Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Bolus matters: impact of food oral breakdown on dynamic texture perception
Devezeaux de Lavergne, M.S.M. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; F. van de Velde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574496 - 227
textuuranalyse - textuur - voedsel - structuur - eigenschappen - perceptie - spijsvertering - gels - elektromyografie - masticatie - kwalitatieve analyse - worstjes - texture analysis - texture - food - structure - properties - perception - digestion - electromyography - mastication - qualitative analysis - sausages

Background and aims:

Texture is an important, yet complex, quality attribute of food. Food structure and properties can be linked to texture perception during the first bite. However, the perception of attributes during chew down is more difficult to explain, as food requires to be broken down to be swallowed safely. Food oral processing, which is a recent discipline connecting food science to the physiology of the eating process, is considered to be the key for understanding dynamic food texture perception. The aim of this thesis is to understand the link between food properties and texture perception by investigating oral food breakdown, in simple model foods.


Gels were used as a model for soft solid foods. Several properties of the gels were controlled by modifying the composition of gels, including fracture stress and fracture strain, oil droplets binding to the gels matrix, melting, serum release and mechanical contrast. The texture perception of the gels was measured using several sensory methods. Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA), progressive profiling and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) were compared in the assessment of dynamic texture perception. In order to link gel properties to texture perception, the oral processing of gels was measured through analyses on the gel bolus and measurements of chewing behaviour. Gel boli were expectorated at various stages of oral processing and were analysed for gel fragments size and number, mechanical properties and saliva incorporation. These analyses were used to quantify the degree of breakdown of gels and to relate bolus properties to changes in texture perception. Chewing behaviour was measured using Electromyography (EMG) to understand the role of oral processing behaviour in bolus formation and dynamic texture perception.


Dynamic texture perception of gels could be measured by QDA, progressive profiling and TDS which were complementary methods. Fracture properties of gels could predict the perception of first bite texture attributes. Fracture stress and fracture strain were correlated to first bite firmness and brittleness respectively. During chew down, the link between gel properties and texture perception became less clear. Nonetheless, fracture properties and other gels properties, such as melting and serum release, related to chew down perception. Bolus properties depended on gel properties, but related better to chew down texture perception than gel properties. Mainly changes in mechanical properties and fragmentation of the bolus could explained the perception of complex texture attributes, such as creaminess and graininess respectively. Chewing behaviour depended on products properties. In addition, chewing behaviour impacted the formation of the bolus and could result in differences in dynamic texture perception between groups of individuals.


The oral breakdown of food is a valuable input to understand the perception of complex chew down texture attributes. Such an input could be used to design foods with a desired texture sensory profile for reformulation of foods fitting in a healthier diet or foods for target consumer groups.

Saliva and sensory perception : interplay between the person and the food stimuli
Heinzerling, C.I. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): J.H.F. Bult. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736505 - 132
speeksel - sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - smaak - textuur - saliva - sensory evaluation - perception - taste - texture

The perception of food is influenced by various parameters, many of them being different from individual to individual. What we perceive is not the same because each individual is different. Saliva volume and composition vary widely among people and will influence the chemical and structural composition of the food. Thus, the dilution and mixing of the food with saliva determines the extent of food-saliva interactions and connected to that also how the food item is perceived. It is clear from literature that saliva affects our perception and it is also clear that the rate and composition of salivation is dependent on what we perceive. However, it has not been clear to what extent. Since saliva can be measured objectively for each individual and it can be manipulated in a controlled fashion, more can be learned from the relationship between oral processing and perception. And with that various questions can be addressed, such as: Can the individual differences in sensory assessment be accounted for by their individual salivary composition? Is it possible to affect the sensory perception of an individual by modifying their salivary flow and composition? Different tastes stimulate different amounts of saliva but do they also affect the saliva composition? Or are the differences in saliva composition caused by the differences in salivary flow rate? Can different amounts of saliva, and thus also different dilution factors, affect the taste perception? Furthermore, can taste-taste interactions be explained by an increase in salivary flow rate? Is it possible that the increased salivation, induced by the increased thickness, will dilute the tastant and hence decrease the perceived intensity? Or are taste-texture interactions caused by cross-modal interactions? Or is the increased viscosity of the texture decreasing the concentration of taste molecules? The aim of this thesis is to show how and to what extent saliva influences, and is influenced by, taste and texture.

The addition of amylase inhibitor reduces saliva α-amylase activity and increases perceived thickness and creaminess. However, alpha-amylase activity varies widely among subjects and therefore a decreased oral α-amylase activity will not guarantee an increase in perceived thickness and creaminess of starch-based foods. Comparisons of the different tastants show that the pH of stimulated parotid saliva increases linearly, irrespective of the nature of the tastant. Protein concentration decrease and protein amount increase with increase in flow rate for all tastants. After correcting for the effect of flow rate, the protein amount is affected by the nature of the tastant with the greatest secretion after stimulation by citric acid. Flow rate is largely responsible for pH but tastant appears to play an additional role in affecting protein secretion. Significant decreases in perception with increasing salivary flow rates are observed for citric acid and sodium chloride. This can partially be explained by a dilution effect which is in line with previous studies on detectable concentration differences. However, since the bitterness and sweetness remain unaffected by the salivary flow conditions and the dilution effect is comparable to that of saltiness, further explanations are still needed.

Suppression of taste intensity in binary mixtures is not affected by the rate of salivation. This is more likely explained by psychophysics. When the taste is separated from the texture, no texture-taste effects are observed. Dilution with saliva did occur and the tastant availability was unaffected in this set-up. The conclusion is therefore that texture-taste interactions are not caused by dilution effects or cross-modal interactions but can best be explained by the release of tastants.

The work described in this thesis shows how the individual perception can be affected by the salivary flow and composition and how the individual salivary flow and composition can be affected by the sensory stimuli taste and texture.

Baseline survey B11-5 on the German Continental Shelf
Glorius, S.T. ; Weide, B.E. van der; Kaag, N.H.B.M. - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C098/13) - 45
waterbodems - noordzee - chemische eigenschappen - fysische eigenschappen - biologische eigenschappen - sediment - textuur - inventarisaties - water bottoms - north sea - chemical properties - physical properties - biological properties - texture - inventories
A consortium, consisting of Wintershall Holding GmbH, GdF Suez, RWE Dea and EWE AG, is planning an exploration well in block B11-5, located within the Doggerbank (N2000 area). In order to assess any effect from this activity on the biological, physical and chemical properties of the seafloor Wintershall Noordzee BV asked IMARES to perform a baseline study prior to the drilling activities. In this baseline study the following environmental elements are included; seafloor texture and presence of any structures (including stones and boulders), the physical (grain size and organic content), chemical (oil and metal content) and biological (abundance and structure of benthic species) properties of the sediment. At 29 stations located at different angles and distances of the drill site, sediment samples were taken and video recordings of the seafloor made. In an area of 2000 x 2000 m around the centre, side scan sonar footage were made as well.
Texture, energy density & learning : implications for food intake
Hogenkamp, P.S. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): A. Stafleu; Monica Mars. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731227 - 143
voedselopname - verzadigdheid - energieopname - textuur - viscositeit - geur en smaak - leren - food intake - satiety - energy intake - texture - viscosity - flavour - learning

Food texture has been shown to be an important factor in the regulation of food (energy) intake. Liquid foods e.g. elicit weaker satiety responses than solid foods with a similar energy content, and texture affects satiation, i.e. ad libitum food intake. Whether theeffect of food texture on food intake stays the same over repeated exposure requires further investigation.
The aim of this thesis is to investigate the role of food texture in learned satiation. We assessed the effect of texture on changes in ad libitum intake and expected satiation after repeated consumption of foods with different energy density.
We conducted a series of learning experiments with healthy young adults. Participants repeatedly consumed a low-energy-dense (LED) and a high-energy-dense (HED) yogurt, which were either low (n=24) or high (n=22) in viscosity in one study; and consumed with a straw (liquid yogurt, n=34) or with a spoon (liquid yogurt, n=36; semi-solid yogurt, n=35) in a second study.
Next, we investigated changes in expected satiation and intake after repeated consumption of a LED soup (n=32) or a HED soup (n=32) with similar appearance; and of a liquid and a semi-solid custard with a similar energy density (n=53). Additionally, we assessed the effect of texture, flavour and means of consumption on expected satiation of iso-caloric dairy products in 3 single-meal experiments.
Finally, we served a fixed amount of a LED or HED food - either liquid or semi-solid - at each meal on 3 consecutive days, and measured ad libitum buffet intake directly after consumption of these foods (n=27).

Texture clearly affected satiation:ad libitum intake was up to 30% higher of liquid foods when compared with semi-solids foods in all experiments (p<0.0001). Participants expected semi-solid foods to be more satiating than iso-caloric liquid foods (p<0.01), irrespective of the product’s flavour or its means of consumption. The texture of a fixed amount of food did not affect subsequent intake of other foods.

Participants were able to learn about the foods’ satiating capacity after repeated consumption. Ad libitum intake of a HED high-viscous yogurt decreased and was 10% lower compared with a LED high-viscous yogurt after repeated consumption, while intake of a LED and HED low-viscous yogurt did not differ (interaction effect: p=0.04). We also observed thatappetite sensations changed when participants repeatedly consumed a liquid and semi-solid custard with a similar energy density (p<0.05). In addition, participants increased their intake from the ad libitum buffet after repeated consumption of a LED food (from 1745 ± 577 to 1979 ± 567 kcal), while their intake did not change after a HED food (interaction effect: p=0.02). This increase was observed irrespective of the texture of the test foods.
Ad libitum intake was higher of liquid foods when compared with semi-solid foods, also after learning about the energy content of a food over repeated exposure.
Participants did not adjust their intake and expected satiation consistently. Intake did not change when participants consumed a LED and a HED yogurt with a straw or with a spoon. We also did not observe profound changes in the expected satiation of a LED and HED soup or a liquid and semi-solid custard.
Healthy young adults learned about the foods’ satiating capacity after repeated consumption. Changes in intake and expectations in response to learning did not depend on food texture.
Food intake and expected satiation were not easily changed. The effect of food texture on satiation is important in the regulation of food intake, also after repeated exposure.

Food texture and food intake : the role of oral sensory exposure
Zijlstra, N. - \ 2010
University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Monica Mars; Rene de Wijk. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856665 - 168
voedselopname - eetlustcontrole - textuur - viscositeit - sensorische evaluatie - voedingsfysiologie - eetsnelheden - food intake - appetite control - texture - viscosity - sensory evaluation - nutrition physiology - eating rates
Background and objective: In view of the growing epidemic of obesity, it is important to investigate factors which influence food intake. Food texture has been shown to play a role in food intake regulation but underlying explaining mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this thesis was to determine the effect of food texture on satiation (assessed as ad libitum food intake) and to investigate the mediating role of oral sensory exposure and gastro-intestinal physiology in this effect.
Methods: We started by investigating the effect of food viscosity on ad libitum food intake (n=108). Next, we investigated whether the effect of viscosity could be related to eating effort and/or eating rate (n=49) or to the release of the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 (n=33). To further explore the role of oral sensory exposure, we investigated the effect of changing bite size and oral processing time of a semi-solid food on satiation (n=22), and the effect of changing food texture of three pairs of solid foods on satiation (n=106). Finally, we observed eating behavior and retro-nasal aroma release in normal weight and overweight subjects (n=54).
Results: Viscosity of food had a clear effect on food intake; increasing viscosity significantly decreased ad libitum food intake and the difference in intake between the liquid and semi-solid product ranged from 29% to 34% in different settings. Eating rate played an important role; the liquid product was consumed significantly faster than the semi-solid product and a standardized eating rate led to similar intakes of these products. The selected gastro-intestinal hormones could not explain the effect of viscosity on food intake; a fixed amount of the liquid and semi-solid test product resulted in a similar response of the hormones. Food intake of a semi-solid food was significantly less when oral processing time was fixed to 9 s compared to 3 s (on average a difference of 42 g) and when consumed with fixed small bite sizes (≈ 5 g) compared to large bite sizes (≈ 15 g) (on average a difference of 106 g). Differences in food texture of solid foods, aimed to change oral processing time, did not affect food intake. Texture differences were probably too subtle to lead to differences in eating rate and subsequently to differences in food intake. Significant positive associations between food intake and eating behaviors such as eating rate and bite size were observed. Small to no differences in eating behavior and retro-nasal aroma release were found between normal weight and overweight subjects.
Conclusion: The results of this thesis show that food viscosity has a direct effect on food intake. Oral sensory exposure plays a major role in this since changing eating rate, oral processing time and bite size affected food intake. These factors contribute to the effect of food texture on food intake. In addition, eating rate and bite size were characteristics of the eating style of an individual.
Texture of food gels explained by combining structure and large deformation properties
Berg, L. van den - \ 2008
University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel; Erik van der Linden, co-promotor(en): F. van de Velde; Ton van Vliet. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049432 - 193
gels - wei-eiwit - polysacchariden - textuur - structuur - mechanische eigenschappen - reologische eigenschappen - confocale microscopie - whey protein - polysaccharides - texture - structure - mechanical properties - rheological properties - confocal microscopy
Oral texture perception of semisolid foods in relation to physicochemical properties
Terpstra, M.E.J. - \ 2008
University. Promotor(en): Erik van der Linden, co-promotor(en): Anke Janssen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085049548 - 175
sensorische evaluatie - textuur - perceptie - voedingsmiddelen - fysicochemische eigenschappen - custardpudding - reologische eigenschappen - sensory evaluation - texture - perception - foods - physicochemical properties - custard - rheological properties
When we eat a food product, we perceive its sensory properties and subconsciously decide whether we like the food. Next to properties of flavor and taste, we perceive textural properties. How thick, rough and creamy the food is perceived depends on the structure and properties of the food product in the mouth. This thesis explores which properties of semisolid foods (mayonnaise, Dutch custard) are important for the perception of creaminess and other textural properties as well as how we can instrumentally measure these properties.
Flow-induced structuring of dense protein dispersions
Manski, J.M. - \ 2007
University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom, co-promotor(en): Atze Jan van der Goot. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046103 - 222
voedsel - structuur - textuur - eiwitproducten - caseïnaten - reologische eigenschappen - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - voedselverwerking - apparatuur voor de voedselverwerking - kunstvlees - food - structure - texture - protein products - caseinates - rheological properties - novel foods - food processing - food processing equipment - meat analogues
Both health and sustainability are drivers for the increased interest in the creation of novel foods comprising a high protein content. The key challenge is the formation of an attractive, stable and palatable food texture, which is mainly determined by the food structure. In this research, new processing routes based on flow are explored to create innovative protein-rich structures (exceeding 10%), and in parallel, insight is gained in the relevant mechanisms of structure formation. Dense dispersions of sodium caseinate and calcium caseinate, which are derived from milk, were mixed in a conventional mixer and sheared in an in house developed shear cell device. After mixing dense (sodium or calcium) caseinate dispersions, homogenous structures were obtained of which the properties were determined by the dispersed phase added, in this case palm fat. Shearing of dense calcium caseinate dispersions in combination with solidification using the enzyme transglutaminase resulted in completely different structures; highly fibrous structures were produced, which may serve as a basis for the creation of meat analogs. In contrast, after treating dense sodium caseinate dispersions using this novel structuring process, homogenous structures were obtained. It appeared that the intrinsic properties of protein dispersions are important for the formation of fibrous structures using well-defined flow. Based on the differences in performance between the two types of caseinates, tools and parameters can be derived to optimize and control the formation of fibrous products. In conclusion, the development of equipment that is dedicated to structure food ingredients is promising for the creation of novel foods on the one hand, and for gaining scientific understanding of structure formation on the other hand.
Process innovation and quality aspects of French fries
Loon, W.A.M. - \ 2005
University. Promotor(en): Fons Voragen, co-promotor(en): Jozef Linssen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9085042100 - 156
patates frites - verwerkingskwaliteit - kwaliteit voor voedselverwerking - stomen - textuur - geur en smaak - zintuiglijke waarneming - chips (French fries) - processing quality - food processing quality - steaming - texture - flavour - organolepsis
SmartFreshTM : onderzoek en praktijkervaringen seizoen 2004/'05
Verschoor, J. - \ 2005
De Fruitteelt 95 (2005)32. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 18 - 19.
appels - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - bewaartijd - opslagkwaliteit - smaak - smaakpanels - hardheid - textuur - vastheid - vochtgehalte - dehydratie (fysiologisch) - aroma - apples - keeping quality - storage life - storage quality - taste - taste panels - hardness - texture - firmness - moisture content - dehydration (physiological)
Dit is het eerste seizoen dat SmartFreshTM grootschalig werd toegepast op met name Elstar en Jonagold in Nederland. De praktijkintroductie werd begeleid met onderzoek door Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (A&F). Resultaten van dit onderzoek dat deels in de praktijk werd uitgevoerd, worden hier gepresenteerd
Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption
Weel, K.G.C. - \ 2004
University. Promotor(en): Fons Voragen; Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): A.E.M. Boelrijk; Harry Gruppen. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085040140 - 127
aroma - vrijgeven - perceptie - voedselconsumptie - aromatische verbindingen - textuur - smaak - release - perception - food consumption - aromatic compounds - texture - taste
Biotechnologie brengt sturing van aardappeltextuur dichterbij
Stolle-Smits, T. ; Boucoiran, C. ; Ebbelaar, M. ; Recourt, K. - \ 1999
Aardappelwereld 53 (1999)3. - ISSN 0169-653X - p. 32 - 33.
aardappelen - landbouwproducten - biotechnologie - textuur - analyse - potatoes - agricultural products - biotechnology - texture - analysis
Aandacht voor een lopend chemisch en biotechnologisch onderzoek naar de achtergronden van de textuureigenschappen van aardappelproducten
Gewassen en geoliede eieren verouderen minder snel
Niekerk, Th. van; Leenders, H. - \ 1998
Praktijkonderzoek voor de Pluimveehouderij 9 (1998)2. - ISSN 0924-9087 - p. 13 - 15.
eieren - behandeling - dierlijke producten - verwerking - invriezen - koelen - textuur - malsheid - kwaliteitscontroles - statistiek - kwaliteit - optimalisatie - eggs - treatment - animal products - processing - freezing - cooling - texture - tenderness - quality controls - statistics - quality - optimization
In het streven naar een kwalitatief goed ei of eiproduct, dient naast het optimaliseren van het productieproces in de stal ook aandacht te worden besteed aan de handhaving van de kwaliteit gedurende het traject van stal tot consument. Het Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij (PP) heeft hier onderzoek naar gedaan. Het blijkt, dat gewassen en geoliede eieren minder snel verouderen.
The texture of the french fry's crust: a new approach (in Dutch)
Waele, E.T. de; Eijck, P.C.M. van - \ 1995
Aardappelwereld 49 (1995)9. - ISSN 0169-653X - p. 19 - 21.
voedingsmiddelen - voedselbewaring - patates frites - aardappelproducten - Solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - textuur - analyse - industrie - landbouwproducten - verwerking - technologie - kwaliteit - prestatieniveau - foods - food preservation - chips (French fries) - potato products - potatoes - texture - analysis - industry - agricultural products - processing - technology - quality - performance
Vleeskwaliteit in relatie tot classificatiegegevens en uitsnijrendement bij kruislingstieren = Relationship of meat quality with EUROP - classification and meat yield for crossbred young bulls
Schneijdenberg, T.C.H.G.P. ; Hoving - Bolink, A.H. ; Vries, A.W. de - \ 1994
Zeist : ID-DLO, Vestiging Zeist (IVO - rapport B-383) - 30
dierlijke producten - aroma - rundvlees - karkaskwaliteit - geur en smaak - slacht - smaak - malsheid - textuur - kalfsvlees - animal products - beef - carcass quality - flavour - slaughter - taste - tenderness - texture - veal
keuze van een spier voor kleurclassificatie van slachtwarme runderkarkassen = Choice of a reference muscle for assessment of the colour of beef carcasses at classification
Hulsegge, B. ; Merkus, G.S.M. - \ 1994
Zeist : ID-DLO, Vestiging Zeist (IVO - rapport B-400) - 20
dierlijke producten - rundvlees - karkaskwaliteit - vleeseigenschappen - vleeskwaliteit - slacht - malsheid - textuur - kalfsvlees - animal products - beef - carcass quality - meat characteristics - meat quality - slaughter - tenderness - texture - veal
De invloed van sexe en vaderras op de vleeskwaliteit van F2 vleesrunderen = The effect of sex and breed of sire on the meat quality of offspring of (Piemontese x Friesian) heifers
Hoving - Bolink, A.H. ; Mateman, G. ; Walstra, P. - \ 1994
Zeist : ID-DLO, Vestiging Zeist (IVO - rapport B-401) - 26
dierlijke producten - vleesvee - kruisingsfokkerij - vleeseigenschappen - vleeskwaliteit - malsheid - textuur - animal products - beef cattle - crossbreeding - meat characteristics - meat quality - tenderness - texture
De classificatie van varkenskarkassen nader bekeken
Kints, C. van; Kanis, E. ; Huiskes, J. ; Walstra, P. ; Boer, Tj. de - \ 1993
Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 7 (1993)3. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 23 - 27.
dierlijke producten - karkassamenstelling - karkaskwaliteit - samenstelling - varkensvlees - varkens - eigenschappen - kwaliteit - slacht - malsheid - textuur - animal products - carcass composition - carcass quality - composition - pigmeat - pigs - properties - quality - slaughter - tenderness - texture
Er is onderzoek gedaan naar trends in de classificatieresultaten van vleesvarkens over de periode na invoering van het classificatieapparaat tot de overgang op de nieuwe berekeningsformule voor het mager vleespercentage (1988-1991).
De kleurstabiliteit van rundvlees : invloeden van spier, bacteriologische gesteldheid en bewaring in vacuum = Colour stability in beef : effects of muscle, bacteriological status and storage under vacuum
Eikelenboom, G. ; Hoving - Bolink, A.H. ; Mulder, S.J. - \ 1992
Zeist : IVO-DLO (Rapport / DLO - Instituut voor Veeteeltkundig Onderzoek "Schoonoord" (IVO-DLO) B-380) - 43
dierlijke producten - kiemgetal - bacteriologie - rundvlees - voedselbewaring - voedingsmiddelen - vee- en vleesindustrie - vleeswaren - malsheid - textuur - kalfsvlees - animal products - bacterial count - bacteriology - beef - food preservation - foods - meat and livestock industry - meat products - tenderness - texture - veal
De invloed van enkele verhittingstemperaturen op de instrumenteel gemeten malsheid bij koeien
Eikelenboom, G. ; Bolink, A.H. - \ 1990
Zeist : IVO (Rapport / Instituut voor Veeteeltkundig Onderzoek "Schoonoord" B-331) - 16
dierlijke producten - rundvlees - vleesvee - karkaskwaliteit - vlees - behoud - verwerking - slacht - malsheid - textuur - behandeling - kalfsvlees - animal products - beef - beef cattle - carcass quality - meat - preservation - processing - slaughter - tenderness - texture - treatment - veal
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