Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Pikkerij bij kalkoenen : een stap terug naar het natuurlijk gedrag en soortspecifieke eigenschappen
Niekerk, Thea van; Bracke, Marc B.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 974) - 42
kalkoenen - verenpikken - diergedrag - gedragsbiologie - gedragsstoornissen - abnormaal gedrag - pluimveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - pluimvee - diergezondheid - turkeys - feather pecking - animal behaviour - behavioural biology - behaviour disorders - abnormal behaviour - poultry farming - animal welfare - poultry - animal health
With the upcoming ban on beak treatments in the Netherlands alternative measures have to be found to prevent injurious pecking behaviour in turkeys. The measures that are successful for chickens do not seem to have a lot of effect in turkeys. In this report the natural behaviour of turkeys has been reviewed to get more insight in the causes of injurious pecking in turkeys. This insight is used to find possible solutions for preventing injurious pecking in turkeys.
Minimale stroomsterkte voor euthanasie van varkens, schapen en kalkoenen : KvB- 004 "minimale stroomsterkte euthanaseren"
Gerritzen, M.A. ; Hindle, V.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 852) - 12
varkens - schapen - kalkoenen - euthanasie - doden van dieren - elektrische stroom - elektrocutie - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - dierethiek - diergezondheid - pigs - sheep - turkeys - euthanasia - killing of animals - electric current - electrocution - animal welfare - animal production - animal ethics - animal health
Het ministerie van Economische Zaken is bezig met de voorbereiding van een aanvulling op het besluit Houders van dieren. In aanvullende regelgeving zal ten aanzien van het euthanaseren van dieren op het primaire bedrijf door niet-dierenartsen onder meer worden vastgelegd welke euthanasiemethoden mogen worden gebruikt en over welke kennis en vaardigheden de persoon die euthanaseert dient te beschikken.
Handvatten voor vermindering geuroverlast bij varkens- en pluimveebedrijven
Ellen, H.H. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Harn, J. van; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research rapport 789) - 37
varkenshouderij - varkens - pluimvee - pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikens - kalkoenen - hennen - stankbestrijding - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - klimaatregeling - hokken - bedrijfshygiëne - strooisel - luchtreinigers - pig farming - pigs - poultry - poultry farming - broilers - turkeys - hens - odour abatement - farm management - air conditioning - pens - industrial hygiene - litter (plant) - air cleaners
Via bedrijfsbezoeken aan varkens- en pluimveebedrijven is gezocht naar maatregelen die de belasting van geur op de omgeving kunnen verminderen. Naast technische oplossingen zoals de luchtsnelheid en -richting, is vooral gekeken naar het gevoerde management. Voor de varkenshouderij is daarbij het voorkomen van hokbevuiling via klimaatbeheersing en hokindeling en -inrichting een belangrijke maatregel. Voor vleeskuikens is de keuze van het strooisel mogelijk een belangrijke factor en voor leghennen het zorgen voor een dunne strooisellaag. Het toepassen van luchtreinigingstechnieken of maskering van de geur door toevoegingen is alleen economisch interessant als de hoeveelheid ventilatielucht kan worden beperkt.
Verkorte protocollen voor het meten van de effecten van niet-snavelbehandelen bij leghennen, vleeskuikenouderdieren en kalkoenen
Jong, I.C. de; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 785) - 75
pluimveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - kalkoenen - hennen - vleeskuikenouderdieren - diergezondheid - monitoring - protocollen - snavelkappen - poultry farming - animal welfare - animal production - poultry - turkeys - hens - broiler breeders - animal health - protocols - debeaking
Met ingang van 1 september 2018 zal in Nederland snavelbehandelen bij leghennen, vleeskuikenouderdieren en kalkoenen verboden worden. Doel van dit onderzoek was om op basis van beschikbare literatuur, ervaringen van onderzoekers en ervaringen uit de praktijk protocollen op te stellen waarmee op relatief eenvoudige, maar wel betrouwbare wijze een monitoring van het effect van niet-snavelbehandelen uitgevoerd kan worden. Op basis van literatuuronderzoek, expert consultatie en een beknopt haalbaarheidsonderzoek bij praktijkkoppels zijn protocollen ontwikkeld voor het vastleggen van het effect van het niet-snavelbehandelen bij leghennen (opfok en productie), vleeskuikenouderdieren (opfok en productie) en kalkoenen (vleeskalkoenen). Deze protocollen staan vermeld in de bijlage van dit rapport.
Systemic distribution of different low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in chicken
Post, J. ; Geus, E.D. ; Vervelde, L. ; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J. ; Rebel, J.M.J. - \ 2013
Virology journal 10 (2013). - ISSN 1743-422X - 7 p.
h9n2 - turkeys - infection - evolution - poultry - h7 - h5
Background Since we were able to isolate viable virus from brain and lung of H7N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infected chickens, we here examined the distribution of different LPAIV strains in chickens by measuring the viral AI RNA load in multiple organs. Subtypes of H5 (H5N1, H5N2), H7 (H7N1, H7N7) and H9 (H9N2), of chicken (H5N2, H7N1, H7N7, H9N2), or mallard (H5N1) origin were tested. The actual presence of viable virus was evaluated with virus isolation in organs of H7N7 inoculated chickens. Findings Viral RNA was found by PCR in lung, brain, intestine, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, heart, liver, kidney and spleen from chickens infected with chicken isolated LPAIV H5N2, H7N1, H7N7 or H9N2. H7N7 virus could be isolated from lung, ileum, heart, liver, kidney and spleen, but not from brain, which was in agreement with the data from the PCR. Infection with mallard isolated H5N1 LPAIV resulted in viral RNA detection in lung and peripheral blood mononuclear cells only. Conclusion We speculate that chicken isolated LPAI viruses are spreading systemically in chicken, independently of the strain.
Rate of introduction of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in different poultry production sectors in the Netherlands
Gonzales, J.L. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Koch, G. ; Wit, S.J. de; Elbers, A.R.W. - \ 2013
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7 (2013)1. - ISSN 1750-2640 - p. 6 - 10.
turkeys - risk
Background Targeted risk-based surveillance of poultry types (PT) with different risks of introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) infection may improve the sensitivity of surveillance. Objective To quantify the rate of introduction of LPAIv infections in different PT. Methods Data from the Dutch LPAIv surveillance programme (2007–2010) were analysed using a generalised linear mixed and spatial model. Results Outdoor-layer, turkey, duck-breeder and meat-duck, farms had a 11, 8, 24 and 13 times higher rate of introduction of LPAIv than indoor-layer farms, respectively. Conclusion Differences in the rate of introduction of LPAIv could be used to (re)design a targeted risk-based surveillance programme.
Omgevingsverrijking voor vleeskalkoenen = Environmental enrichment for turkeys
Veldkamp, T. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 651) - 15
kalkoenen - dierenwelzijn - bek - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - omgevingsverrijking - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - turkeys - animal welfare - beak - animal housing - animal behaviour - environmental enrichment - poultry - animal production - animal health
A desk study has been conducted to study the possible environmental enrichments in order to reduce injurious pecking behaviour in intact turkeys. Free hanging materials are attractive to turkeys and are technically and economically feasible. Perches and elevated platforms are less feasible.
NH3 onder de duim : 2. Voeding
Veldkamp, T. ; Harn, J. van; Klis, J.D. van der; Star, L. - \ 2012
De Pluimveehouderij 42 (2012)11. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 14 - 15.
pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - vleeskuikens - kalkoenen - hennen - eenden - ammoniakemissie - maatregelen - poultry farming - poultry feeding - broilers - turkeys - hens - ducks - ammonia emission - measures
Het effect van voeding op de reductie van ammoniakemissie op pluimveebedrijven is door Wageningen UR Livestock Research en Schothorst Feed Research onderzocht.
NH3 onder de duim : 1. Management- en huisvestingsmaatregelen
Veldkamp, T. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Ellen, H.H. ; Harn, J. van - \ 2012
De Pluimveehouderij 42 (2012)11. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 12 - 14.
pluimveehouderij - hennen - vleeskuikens - kalkoenen - eenden - huisvesting van kippen - ammoniakemissie - maatregelen - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - poultry farming - hens - broilers - turkeys - ducks - chicken housing - ammonia emission - measures - animal welfare - animal production - poultry
Het effect van huisvestings- en managementmaatregelen op de ammoniakemissie bij leghennen, vleeskuikens, kalkoenen en eenden is door Wageningen UR Livestock Research onderzocht.
Kinetics of the avian influenza-specific humoral responses in lung are indicative of local antibody production
Geus, de, E.D. ; Rebel, J.M.J. ; Vervelde, L. - \ 2012
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 36 (2012)2. - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 317 - 322.
newcastle-disease virus - memory b-cells - lymphoid-tissue - chickens - infection - immunity - turkeys - serum - hemagglutinin - vaccination
The role and kinetics of respiratory immunoglobulins in AIV infection has not been investigated. In this study we determined the numbers of both total antibody secreting cells (ASC) and virus-specific ASC in lung, spleen, blood and bone marrow (BM) following low-pathogenic AIV infection. Antiviral humoral immune responses were induced both locally in the lung and systemically in the spleen. Responses in the lung and BM preceded responses in the spleen and in blood, with virus-specific IgY ASC already detected in lung and BM from 1 week post-primary inoculation, indicating that respiratory immune responses are not induced in the spleen, but locally in the lung. ASC present in the blood of the lungs and co-isolated during lymphocyte isolation from the lungs have no major impact on the ASC detected in the lungs based on statistical correlation
Genetic control and variation in turkey: molecular insights in selection
Aslam, M.L. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Martien Groenen, co-promotor(en): John Bastiaansen; Richard Crooijmans. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733092 - 184
meleagris - kalkoenen - genetische variatie - moleculaire veredeling - selectie - genetische kartering - loci voor kwantitatief kenmerk - moleculaire technieken - dierveredeling - turkeys - genetic variation - molecular breeding - selection - genetic mapping - quantitative trait loci - molecular techniques - animal breeding


The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is largely used as a meat type bird as egg production of this species is very low. Turkey is the second largest contributor to the world’s poultry meat production after chicken. Understanding the etiology and biology underlying production and health traits is very important for the genetic improvement of these traits in the desired direction and to avoid undesired side-effects. The aim of the research described in this thesis was to interrogate the genetics of turkey traits related to meat production and to investigate the genetic diversity of commercial and heritage turkey populations.
Different analyses were performed that included the estimation of genetic and (common) environmental variances for growth (body weight as well as growth curve traits), breast meat yield and meat quality traits in turkeys. I describe the construction of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based linkage map of turkey and its comparison with the physical map of chicken to investigate genome structural differences between these highly important poultry production species. Two inter-, and 57 intra-chromosomal rearrangements between these two species were confirmed or discovered which is a low number in comparison to mammals and lead to the conclusion that turkey and chicken have highly conserved genomic structure. I used the linkage map of turkey together with individual phenotypes to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the same population for the traits described above. Results showed quantitative trait loci on 21 of the 27 turkey chromosomes covered by the linkage map. Forty-five quantitative trait loci were detected across all traits and these were found in 29 different regions on the 21 chromosomes. The next step, after the analyses on the reference population was to investigate the genomic variation in turkeys Next generation sequencing was used to investigate genome variation and the discovery of genome-wide signatures of selection in the turkey respectively. Sequencing was performed on 32 individuals from eleven different turkey populations (seven commercial, three heritage and a South Mexican wild population). Analysis of next generation sequencing data resulted in the detection of 5.49 million putative SNPs compared to the reference genome. The average frequency of heterozygous nucleotide positions in individual turkeys was 1.07 Kb-1 which is substantially lower than in chicken and pigs. The SNPs were subsequently used for the analysis of genetic diversity between the different populations. Genetic diversity analysis using pairwise Nei’s genetic distance among all the individuals from the 11 turkey populations showed that all of the commercial lines branched from a single node relative to the heritage varieties and the ancestral turkey population, indicating that commercial lines appear to share a common origin.
After assessing genome wide variation and diversity between breeds, the SNP data from ten of the turkey populations (29 individuals) was used to detect selective sweep regions. Across the turkey populations, 54 genomic regions with significant evidence for a selective sweep were detected. These sweeps were distributed over 14 different chromosomes. This study has investigated the genetics i.e. analysis of variances and QTL mapping related to economically important traits in turkey production and the genomic variation of turkey. Furthermore, this study has also created resources e.g. millions of discovered SNPs for subsequent genomic work in the turkey such as to discover variant (s) for both minor and major effects on traits of economic importance, and a high-resolution linkage map can be developed.


Effect van huisvestings- en managementmaatregelen op ammoniakemissie bij leghennen, vleeskuikers, kalkoenen en eenden = Effects of housing and management on ammonia emissions fram laying hen, broiler, turkey and duck houses
Harn, J. van; Ellen, H.H. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 560) - 32
pluimveehouderij - hennen - eierproductie - vleeskuikens - kalkoenen - eenden - ammoniakemissie - huisvesting, dieren - dierenwelzijn - maatregelen - poultry farming - hens - egg production - broilers - turkeys - ducks - ammonia emission - animal housing - animal welfare - measures
This report describes potential measures on housing and management to reduce ammonia emission from laying hen, broiler, turkey and duck houses.
Ingrepen bij pluimvee : update 2011 "Literatuurstudie ingrepen bij pluimvee" = Mutilations in poultry : update 2011 "Literature study mutilations poultry"
Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Jong, I.C. de; Veldkamp, T. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2011
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 468) - 75
pluimveehouderij - hennen - vleeskuikenouderdieren - kalkoenen - kannibalisme - chirurgische handelingen - snavelkappen - dierenwelzijn - literatuuroverzichten - poultry farming - hens - broiler breeders - turkeys - cannibalism - surgical operations - debeaking - animal welfare - literature reviews
Update of "Literature study mutilations poultry" (2006). In this update the latest research results are presented, dealing with laying hens, broiler breeders and turkeys. Also a new method of beak treatment with Infra-red is discussed.
Integraal duurzame kalkoenhouderij. Verslag Collectieve Systeem Analyse
Veldkamp, Teun - \ 2010
turkeys - poultry farming - sustainability - animal welfare - animal health - poultry - animal production
Groen Kalkoen
Veldkamp, Teun - \ 2010
turkeys - poultry farming - sustainability - sectoral analysis - poultry - animal production
Verkenning van milieuemissies en verbruiken van schaarse hulpbronnen in de sectoren: konijnen, vleeskalveren, eenden en kalkoenen = Exploring environmental emissions and depletion of resources of rabbit, veal calf, duck, and turkey production chains in The Netherlands
Vries, J.W. de; Radersma, S. ; Winkel, A. ; Buisonjé, F.E. de - \ 2010
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 383) - 27
dierhouderij - konijnen - kalveren - vleeskalveren - vleesvee - eenden - kalkoenen - ontwerp - emissie - energiegebruik - watergebruik - kwantitatieve analyse - kwalitatieve analyse - animal husbandry - rabbits - calves - veal calves - beef cattle - ducks - turkeys - design - emission - energy consumption - water use - quantitative analysis - qualitative analysis
For new design concepts of rabbit, veal calf, duck and turkey production systems insight is needed in environmental emissions and the use of resources of current production systems. In this study, several environmental emissions and uses of resources were quantified and qualified where possible.
Nog geen oplossing voor pikkerij bij kalkoenen
Veldkamp, T. - \ 2010
V-focus 7 (2010)5A. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 38 - 39.
dierenwelzijn - pluimveehouderij - kalkoenen - verenpikken - bek - behandeling - animal welfare - poultry farming - turkeys - feather pecking - beak - treatment
Tot op heden is niet duidelijk welke combinatie van factoren beschadigend pikgedrag door kalkoenen structureel kan verminderen. Zolang geen combinatie van factoren voorhanden is die pikkerij structureel en betrouwbaar tegengaat, is er geen goed alternatief voor het behandelen van de punt van de bovensnavel op de eerste levensdag. Om pikkerij tegen te gaan wordt bij kalkoenen gewerkt met een snavelbehandeling via de infraroodmethode (IR) omdat het welzijn van het dier via deze methode het minst wordt aangetast in vergelijking met andere snavelbehandelingsmethoden. De IR-methode wordt al vanaf 2000 algemeen toegepast in kalkoenbroederijen.
Bioinformatics' approaches to detect genetic variation in whole genome sequencing data
Kerstens, H.H.D. - \ 2010
University. Promotor(en): Martien Groenen; Mari Smits. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857808 - 182
bio-informatica - genomen - nucleotidenvolgordes - genetische variatie - varkens - kalkoenen - kippen - anas platyrhynchos - dierveredeling - genexpressieanalyse - single nucleotide polymorphism - marker assisted breeding - bioinformatics - genomes - nucleotide sequences - genetic variation - pigs - turkeys - fowls - animal breeding - genomics
Current genetic marker repositories are not sufficient or even are completely lacking for most farm animals. However, genetic markers are essential for the development of a research tool facilitating discovery of genetic factors that contribute to resistance to disease and the overall welfare and performance in farm animals.
By large scale identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Structural Variants (SVs) we aimed to contribute to the development of a repository of genetic variants for farm animals. For this purpose bioinformatics data pipelines were designed and validated to address the challenge of the cost effective identification of genetic markers in DNA sequencing data even in absence of a fully sequenced reference genome.
To find SNPs in pig, we analysed publicly available whole genome shotgun sequencing datasets by sequence alignment and clustering. Sequence clusters were assigned to genomic locations using publicly available BAC sequencing and BAC mapping data. Within the sequence clusters thousands of SNPs were detected of which the genomic location is roughly known.
For turkey and duck, species that both were lacking a sufficient sequence data repository for variant discovery, we applied next-generation sequencing (NGS) on a reduced genome representation of a pooled DNA sample. For turkey a genome reference was reconstructed from our sequencing data and available public sequencing data whereas in duck the reference genome constructed by a (NGS) project was used. SNPs obtained by our cost-effective SNP detection procedure still turned out to cover, at intervals, the whole turkey and duck genomes and are of sufficient quality to be used in genotyping studies. Allele frequencies, obtained by genotyping animal panels with a subset our SNPs, correlated well with those observed during SNP detection. The availability of two external duck SNP datasets allowed for the construction of a subset of SNPs which we had in common with these sets. Genotyping turned out that this subset was of outstanding quality and can be used for benchmarking other SNPs that we identified within duck.
Ongoing developments in (NGS) allowed for paired end sequencing which is an extension on sequencing analysis that provides information about which pair of reads are coming from the outer ends of one sequenced DNA fragment. We applied this technique on a reduced genome representation of four chicken breeds to detect SVs. Paired end reads were mapped to the chicken reference genome and SVs were identified as abnormally aligned read pairs that have orientation or span sizes discordant from the reference genome. SV detection parameters, to distinguish true structural variants from false positives, were designed and optimized by validation of a small representative sample of SVs using PCR and traditional capillary sequencing.
To conclude: we developed SNP repositories which fulfils a requirement for SNPs to perform linkage analysis, comparative genomics QTL studies and ultimately GWA studies in a range of farm animals. We also set the first step in developing a repository for SVs in chicken, a relatively new genetic marker in animal sciences.
Snavelbehandeling in de kalkoenhouderij : alternatieven via fokkerij en bedrijfsmanagemrnt = Beak trimming in turkey production : alternatives by means of breeding and farm management
Veldkamp, T. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 197) - 28
pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - kalkoenen - snavelkappen - dierenwelzijn - kannibalisme - verenpikken - poultry farming - poultry - turkeys - debeaking - animal welfare - cannibalism - feather pecking
A literature review on effects of breeding and management on injurious pecking behaviour and cannibalism has been conducted. The combination of factors to avoid injurious behaviour is not clear and thus no good alternative to beak trimming of the upper beak in day-old turkey poults is available. If beak trimming is performed, it is recommended to use the novel IR-method on day-old turkey poults because then welfare of turkeys is the least compromised compared with other beak trimming methods.
Dose response effects of avian influenza (H7N7) vaccination of chickens: Serology, clinical protection and reduction of virus excretion
Maas, H.A. ; Tacken, M.G.J. ; Zoelen-Bos, D.J. van; Oei, H.L. - \ 2009
Vaccine 27 (2009)27. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 3592 - 3597.
inactivated vaccines - efficacy - antibodies - infection - elisa - quantification - susceptibility - nucleoprotein - turkeys - strain
Knowledge of the relation between the antigen content of inactivated avian influenza (Al) vaccines, the serological response after vaccination and protection of vaccinated animals is important for the choice of optimal vaccines and vaccination regimes as well as for the assessment of criteria for the licensing of new Al-vaccines. We studied this relation in a dose response study using inactivated H7N7 avian influenza vaccines with varying antigen content. The serological response depended on the antigen content of the vaccines. Anti-Al antibodies were detected most frequently with ELISA, followed by the virus neutralisation test and the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Chickens with measurable HI-antibody titers, using homologous H7N7 antigen. were all protected against clinical disease after challenge with highly pathogenic A/chicken/Netherlands/621557/03 H7N7 virus. However, in these chickens high levels of virus could still be present on days 2-4 after challenge. The reduction of virus titers after challenge, depended on the antigen content of the vaccines as well as on the serum antibody titers. While 10 haemagglutinating units (HAU), equivalent to 0.8 mu g haemagglutinin (HA) protein, per vaccine dose was sufficient for prevention of clinical disease, 128 HAU (9 mu g HA) per dose was required for reduction of virus titers in all chickens to 10(3) egg-infectious dose 50% (EID50) or less. In order to reduce virus titers below 10(3) EID50 per swab a HI-antibody titer of 64 was required. After use of the vaccine with the highest antigen content, challenge still induced a booster of antibody titers which is indicative of replication of challenge virus.
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