Random serial sampling to evaluate efficacy of iron fortification: a randomized controlled trial of margarine fortification with ferric pyrophosphate or sodium iron edetate 1-3
Andersson, M. ; Theis, W. ; Zimmermann, M.B. ; Forman, J.T. ; Jakel, M. ; Duchateau, G.S.M.J.E. ; Frenken, L.G.J. ; Hurrell, R.F. - \ 2010
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92 (2010)5. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1094 - 1104.
population pharmacokinetics - relative bioavailability - double-blind - transferrin receptor - dual fortification - whole diet - deficiency - absorption - iodine - salt
Background: Random serial sampling is widely used in population pharmacokinetic studies and may have advantages compared with conventional fixed time-point evaluation of iron fortification. Objective: Our objective was to validate random serial sampling to judge the efficacy of iron fortification of a low-fat margarine. Design: We conducted a 32-wk placebo-controlled, double-blind, iron-intervention trial in 18–40-y-old Swiss women (n = 142) with serum ferritin (SF) concentrations
Iron excess in recreational marathon runners
Mettler, S. ; Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2010
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64 (2010)5. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 490 - 494.
previously untrained women - serum ferritin - body iron - myocardial-infarction - transferrin receptor - road cyclists - deficiency - anemia - supplementation - prevalence
Background/Objectives: Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. Methods: We investigated the iron status of 170 male and female recreational runners participating in the Zürich marathon. Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration 200¿µg/l. Iron depletion was found in only 2 out of 127 men (1.6% of the male study population) and in 12 out of 43 (28.0%) women. Functional iron deficiency was found in 5 (3.9%) and 11 (25.5%) male and female athletes, respectively. Body iron stores, calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio, were significantly higher (P