fat perception and can be used for fat reduction are given.
Bolus matters: impact of food oral breakdown on dynamic texture perception
Devezeaux de Lavergne, M.S.M. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; F. van de Velde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574496 - 227
textuuranalyse - textuur - voedsel - structuur - eigenschappen - perceptie - spijsvertering - gels - elektromyografie - masticatie - kwalitatieve analyse - worstjes - texture analysis - texture - food - structure - properties - perception - digestion - electromyography - mastication - qualitative analysis - sausages

Background and aims:

Texture is an important, yet complex, quality attribute of food. Food structure and properties can be linked to texture perception during the first bite. However, the perception of attributes during chew down is more difficult to explain, as food requires to be broken down to be swallowed safely. Food oral processing, which is a recent discipline connecting food science to the physiology of the eating process, is considered to be the key for understanding dynamic food texture perception. The aim of this thesis is to understand the link between food properties and texture perception by investigating oral food breakdown, in simple model foods.


Gels were used as a model for soft solid foods. Several properties of the gels were controlled by modifying the composition of gels, including fracture stress and fracture strain, oil droplets binding to the gels matrix, melting, serum release and mechanical contrast. The texture perception of the gels was measured using several sensory methods. Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA), progressive profiling and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) were compared in the assessment of dynamic texture perception. In order to link gel properties to texture perception, the oral processing of gels was measured through analyses on the gel bolus and measurements of chewing behaviour. Gel boli were expectorated at various stages of oral processing and were analysed for gel fragments size and number, mechanical properties and saliva incorporation. These analyses were used to quantify the degree of breakdown of gels and to relate bolus properties to changes in texture perception. Chewing behaviour was measured using Electromyography (EMG) to understand the role of oral processing behaviour in bolus formation and dynamic texture perception.


Dynamic texture perception of gels could be measured by QDA, progressive profiling and TDS which were complementary methods. Fracture properties of gels could predict the perception of first bite texture attributes. Fracture stress and fracture strain were correlated to first bite firmness and brittleness respectively. During chew down, the link between gel properties and texture perception became less clear. Nonetheless, fracture properties and other gels properties, such as melting and serum release, related to chew down perception. Bolus properties depended on gel properties, but related better to chew down texture perception than gel properties. Mainly changes in mechanical properties and fragmentation of the bolus could explained the perception of complex texture attributes, such as creaminess and graininess respectively. Chewing behaviour depended on products properties. In addition, chewing behaviour impacted the formation of the bolus and could result in differences in dynamic texture perception between groups of individuals.


The oral breakdown of food is a valuable input to understand the perception of complex chew down texture attributes. Such an input could be used to design foods with a desired texture sensory profile for reformulation of foods fitting in a healthier diet or foods for target consumer groups.

Taste enhancement in food gels: Effect of fracture properties on oral breakdown, bolus formation and sweetness intensity
Mosca, A.C. ; Velde, F. van de; Bult, J.H.F. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2015
Food Hydrocolloids 43 (2015). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 794 - 802.
spatial-distribution - saltiness enhancement - sensory integration - perception - texture - release - bread - flavor - model - salt
This study investigates the effects of fracture strain and fracture stress on oral breakdown, bolus formation and sweetness intensity of semi-solid food gels containing sucrose heterogeneously distributed in layers. The sweetness intensity of gels was mainly affected by the total surface area of gel fragments formed upon chewing. Gels with low values of fracture strain and fracture stress broke down into a large number of small fragments. These gels were perceived sweeter than gels with high values of fracture strain and fracture stress. Fracture strain had a larger impact on oral breakdown behavior and sweetness intensity than fracture stress. Results indicate that the oral breakdown behavior (i.e. formation of a large number of small fragments, which leads to an increase in the total surface area) is the driving factor for taste perception in semi-solid gels that have a heterogeneous distribution of sucrose. We suggest that the differences in sweetness intensity in gels containing sucrose heterogeneously distributed in layers and differing in fracture properties result from differences in the frequency of stimulation of taste receptors. An increase in the total surface area of fragments containing sucrose facilitates the release of tastants and increases the frequency of stimulation of taste receptors. Consequently, the taste intensity of gels is enhanced.
Physical and Sensory Characterizations of Oral Coatings of Oil/Water Emulsions
Camacho, S. ; Riel, V. van; Graaf, C. de; Velde, F. van de; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)25. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 5789 - 5795.
custard desserts - perception - tongue - fat - quantification - difference - retention - papillae - texture - cavity
The physical and sensory properties of oil coatings on the tongue formed by five oil/water emulsions varying in oil content were investigated. A total of 20 subjects processed orally each emulsion for 30 s in triplicate. In vivo fluorescence measurements at the front and back of the anterior tongue were made to quantify the oil fraction deposited at different time points. Calibration lines relating fluorescence intensity to oil fraction were determined using pig tongues at 37.5 °C to mimic oral conditions. The oil fraction on the tongue increased linearly with an increasing oil content of the emulsions. The oil fraction deposited at the back of the anterior tongue was 1.5–2.0× larger than at the front. The intensity of sensory attributes describing after-feel perception was related to the oil fraction by Weber–Fechner’s law. This study uses in vivo fluorescence to study food behavior in the mouth and unravel new insights in after-feel perception of emulsions.
Sensory and health properties of steamed and boiled carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus)
Bongoni, R. ; Stieger, M.A. ; Dekker, M. ; Steenbekkers, B. ; Verkerk, R. - \ 2014
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 65 (2014)7. - ISSN 0963-7486 - p. 809 - 815.
beta-carotene - processed vegetables - cooking methods - fruits - texture - quality - bioavailability - pectin - juice - raw
This study examined the influences of domestic processing conditions applied by consumers on firmness, colour and amount of phytochemicals and liking and sensory attributes intensity rating of carrots. The aim was to identify a cooking method and time that yields carrots with higher amount of b-carotene while maintaining consumer liking. Instrumentally measured firmness and colour showed comparable degradation trends between cooking methods. While boiling showed a significant decrease in the amount b-carotene after 20 min (19%), steaming maintained the amount (+40%). Cooking method did not show a significant effect on liking and intensity ratings for the majority of the sensory attributes. Medium firm carrots were liked the most and low firm carrots the least. This study demonstrates that for optimum liking, carrots should be in the range of medium firmness. This can be obtained through either cooking methods but steamed carrots possess a higher amount of b-carotene and maintains liking.
Predictive modelling of vegetable firmness after thermal pre-treatments and steaming
Dekker, M. ; Dekkers, E. ; Jasper, A. ; Baár, C. ; Verkerk, R. - \ 2014
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 25 (2014). - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 14 - 18.
pectin - kinetics - texture - fruits
Texture is an important product property that strongly affects the quality evaluation of processed vegetables by consumers. The rate of texture decrease is dependent on the processing temperature and the type of vegetable. A large data set on instrumental texture measurements of carrot and broccoli was produced with different time–temperature combinations for steaming the vegetables. This data set was fitted with a fractional conversion model to describe the kinetics of texture change. Pre-treating the vegetables by steaming at 50–80 °C can increase the resistance towards softening in a subsequent steaming process. The effect of time and temperature of the thermal pre-treatment on the rate constant of softening during subsequent steaming has been evaluated. A response surface two factor interaction model could well describe this effect. Pre-treatments enable more flexibility to optimise several product properties like health, texture and colour. The predictive model presented here is a valuable tool for this multi-criteria optimisation. Industrial relevance A model to describe the softening of vegetable texture during steaming is presented, and the effect of pre-treatment conditions on the reduction of the subsequent softening rate is included in the model. With this model vegetable texture can be improved by predicting the optimal time and temperature of the pre-treatment. This model can be integrated into a multi-criteria optimization approach to improve other quality attributes and still give a desired texture.
Evaluation of Different Cooking Conditions on Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) to Improve the Nutritional Value and Consumer Acceptance
Bongoni, R. ; Verkerk, R. ; Steenbekkers, B. ; Dekker, M. ; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2014
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 69 (2014)3. - ISSN 0921-9668 - p. 228 - 234.
antioxidant capacity - vegetables - texture - health - cabbage - time
This paper reviews the main results of EU-action: “COST 926: Impact of new technologies on the health benefits and safety of bioactive plant compounds”. The bioavailability and the effects on gene expression of various bioactive components in plant foods are described in relation with their implication for human health. The objective of this study was to gain insights into the effect of the cooking method on the liking as well as the retention of glucosinolates in broccoli. With this knowledge it can be concluded whether the health aspects of broccoli be improved by the cooking method without deteriorating sensory perception. For this, broccoli was cooked by methods commonly applied by consumers: boiling with a cold (water) start; boiling with a hot (water) start; and steaming. Firmness, greenness and amount of total glucosinolates in cooked broccoli were instrumentally determined. Sensory evaluation by untrained consumers (n¿=¿99) for liking and sensory attributes intensity rating were performed on broccoli cooked by steaming and boiling-cold start at three time points, which resulted in ‘high’, ‘medium’, ‘low’ firm broccoli samples. At the end of cooking, steaming showed an increase in the amount of total glucosinolates (+17 %). Boiling-hot start (-41 %) and boiling-cold start (-50 %) showed a decrease in amount of total glucosinolates. Sensory evaluation did not show statistically significant differences between steaming and boiling-cold start in liking at ‘high’ and ‘medium’ firmness; and in the attribute intensity ratings (except for juiciness at ‘medium’ firmness, and flavour at ‘medium’ and ‘low’ firmness). This study demonstrates that medium firm broccoli showed optimum liking and that steaming compared to boiled-cold start showed higher amount of glucosinolates. It is concluded that the health aspects of broccoli can be improved without reducing the sensory aspects by optimising the cooking method.
Ice crystal interspacing in frozen foods
Sman, R.G.M. van der; Voda, A. ; Dalen, G. van; Duijster, A. - \ 2013
Journal of Food Engineering 116 (2013)2. - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 622 - 626.
directional-solidification - apple tissue - part ii - texture - growth - cream - crystallization - transport - model - microstructure
In this paper we show that the ice crystal growth in food and biomaterials is a function of the freezing rate. Our experimental data and literature data on other biomaterials collapse to a single curve, if plotted against the freezing rate. The fitted correlation is compared to scaling rules developed for dendrite interspacing during directional solidification of alloys. We argue that the food freezing process is reasonably comparable to the solidification process in alloys, as is apparent in the comparable exponent in our fitted scaling rule with the one commonly used in alloy solidification. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saliva and sensory perception : interplay between the person and the food stimuli
Heinzerling, C.I. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): J.H.F. Bult. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736505 - 132
speeksel - sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - smaak - textuur - saliva - sensory evaluation - perception - taste - texture

The perception of food is influenced by various parameters, many of them being different from individual to individual. What we perceive is not the same because each individual is different. Saliva volume and composition vary widely among people and will influence the chemical and structural composition of the food. Thus, the dilution and mixing of the food with saliva determines the extent of food-saliva interactions and connected to that also how the food item is perceived. It is clear from literature that saliva affects our perception and it is also clear that the rate and composition of salivation is dependent on what we perceive. However, it has not been clear to what extent. Since saliva can be measured objectively for each individual and it can be manipulated in a controlled fashion, more can be learned from the relationship between oral processing and perception. And with that various questions can be addressed, such as: Can the individual differences in sensory assessment be accounted for by their individual salivary composition? Is it possible to affect the sensory perception of an individual by modifying their salivary flow and composition? Different tastes stimulate different amounts of saliva but do they also affect the saliva composition? Or are the differences in saliva composition caused by the differences in salivary flow rate? Can different amounts of saliva, and thus also different dilution factors, affect the taste perception? Furthermore, can taste-taste interactions be explained by an increase in salivary flow rate? Is it possible that the increased salivation, induced by the increased thickness, will dilute the tastant and hence decrease the perceived intensity? Or are taste-texture interactions caused by cross-modal interactions? Or is the increased viscosity of the texture decreasing the concentration of taste molecules? The aim of this thesis is to show how and to what extent saliva influences, and is influenced by, taste and texture.

The addition of amylase inhibitor reduces saliva α-amylase activity and increases perceived thickness and creaminess. However, alpha-amylase activity varies widely among subjects and therefore a decreased oral α-amylase activity will not guarantee an increase in perceived thickness and creaminess of starch-based foods. Comparisons of the different tastants show that the pH of stimulated parotid saliva increases linearly, irrespective of the nature of the tastant. Protein concentration decrease and protein amount increase with increase in flow rate for all tastants. After correcting for the effect of flow rate, the protein amount is affected by the nature of the tastant with the greatest secretion after stimulation by citric acid. Flow rate is largely responsible for pH but tastant appears to play an additional role in affecting protein secretion. Significant decreases in perception with increasing salivary flow rates are observed for citric acid and sodium chloride. This can partially be explained by a dilution effect which is in line with previous studies on detectable concentration differences. However, since the bitterness and sweetness remain unaffected by the salivary flow conditions and the dilution effect is comparable to that of saltiness, further explanations are still needed.

Suppression of taste intensity in binary mixtures is not affected by the rate of salivation. This is more likely explained by psychophysics. When the taste is separated from the texture, no texture-taste effects are observed. Dilution with saliva did occur and the tastant availability was unaffected in this set-up. The conclusion is therefore that texture-taste interactions are not caused by dilution effects or cross-modal interactions but can best be explained by the release of tastants.

The work described in this thesis shows how the individual perception can be affected by the salivary flow and composition and how the individual salivary flow and composition can be affected by the sensory stimuli taste and texture.

Baseline survey B11-5 on the German Continental Shelf
Glorius, S.T. ; Weide, B.E. van der; Kaag, N.H.B.M. - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C098/13) - 45
waterbodems - noordzee - chemische eigenschappen - fysische eigenschappen - biologische eigenschappen - sediment - textuur - inventarisaties - water bottoms - north sea - chemical properties - physical properties - biological properties - texture - inventories
A consortium, consisting of Wintershall Holding GmbH, GdF Suez, RWE Dea and EWE AG, is planning an exploration well in block B11-5, located within the Doggerbank (N2000 area). In order to assess any effect from this activity on the biological, physical and chemical properties of the seafloor Wintershall Noordzee BV asked IMARES to perform a baseline study prior to the drilling activities. In this baseline study the following environmental elements are included; seafloor texture and presence of any structures (including stones and boulders), the physical (grain size and organic content), chemical (oil and metal content) and biological (abundance and structure of benthic species) properties of the sediment. At 29 stations located at different angles and distances of the drill site, sediment samples were taken and video recordings of the seafloor made. In an area of 2000 x 2000 m around the centre, side scan sonar footage were made as well.
Time to first fracture affects sweetness of gels
Sala, G. ; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2013
Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013)1. - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 73 - 81.
emulsion-filled gels - sugar - perception - fat - deformation - preferences - texture - flavor - impact - foods
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the breakdown behaviour on sweetness intensity of gelled model foods. Emulsion-filled gelatine/agar gels varying mainly in fracture strain (eF) were used. The fracture strain was modified by changing either the ratio between gelatine and agar concentration or the size of the oil droplets embedded in the gel matrix. The sugar content of all gels was kept constant at 6 wt%. The fracture strain of the gels varied between eF = 37% and eF = 72%. The number of gel fragments (n) obtained after uniaxial compression of a gel specimen increased with decreasing fracture strain from n = 10 (eF = 72%) to n = 200 (eF = 37%). A quantitative descriptive analysis sensory study revealed that the sweetness intensity perceived after firstfracture of the gel in the mouth was higher for gels with lower fracture strain. The sweetness intensity of the most brittle gel (Isweet = 65; eF = 37%) was almost twice as high as the sweetness intensity of the least brittle gel (Isweet = 36; eF = 72%). In addition, the panelists determined the time after which the maximum sweetness intensity was perceived (tmax). The maximum sweetness intensity of brittle gels was perceived after tmax = 6 s (eF = 37%), whereas for less brittle gels the maximum sweetness intensity was perceived after tmax = 15 s (eF = 72%). The temporal evolution of sweetness intensity after the maximum sweetness intensity was comparable for all gels. The results suggest that the velocity of formation of new surfaces of the food in contact with the taste buds influences sweetness intensity in addition to the total surface which is generated during breakdown of the food.
Variation in soil carbon stocks and their determinants across a precipitation gradient in West Africa
Saiz, G. ; Bird, M.I. ; Domingues, T.F. ; Schrodt, F. ; Schwartz, M. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2012
Global Change Biology 18 (2012)5. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1670 - 1683.
land-use change - organic-matter - biotic controls - cycle feedback - savanna soils - forest soils - sequestration - texture - senegal - stabilization
We examine the influence of climate, soil properties and vegetation characteristics on soil organic carbon (SOC) along a transect of West African ecosystems sampled across a precipitation gradient on contrasting soil types stretching from Ghana (15°N) to Mali (7°N). Our findings derive from a total of 1108 soil cores sampled over 14 permanent plots. The observed pattern in SOC stocks reflects the very different climatic conditions and contrasting soil properties existing along the latitudinal transect. The combined effects of these factors strongly influence vegetation structure. SOC stocks in the first 2 m of soil ranged from 20 Mg C ha-1 for a Sahelian savanna in Mali to over 120 Mg C ha-1 for a transitional forest in Ghana. The degree of interdependence between soil bulk density (SBD) and soil properties is highlighted by the strong negative relationships observed between SBD and SOC (r2 > 0.84). A simple predictive function capable of encompassing the effect of climate, soil properties and vegetation type on SOC stocks showed that available water and sand content taken together could explain 0.84 and 0.86 of the total variability in SOC stocks observed to 0.3 and 1.0 m depth respectively. Used in combination with a suitable climatic parameter, sand content is a good predictor of SOC stored in highly weathered dry tropical ecosystems with arguably less confounding effects than provided by clay content. There was an increased contribution of resistant SOC to the total SOC pool for lower rainfall soils, this likely being the result of more frequent fire events in the grassier savannas of the more arid regions. This work provides new insights into the mechanisms determining the distribution of carbon storage in tropical soils and should contribute significantly to the development of robust predictive models of biogeochemical cycling and vegetation dynamics in tropical regions.
Flops analysis: a useful tool for future innovations. Part 2: The reduction of future flop risks
Koester, E. ; Mojet, J. - \ 2012
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 23 (2012)2. - ISSN 1722-6996 - p. 6 - 10.
flavor memory - food - complexity - curiosity - texture - choice - milk
After a thorough diagnostic analysis of a recent flop, including the verification of its possible causes and eventual repair of the product as described earlier (1), attention is given to the formulation of a new communal protocol for the formation of pro
Why coarse toasted rusk rolls are crispier than fine ones
Castro-Prada, E.M. ; Meinders, M.B.J. ; Primo-Martin, C. ; Hamer, R.J. ; Vliet, T. van - \ 2012
Journal of Texture Studies 43 (2012)6. - ISSN 0022-4901 - p. 421 - 437.
water activity - potato-chips - snack food - instrumental parameters - perceived crispness - acoustic properties - sensory crispness - auditory cues - deformation - texture
Toasted rusk rolls with a coarser structure are sensed crispier than those with a fine structure, at the same water activity (aw). The present paper shows that this difference in crispness perception is related to differences in fracture behavior and accompanying acoustic emission. Both sensory and instrumentally determined crispness decreased gradually with increasing aw in roughly the same manner for both coarse and fine products. Nevertheless, the coarse rusk roll was perceived as being crispier than the fine one. Typically, in the coarse structure the measured “Number of Force Drops” of a relatively large size and the “Number of Sound Events per cross section area” of relatively large intensity were more numerous than in the fine one. Our data show that relatively large force drops and sound events are related to the more intense crispness perception and stronger sound sensation for the coarse structure toasted rusk roll. We propose the “Total Sound Energy per cross section area” and the “Mean Sound Event Intensity” to be primarily responsible for the higher crispness perception of the coarse rusk over the whole aw range.
Texture, energy density & learning : implications for food intake
Hogenkamp, P.S. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): A. Stafleu; Monica Mars. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731227 - 143
voedselopname - verzadigdheid - energieopname - textuur - viscositeit - geur en smaak - leren - food intake - satiety - energy intake - texture - viscosity - flavour - learning

Food texture has been shown to be an important factor in the regulation of food (energy) intake. Liquid foods e.g. elicit weaker satiety responses than solid foods with a similar energy content, and texture affects satiation, i.e. ad libitum food intake. Whether theeffect of food texture on food intake stays the same over repeated exposure requires further investigation.
The aim of this thesis is to investigate the role of food texture in learned satiation. We assessed the effect of texture on changes in ad libitum intake and expected satiation after repeated consumption of foods with different energy density.
We conducted a series of learning experiments with healthy young adults. Participants repeatedly consumed a low-energy-dense (LED) and a high-energy-dense (HED) yogurt, which were either low (n=24) or high (n=22) in viscosity in one study; and consumed with a straw (liquid yogurt, n=34) or with a spoon (liquid yogurt, n=36; semi-solid yogurt, n=35) in a second study.
Next, we investigated changes in expected satiation and intake after repeated consumption of a LED soup (n=32) or a HED soup (n=32) with similar appearance; and of a liquid and a semi-solid custard with a similar energy density (n=53). Additionally, we assessed the effect of texture, flavour and means of consumption on expected satiation of iso-caloric dairy products in 3 single-meal experiments.
Finally, we served a fixed amount of a LED or HED food - either liquid or semi-solid - at each meal on 3 consecutive days, and measured ad libitum buffet intake directly after consumption of these foods (n=27).

Texture clearly affected satiation:ad libitum intake was up to 30% higher of liquid foods when compared with semi-solids foods in all experiments (p<0.0001). Participants expected semi-solid foods to be more satiating than iso-caloric liquid foods (p<0.01), irrespective of the product’s flavour or its means of consumption. The texture of a fixed amount of food did not affect subsequent intake of other foods.

Participants were able to learn about the foods’ satiating capacity after repeated consumption. Ad libitum intake of a HED high-viscous yogurt decreased and was 10% lower compared with a LED high-viscous yogurt after repeated consumption, while intake of a LED and HED low-viscous yogurt did not differ (interaction effect: p=0.04). We also observed thatappetite sensations changed when participants repeatedly consumed a liquid and semi-solid custard with a similar energy density (p<0.05). In addition, participants increased their intake from the ad libitum buffet after repeated consumption of a LED food (from 1745 ± 577 to 1979 ± 567 kcal), while their intake did not change after a HED food (interaction effect: p=0.02). This increase was observed irrespective of the texture of the test foods.
Ad libitum intake was higher of liquid foods when compared with semi-solid foods, also after learning about the energy content of a food over repeated exposure.
Participants did not adjust their intake and expected satiation consistently. Intake did not change when participants consumed a LED and a HED yogurt with a straw or with a spoon. We also did not observe profound changes in the expected satiation of a LED and HED soup or a liquid and semi-solid custard.
Healthy young adults learned about the foods’ satiating capacity after repeated consumption. Changes in intake and expectations in response to learning did not depend on food texture.
Food intake and expected satiation were not easily changed. The effect of food texture on satiation is important in the regulation of food intake, also after repeated exposure.

Inhomogeneous distribution of fat enhances the perception of fat-related sensory attributes in gelled foods
Mosca, A.C. ; Rocha, J.L. ; Sala, G. ; Velde, F. van de; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2012
Food Hydrocolloids 27 (2012)2. - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 448 - 455.
emulsion-filled gels - oil droplet - custard desserts - texture - microstructure - deformation - fracture - cheese
This study investigated the effect of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes using a model system that consisted of layered agar/gelatin gels containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion droplets dispersed in the gel matrix. Four layers of gel varying in the amount of emulsion droplets were combined to prepare samples with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of fat (emulsion droplets). The composition of the gels was optimized to obtain samples with comparable mechanical properties. A significant enhancement of mouthfeel attributes such as spreadable and melting was observed in samples with inhomogeneous distributions of fat in a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) panel. Inhomogeneous samples with large differences in fat content between layers were perceived more spreadable and melting than the sample in which fat was homogeneously distributed. Creaminess ratings tended to increase as the difference in fat content between layers increased in the inhomogeneous samples. Additionally, the position of the high-fat layers in the sample affected the perception of fat-related attributes. The sample with high-fat layers on the outside had the highest ratings for all mouthfeel and afterfeel attributes. The enhancement of fat-related attributes by an inhomogeneous distribution of fat depended on the overall fat content. The enhancement at 15 wt% fat was larger than that at 5 wt% fat. We suggest that the modulation of the spatial distribution of fat can be used to reduce the fat content of food products without causing undesirable changes in the sensory properties
Effects of bite size and duration of oral processing on retro-nasal aroma release - features contributing to meal termination
Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Zijlstra, N. ; Boelrijk, A.E.M. ; Dijkstra, A. ; Burgering, M.J.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. - \ 2011
British Journal of Nutrition 105 (2011)2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 307 - 315.
flavor release - swallowing process - food-intake - perception - time - satiation - desserts - texture - mouth - taste
The brain response to a retro-nasally sensed food odour signals the perception of food and it is suggested to be related to satiation. It is hypothesised that consuming food either in multiple small bite sizes or with a longer durations of oral processing may evoke substantial oral processing per gram consumed and an increase in transit time in the oral cavity. This is expected to result in a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation, which in turn may lead to increased feelings of satiation and decreased food intake. Using real-time atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-MS, in vivo retro-nasal aroma release was assessed for twenty-one young, healthy and normal-weight subjects consuming dark chocolate-flavoured custard. Subjects were exposed to both free or fixed bite size (5 and 15 g) and durations of oral processing before swallowing (3 and 9 s) in a cross-over design. For a fixed amount of dark chocolate-flavoured custard, consumption in multiple small bite sizes resulted in a significantly higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a smaller amount of large bite sizes. In addition, a longer duration of oral processing tended to result in a higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a short duration of oral processing. An interaction effect of bite size and duration of oral processing was not observed. In conclusion, decreasing bite size or increasing duration of oral processing led to a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation per gram consumed. Hence, adapting bite size or duration of oral processing indicates that meal termination can be accelerated by increasing the extent of retro-nasal aroma release and, subsequently, the satiation.
The influence of auditory and visual information on the perception of crispy food
Pocztaruk, R.D. ; Abbink, J.H. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Frasca, L.C.D. ; Gaviao, M.B.D. ; Bilt, A. van de - \ 2011
Food Quality and Preference 22 (2011)5. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 404 - 411.
oral physiology - crushing sounds - sensory evaluation - solid food - texture - mastication - product - crunchy - force - model
The influence of auditory and/or visual information on the perception of crispy food and on the physiology of chewing was investigated. Participants chewed biscuits of three different levels of crispness under four experimental conditions: no masking, auditory masking, visual masking, and auditory plus visual masking. The order of the four masking condition blocks was randomized. The sound of chewing was masked by loud sounds on a headphone and visual masking of the food was achieved by closing the eyes. We measured skull vibration and the number of chewing cycles until swallowing. Subsequently, texture and sound attributes were scored. Auditory masking led to significant lower scores on the attributes sound and snapping, but only for the participants who started the experiments with auditory plus visual masking. The other participants were not influenced by auditory masking. The memory of the unmodified stimuli helped to maintain accurate sound perception in later trials.
Oral movements and the perception of semi-solid foods
Wijk, R.A. de; Janssen, A.M. ; Prinz, J.F. - \ 2011
Physiology and Behavior 104 (2011)3. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 423 - 428.
custard desserts - texture - mastication - attributes - breakdown - flavor - varies - meals
Here we review the role of oral movements in the perception of food attributes, particularly for semi-solid and liquid foods ingested almost in ready-to-swallow form. An overview of a series of instrumental and sensory studies suggests clear links between the type of sensation and the time point of processing in the mouth. Some commonly-reported sensations, such as thickness, are relatively immediate and reflect the bulk properties of food bolus when the food is relatively intact. Others, such as fattiness and melting, reflect both bulk and surface properties and follow considerable oral processing when the food is relatively degraded. Yet others, such as fatty after-feel, are only fully developed after swallowing is complete. In addition, oral processing also plays an important role in the generation of aroma and taste sensations. Most of these in prior vivo studies have now been confirmed by in vitro work using a modified rheometer, dubbed the Structure Breakdown Cell (SBC), wherein the mechanical and enzymatic break-down of food can be monitored directly and related to sensory profiles generated by trained panelists.
Individually Modified Saliva Delivery Changes the Perceived Intensity of Saltiness and Sourness
Heinzerling, C.I. ; Stieger, M.A. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Smit, B. - \ 2011
Chemosensory Perception 4 (2011)4. - ISSN 1936-5802 - p. 145 - 153.
flow-rate - taste sensitivity - alpha-amylase - perception - secretion - stimuli - texture - starch - acids - ph
Individuals vary largely in their salivary flow and composition, and given the importance of saliva on perception of taste, this might influence how the tastant stimuli are perceived. We therefore hypothesise that altering the individual salivary flow rates has an impact on the perceived taste intensity. In this study, we investigated the role of saliva amount on the perceived taste intensity by excluding parotid saliva and adding artificial saliva close to the parotid duct at preset flow rates. Significant decreases in perception with increasing salivary flow rates were observed for citric acid and sodium chloride. This can partially be explained by a dilution effect which is in line with previous studies on detectable concentration differences. However, since the bitterness and sweetness remained unaffected by the salivary flow conditions and the dilution effect was comparable to that of saltiness, further explanation is needed. Furthermore, we investigated whether the suppression of taste intensity in binary mixtures (taste–taste interactions) could possibly be caused by the increased salivary flow rate induced by an additional taste attribute. The results show, however, that suppression of taste intensity in binary mixtures was not affected by the rate of salivation. This was more likely to be explained by psychophysics
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