Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Lignine : groene grondstof voor chemicaliën en materialen
Dam, Jan van; Harmsen, Paulien ; Bos, Harriëtte ; Gosselink, Richard - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Groene grondstoffen ) - ISBN 9789463430197 - 54
lignine - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - toepassingen - bioraffinage - productieprocessen - lignin - biobased chemicals - applications - biorefinery - production processes
De mogelijkheden voor het gebruik van lignine worden in dit boekje toegelicht. Deze uitgave heeft als doel meer informatie te geven over de eigenschappen van lignine en de vele mogelijkheden die lignine biedt als grondstof voor chemicaliën en materialen voor de biobased economy.
SPARK-UP; Seaweed Production And Refining of Kelp, Ulva and Palmaria : 2013-2016
Wald, J. ; Visser, W. de; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Jongschaap, R.E.E. ; Werf, A.K. van der; Deelman, Berth-Jan ; Helmendach-Nieuwenhuize, Carola - \ 2016
Plant Research International - 144 p.
seaweeds - biobased economy - seaweed culture - biomass production - biomass conversion - aquatic biomass - biorefinery - seaweed products - applications - applied research - cropping systems - marketing channels - zeewieren - zeewierenteelt - biomassa productie - biomassaconversie - aquatische biomassa - bioraffinage - zeewierproducten - toepassingen - toegepast onderzoek - teeltsystemen - marketingkanalen
In het SPARK-UP project, waarin de partners Arkema, PRI-WUR en North Seaweed samenwerkten aan de ontwikkeling van toepassing van zeewier in de biobased economy, is de afgelopen jaren veel werk verzet. In een bassin op het terrein van Arkema, heeft PRI een teeltsysteem opgezet en in gebruik genomen, om onder gecontroleerde omstandigheden zeewier te telen in Westerscheldewater dat in het bassin was ingenomen. Arkema heeft gewerkt aan de raffinage van wieren, met name gericht op de suikers. North Seaweed heeft zich geconcentreerd op het ontwikkelen van businesscases van geraffineerde eiwitten en alginaten uit zeewier en bij het gebruik van de hele wieren als plantversterkers.
Rosanne: islands of structure in unstructured data : final report 2015 : Rosanne valorisation project
Wigham, M.L.I. ; Rijgersberg, H. ; Timmer, M.J. ; Top, J.L. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1590) - ISBN 9789462575233 - 14
gegevensbeheer - computer software - informatiesystemen - informatieontsluiting - logica - ontologieën - toepassingen - data management - information systems - information retrieval - logic - ontologies - applications
Spotlight on the presenter : a study into presentations of conference papers with PowerPoint
Hertz, B. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum, co-promotor(en): P. Kerkhof. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573192 - 193
publiceren - informatieverspreiding - communicatievaardigheden - verbale communicatie - toepassingen - wetenschappers - openbare redes - publishing - diffusion of information - communication skills - verbal communication - applications - scientists - public speeches

Abstract

1. Introduction

PowerPoint is the most widely used presentation software tool. As of 2012, PowerPoint had more than 200 million presenters worldwide. Presenters all over the world use the program. Some use it for university teaching, others for business meetings and some even use PowerPoint to deliver a sermon. But the program doesn’t always seem to be used to the satisfaction of the audience. In many critical articles, presenters are accused of using too many words on their slides and too often looking at the projection instead of keeping eye contact with the audience. Some authors also criticize the program itself for what they see as a negative influence on presentations.

If these critical observations are valid, then PowerPoint presentations don’t conform to the advice given in instruction books nor to the outcome of research into human information processing. This advice usually proposes the use of minimal text on slides, and instead using pictures or other graphics. This would help the audience process the information. In addition, the instruction book stress the importance of maintaining eye contact with the audience. It is remarkable that the program is so frequently used, while it is so often criticized for what seem to be valid reasons.

There has been some research into PowerPoint use in the classroom, investigating the effects on student appreciation and grades. Much of this research does not describe how nor why the program is used in these situations. The critical articles on PowerPoint are mainly based on personal experiences and not on research. So there has not been much empirical evidence that presenters actually do use too many words or that they look too often at the projection, nor has the influence of PowerPoint on the presentation been established. In addition it is not clear why so many presenters don’t seem to follow the advice in instruction books, which say to use a minimum amount of text on a slide and which stress the importance of maintaining eye contact with the audience.

This dissertation focuses on the role of the presenter. It investigates how presenters use PowerPoint and if they are guilty of the negative behavior mentioned above. If they are guilty, what are the reasons they use PowerPoint in this way? Some authors have suggested that presenters use PowerPoint not only for the benefit of the audience, but that they also use the words on the slides as speaking notes. In particular, presenters suffering from speaking anxiety might be afraid of being “lost for words” or forgetting the structure of their presentation. They would then be able to turn to the text on the slides as support. This dissertation will investigate the possible role of speaking anxiety and how it affects PowerPoint usage.

The research looks at the use of PowerPoint by scholars presenting conference papers. Conferences play a central role in the network of scientific communication and are important for a researcher’s profile. The majority of scholars present their work at conferences several times a year and these presentations can be demanding and challenging. In contrast with writing and publishing a paper, conferences allow scholars to interact with an audience of their peers who will evaluate their work by posing critical questions. Challenging exposure of this kind might well engender or increase speaking anxiety in the presenter.

Clearly there is a need for empirical research on PowerPoint use, research focused on the program’s use in delivering scholarly presentations. Questions to be answered by the research include:

• How do scholars use PowerPoint?

• Why do scholars use PowerPoint in the way that they do?
• Does speaking anxiety influence the way that scholars use PowerPoint?

• Does PowerPoint influence the quality of presentations?

This thesis studies the use of PowerPoint in a real life setting and looks at presentations as being complex interactions among slides, presenter behavior and audience. An overview of the different elements regarding the presenter, his/her background, the presentation, the presenter’s behavior and the PowerPoint program itself can be found in Figure I.

2. Method

There is a literature review and three empirical studies. The literature review compares the program with its predecessors and describes the software, slide design and the user’s presentation behavior, focusing on the interaction of these elements. Instruction books and articles on PowerPoint, criticism and empirical research on the topics of slide design, presentation behavior and its effects on audiences are discussed.

In the first empirical study, fifteen scientific presentations of language scientists are analyzed on the use of text and pictures on the slides. The physical and verbal behavior of the presenter has also been studied, specifically investigating how often presenters look at the projection and if they verbally introduce a slide. Furthermore the relation between the slides and the presenter’s behavior has been analyzed.

The second empirical study employs interviews with scholars about their reasons for PowerPoint use. It distinguishes between first-year PhD students (beginners) and advanced, prize winning scholars from different disciplines of science (humanities, physical science, social science and medical science). Special attention is given to the acquisition of PowerPoint skills.

The third study consists of a survey using social scientists and focuses on the influence of speaking anxiety on the use of PowerPoint. It tests if speaking anxiety causes presenters to spend more time on preparing and rehearsing the presentation, and analyzes the possible relationships among speaking anxiety, time spent on preparing and rehearsing a presentation, and the use of words on a slide.

3. Results

Certain characteristics of PowerPoint such as its default-settings and the ability to use slides on the Internet and as handouts may tempt the presenter to increase the amount of text on slides. These choices, however, are not necessary, and are decisions made by the presenter. The scholars in our study used a relatively large number of words when compared to what instruction books advise (a maximum of 20 to 36 words per slide, depending on the author). An average number of 35 (language scientists) and 50 (social scientists) per slide was found. Many of the scholars used a small number of pictures (depending on the scientific discipline).

Presenters look on average 73 times at the projection during their presentation of 20 minutes (more than three times a minute). Looking at the projection to indicate a new slide or ‘new’ elements on a slide seems to be characteristic for the use of PowerPoint. Presenters turn away from the audience and break eye-contact, something which is considered negative in making presentations. The critics of PowerPoint clearly have a point when they complain about the high number of words on the slides and about presenters looking towards the projection.

There are differences, however, between beginning and advanced presenters. Beginners use more than twice as many words per minute than advanced presenters and only half as many pictures. In maintaining contact with the audience there is also a difference between beginning and advanced scholars. Advanced presenters often like to present without the use of PowerPoint because this allows more contact with their audience.

Some scholars say that they use the text on the slides as speaking notes. Many have also said that they use pictures almost exclusively for the benefit of the audience. Beginners probably use more text and fewer pictures because they suffer more from speaking anxiety than advanced presenters. They might be more concerned with their own performance. Advanced scholars on the other hand have indicated that they have their audience in mind when preparing and delivering a presentation. Speaking anxiety, in an indirect way, also plays a role in the number of words used on the slides. Anxious presenters spend more time rehearsing the presentation; this is related to the number of words used on the slides.

Scholars often seem to lack knowledge about how to use PowerPoint in an appropriate manner. Instead of receiving training in using PowerPoint, they learn to present with the program by experimenting and by observing colleagues and designing slides on the basis of common sense, which is often against the advice in instruction books. Moreover some scholars erroneously think that PowerPoint makes rhetorical skills redundant.

4. Conclusions

The concept of “performance” seems to be appropriate in describing all the elements that matter in the presentation itself: speech, animated slides, working with projections, physical motion and maintaining eye contact with the audience. Presenters need an understanding of how audiences process different sources of information, and they must then be able to orchestrate their presentation skills in appropriate ways. If we look at PowerPoint presentations as performances, we can see that presenters must be designers, actors and directors at the same time.

It is clear that PowerPoint elicits behavior that is not always consistent with what is considered to be good presentation form. This, however, is not the fault of the program. The apparent user friendliness of PowerPoint might disguise the fact that presentations with the program are in fact complex. It is not PowerPoint itself which causes some bad presentations, but the choices and behavior of the presenters who must deal with all the new possibilities and requirements inherent in this program.

Presenters should be educated in appropriate slide design. They also should be taught how to direct the attention of the audience. It is not sufficient to teach presenters how they should design and present their slides, however, if they aren’t helped to learn how to reduce their speaking anxiety in ways other than using the PowerPoint slides as support. This thesis suggests ways of teaching these skills

Naar Buijten! : hoogwaardige akkernatuur en recreatie in het Buijtenland van Rhoon
Westerink, J. ; Vogelzang, T.A. ; Sluis, T. van der; Smit, A.B. ; Henkens, R.J.H.G. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2655) - 35
landgebruik - polders - vegetatietypen - landschapselementen - recreatie op het platteland - toepassingen - inventarisaties - zuidhollandse eilanden - land use - vegetation types - landscape elements - rural recreation - applications - inventories
De overheid wil meer natuur en recreatiemogelijkheden in het akkerbouwgebied Het Buijtenland van Rhoon (IJsselmonde). Op verzoek van een aantal agrariërs heeft de Vereniging Nederlands Cultuurlandschap een voorstel gemaakt voor inrichting en beheer van het gebied. Provincie Zuid- Holland heeft Alterra en LEI gevraagd hierop te reageren.
Doodzonde om op te stoken. Lignine de grondstof van de toekomst
Zundert, M. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. - \ 2014
Chemie Magazine 2014 (2014)3. - ISSN 1572-2996 - p. 24 - 27.
biopolymeren - lignine - toepassingen - bioraffinage - innovaties - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - aromatische koolwaterstoffen - biopolymers - lignin - applications - biorefinery - innovations - biobased chemistry - aromatic hydrocarbons
Onhandelbaar, wee barstig en recalcitrant. Zo staat het houtpolymeer lignine bekend. Maar de stof vervangt steeds vaker fenol. En onderzoekers zijn hoopvol over de ontwikkeling van bio-BTX en koolstofvezels uit lignine.
Oppervlakte-ontsmetting door oxidatie met waterstofperoxide of ozon
Schoorl, F.W. - \ 2014
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 53
appels - peren - opslag - gewasbescherming - desinfectie - vruchtrot - toepassingen - waterstofperoxide - ozon - schimmelbestrijding - landbouwkundig onderzoek - apples - pears - storage - plant protection - disinfection - fruit rots - applications - hydrogen peroxide - ozone - fungus control - agricultural research
Het optreden van vruchtrot kan leiden tot aanzienlijke verliezen van geoogste en opgeslagen appels en peren. Fungiciden worden doorgaans gebruikt om deze verliezen te beperken. Ondanks toepassing van fungiciden komt het optreden van vruchtrot voor. Verschillende winkelketens hanteren normen met betrekking tot de aanwezigheid van residuen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen die boven de wettelijke normen liggen. Naast wettelijke normen vormt dit een extra aanleiding om te komen tot aangepaste werkwijze ter bestrijding van vruchtrot schimmels. Meerdere schimmels zijn verantwoordelijk voor het optreden van vruchtrot. Daaronder zijn ook schimmels die via het oppervlak van de vruchten, veelal via een wond, vruchten infecteren. Bij de oogst kunnen, afhankelijk van de zorgvuldigheid waarmee geplukt wordt, wonden optreden die een invalspoort vormen voor schimmels. In dit project is aandacht besteed aan het voorkomen van infecties.
KWIN nu ook als app
Rotgers, G. ; Vermeij, I. - \ 2014
V-focus 11 (2014)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 37 - 37.
veehouderij - pluimveehouderij - varkenshouderij - rundveehouderij - informatiesystemen - statistische gegevens - kwantitatieve analyse - agrarische economie - bedrijfseconomie - begroting van agrarisch bedrijf - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - toepassingen - livestock farming - poultry farming - pig farming - cattle husbandry - information systems - statistical data - quantitative analysis - agricultural economics - business economics - farm budgeting - farm comparisons - applications
KWIN, Kwantitatieve Informatie Veehouderij, verscheen de afgelopen 25 jaar als lijvig handboek, zowel op papier als digitaal. Dit najaar is daar een serie apps bij gekomen, waarmee adviseurs en veehouders zelf saldo- en kostprijsberekeningen kunnen maken. De apps zijn beschikbaar voor de pluimvee-, varkens- en rundveehouderij.
Wat vliegt daar?
Nijland, R. ; Anders, N.S. - \ 2014
WageningenWorld (2014). - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 16 - 19.
remote sensing - landbouwluchtvaart - automatische besturing - superlicht vliegtuig - toepassingen - observatie - drones - agricultural aviation - automatic steering - microlight aircraft - applications - observation
Steeds vaker zetten Wageningse onderzoekers eigen drones in om het gewas, de vegetatie of de bodem van bovenaf te monsteren. Het gebruik van deze luchtvloot is aan strenge eisen gebonden.
Bamboo : Analyzing the potential of bamboo feedstock for the biobased economy
Poppens, R.P. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2013
NL Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs - 32 p.
bamboos - bambusa - applications - biobased economy - biobased materials - biobased chemicals - fibre plants - bamboes - toepassingen - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - vezelgewassen
Bamboos are a large group of rapidly growing woody grasses, that can be sustainably managed in short-cycled harvesting schemes in many parts of the world. Bamboo stands can be managed by individual producers and its production does not require large investments. This makes bamboo an ideal crop for rural development, especially in developing countries. Bamboo plants are among the most versatile and widely utilized plants, with applications varying from edible shoots to soil protection and construction. Bamboo technical properties are also favorable for biobased applications, such as paper, bio-chemicals and bio-energy.
sCore eindrapportage
Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Willems, D.J.M. ; Batenburg, R.A. van; Wigham, M.L.I. ; Malek, H.E. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1341) - 21
bedrijven - toepassingen - computertechnieken - consulenten - informatiesystemen - businesses - applications - computer techniques - consultants - information systems
In opdracht van Syntens heeft de Intelligent Systems groep van Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research de sCore-applicatie gebouwd. De sCore-applicatie is een van de pijlers in het project “De Toekomst Bedrijven”. Dit is de eindrapportage van het sCore-project.
The use of Remote sensing as a monitoring tool for coastal defence issues in the Wadden Sea
Davaasuren, N. ; Stapel, J. ; Smit, C.J. ; Dankers, N.M.J.A. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C057/12) - 45
geologische sedimentatie - kustgebieden - remote sensing - toepassingen - inventarisaties - wadden - geological sedimentation - coastal areas - applications - inventories - tidal flats
Remote sensing kan een bruikbare en relatief goedkope methode zijn om specifieke karakteristieken van droogvallende platen waar te nemen. De vereiste resolutie, ofwel het oplossend vermogen, om sedimentkarakteristieken en kenmerken van droogvallende schelpdierbanken te kunnen bepalen moet beter zijn dan 30 meter. Mogelijke toekomstige toepassingen voor het monitoren van veranderingen en toepassingen voor beleids- en beheersondersteunende modellen wordt besproken
Onderzoek in 1 minuut: algen in plaats van olie
Lamers, P.P. - \ 2011
YouTube
algen - algenteelt - toepassingen - biomassa productie - biobased economy - algae - algae culture - applications - biomass production
Algen zijn niet alleen gevaarlijk voor zwemmers in de zomer. Ze hebben ook hele positieve eigenschappen. Zo kun je met algen brandstoffen, voedingsmiddelen en zelfs cement maken. In Wageningen doen ze grootscheeps onderzoek naar algen en hoe je deze in kunt zetten. Packo Lamers begint klein en doet onderzoek in het lab.
Kennisinventarisatie naar de achtergronden en toepassingen van electrochemisch geactiveerd water in de agrarische sector
Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Vries, R.S.M. de; Bruning, H. - \ 2011
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1087) - 38
elektrochemie - water - toepassingen - landbouw - tuinbouw - ultrasone behandeling - verneveling - teelt onder bescherming - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - elektrolyse - electrochemistry - applications - agriculture - horticulture - ultrasonic treatment - nebulization - protected cultivation - cultural control - electrolysis
Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture, with funding of Dutch Horticultural Board, has described the history and background of electrochemically activated water and explored possibilities for applications within the agricultural sector. In the Netherlands, the use of activated water as a biocide is allowed since 2009. Active ingredients of activated water are chlorine gas, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite. Together with a high oxidation-reduction potential (ORP 750-1100 mV) there is a broad activity against bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae, protozoa and nematodes. Agricultural applications of activated water are described for seed disinfection, cleaning equipment and packing materials, removal of biofilms from pipes, disinfection of flowers, fruits and vegetables. The recent development of ultrasonic atomization of activated water created new possibilities to treat crops and harvested products against pathogens without excessive volumes of water and disinfect air from pathogens. For applications in protected crops it is desirable that the corrosive properties of the activated water should be minimized and capacities of dispensing equipment must be enlarged.
Consumentenperceptie van nanotechnologieën in voedsel en landbouw: een eerste verkenning : eindrapportage
Stijnen, D.A.J.M. ; Veggel, R.J.F.M. van; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Ronteltap, A. ; Bakker, H.C.M. de; Minten, S.L.J.N. ; Voordouw, J. ; Sluis, A.A. van der; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1228) - 118
nanotechnologie - toepassingen - houding van consumenten - voedsel - landbouw - nanotechnology - applications - consumer attitudes - food - agriculture
In 2010 is door Wageningen UR (beleidsondersteunend) onderzoek gedaan naar de percepties van Nederlandse consumenten ten aanzien van nanotechnologische toepassingen in voedsel en landbouw. De resultaten van dit onderzoek worden in dit rapport toegelicht.
Vrede-, Bevrijding- en Vrijheid-verhalen op locatie – augmented reality en navigatie applicatie op smart phones
Lammeren, R.J.A. van; Bergsma, A.R. ; Franke, G.J. - \ 2010
Wageningen : CGI (CGI Report 2010-02 ) - 17
mobiele toepassingen - telefoons - toepassingen - globale plaatsbepalingssystemen - paden - lokale geschiedenis - gelderse vallei - mobile applications - telephones - applications - global positioning systems - paths - local history
In de periode december 2009 - mei 2010 is de applicatie Vrede, Bevrijding en Vrijheid ontwikkeld. Deze applicatie biedt gebruikers van smart phones met draadloos internet, zoals Android-phones en iPhones, de mogelijkheid om op locatie verhalen te luisteren, te lezen en te bekijken. Dit verslag rapporteert summier de ontwikkeling en de belangrijkste gebruikskenmerken van de applicatie. Tevens zijn suggesties voor een vervolg gegeven.
Plastics gemaakt door micro-organismen (PHA’s): eigenschappen en applicaties
Bolck, C.H. ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2010
micro-organismen - polyhydroxybutyraat - verpakkingsmaterialen - toepassingen - biobased economy - bioplastics - biopolymeren - polyhydroxyalkanoaten - microorganisms - polyhydroxybutyrate - packaging materials - applications - biopolymers - polyhydroxyalkanoates
Deze info sheet geeft een overzicht van de herkomst en toepassingsmogelijkheden van bioplastics gemaakt door micro-organismen, waarvan polyhydroxyalkanoaten (PHA’s) het belangrijkste voorbeeld zijn.
Bioplastics: cellulose
Bolck, C.H. ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2009
cellulose - herkomst - toepassingen - taaiheid - hardheid - sterkte - bioplastics - biobased economy - provenance - applications - toughness - hardness - strength
Deze info sheet geeft een overzicht van de herkomst en toepassingsmogelijkheden van bioplastics uit cellulose. De tekst is gebaseerd op het boekje Bioplastics, één van de uitgaven uit de reeks Groene Grondstoffen
Groen bouwen met hernieuwbare grondstoffen
Kasper, G.J. - \ 2009
bouwmaterialen - vervangbare hulpbronnen - toepassingen - industriële toepassingen - milieu - milieutechniek - biobased economy - building materials - renewable resources - applications - industrial applications - environment - environmental engineering
Deze info sheet geeft informatie over hernieuwbare grondstoffen toegepast in bouwmaterialen. Besproken wordt welke hernieuwbare grondstoffen geschikt zijn, waar ze toegepast kunnen worden en welke milieuvoordelen ze hebben.
Perspectief voor genomica in de melkveehouderij = Applied genomics in dairy cattle farming
Haan, M.H.A. de; Bohte-Wilhelmus, D.I. ; Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Hoving, A.H. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2008
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 126) - 40
melkveehouderij - melkvee - genen - dna - toepassingen - melk - onverzadigde vetzuren - vruchtbaarheid - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - genexpressieanalyse - functionele genomica - dairy farming - dairy cattle - genes - applications - milk - unsaturated fatty acids - fertility - animal health - animal welfare - genomics - functional genomics
Dit rapport is bedoeld om een visie te ontwikkelen op toegevoegde waarde voor functionele genomica in de melkveehouderij. Wat is genomica, welke technieken zijn er, wat gebeurt elders in de wereld en wat zijn onderwerpen die gebaat zijn bij een innovatieve genomica oplossing
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