Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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A naturally occurring nucleotide polymorphism in the orf2/folc promoter is associated with Streptococcus suis virulence
Greeff, A. de; Buys, H. ; Wells, J.M. ; Smith, H.E. - \ 2014
BMC Microbiology 14 (2014)1. - ISSN 1471-2180
germ-free pigs - serotype-2 - strains - identification - cytokine - pathogen - suilysin - release - type-2 - cells
Streptococcus suis is a major problem in the swine industry causing meningitis, arthritis and pericarditis in piglets. Pathogenesis of S. suis is poorly understood. We previously showed that introduction of a 3 kb genomic fragment from virulent serotype 2 strain 10 into a weakly virulent serotype 2 strain S735, generated a hypervirulent isolate. The 3 kb genomic fragment contained two complete open reading frames (ORF) in an operon-structure of which one ORF showed similarity to folylpolyglutamate synthetase, whereas the function of the second ORF could not be predicted based on database searches for protein similarity.
Molecular Epidemiology of Bat Lyssaviruses in Europe
McElhinney, L.M. ; Marston, D.A. ; Leech, S. ; Freuling, C. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Echevarria, J. ; Vazquez-Moron, S. ; Horton, D.L. ; Müller, T. ; Fooks, A.R. - \ 2013
Zoonoses and Public Health 60 (2013)1. - ISSN 1863-1959 - p. 35 - 45.
daubentons bat - united-kingdom - rabies virus - eptesicus-isabellinus - myotis-daubentonii - type-2 - germany - identification - eblv-2 - surveillance
Bat rabies cases in Europe are principally attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2). Between 1977 and 2011, 961 cases of bat rabies were reported to Rabies Bulletin Europe, with the vast majority (>97%) being attributed to EBLV-1. There have been 25 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 22 have been confirmed. In addition, two single isolations of unique lyssaviruses from European insectivorous bats were reported in south-west Russia in 2002 (West Caucasian bat virus) and in Germany in 2010 (Bokeloh bat lyssavirus). In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses of the EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 using partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences. In particular, we have analysed all EBLV-2 cases for which viral sequences (N gene, 400 nucleotides) are available (n = 21). Oropharyngeal swabs collected from two healthy Myotis daubentonii during active surveillance programmes in Scotland and Switzerland also yielded viral RNA (EBLV-2). Despite the relatively low number of EBLV-2 cases, a surprisingly large amount of anomalous data has been published in the scientific literature and Genbank, which we have collated and clarified. For both viruses, geographical relationships are clearly defined on the phylogenetic analysis. Whilst there is no clear chronological clustering for either virus, there is some evidence for host specific relationships, particularly for EBLV-1 where more host variation has been observed. Further genomic regions must be studied, in particular for EBLV-1 isolates from Spain and the EBLV-2 isolates to provide support for the existence of sublineages.
If you can't eat what you like, like what you can: how children with coeliac disease and their families construct dietary restrictions as a matter of choice
Veen, M. ; Molder, H. te; Gremmen, B. ; Woerkum, C. van - \ 2013
Sociology of Health and Illness 35 (2013)4. - ISSN 0141-9889 - p. 592 - 609.
discursive psychology - illness - talking - type-2
Although it is recognised that a gluten-free diet has many social implications for coeliac disease patients, not much is known about how such patients actually manage these implications in their everyday interactions. This article examines how dietary restrictions are treated by patients and their families. Data from recorded mealtime conversations of seven Dutch families with children suffering from coeliac disease were analysed using discursive psychology. We found two main discursive strategies by which patients and their families manage the diet during mealtime interactions. A reference to pleasure is used to manage the tension between the child's agency and parental responsibility in the face of health requirements and, by softening the denial of food, the diet is normalised and treated as a shared family practice. The analysis shows that the gluten-free diet is demedicalised and treated as a matter of choice rather than prescription. We conclude with the practical implications of these findings.
Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population
Aerde, M.A. van; Witte, D.R. ; Jeppesen, C. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. - \ 2012
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 97 (2012)2. - ISSN 0168-8227 - p. 298 - 305.
dependent diabetes-mellitus - insulin-resistance atherosclerosis - dietary fiber intake - life-style - type-2 - risk - women - tolerance - carbohydrate - prevalence
BACKGROUND: Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship between GI and GL and markers of glucose metabolism, mostly in western populations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between GI and GL and indices of glucose metabolism and prevalence of diabetes in Greenland's Inuit population. DESIGN: The Inuit Health in Transition Study is a geographically representative cross-sectional study among aged =18years. Diet was assessed using a 67-item food frequency questionnaire. Logistic and linear regression was used to assess the association between GI and GL and diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose, 2h plasma glucose, HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-%ß. RESULTS: No association was found between GI and GL and diabetes. GL was significantly inversely associated with IFG (OR: 0.91 (0.84-0.98)). While GI was positively associated with FPG, GL was positively associated with both HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-%ß and inversely associated with IFG. CONCLUSION: These findings do not support a link between dietary GI or GL and risk of type 2 diabetes among Greenland's Inuit population.
Lysozyme Resistance in Streptococcus suis Is Highly Variable and Multifactorial
Wichgers, P.J. ; Weeghel, C. van; Rebel, J.M.J. ; Smits, M.A. ; Putten, J.P.M. van; Smith, H.E. - \ 2012
PLoS One 7 (2012)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
penicillin resistance - staphylococcus-aureus - antibiotic tolerance - murmn operon - pgda gene - pneumoniae - virulence - type-2 - deacetylase - meningitis
Background Streptococcus suis is an important infectious agent for pigs and occasionally for humans. The host innate immune system plays a key role in preventing and eliminating S. suis infections. One important constituent of the innate immune system is the protein lysozyme, which is present in a variety of body fluids and immune cells. Lysozyme acts as a peptidoglycan degrading enzyme causing bacterial lysis. Several pathogens have developed mechanisms to evade lysozyme-mediated killing. In the present study we compared the lysozyme sensitivity of various S. suis isolates and investigated the molecular basis of lysozyme resistance for this pathogen. Results The lysozyme minimal inhibitory concentrations of a wide panel of S. suis isolates varied between 0.3 to 10 mg/ml. By inactivating the oatA gene in a serotype 2 and a serotype 9 strain, we showed that OatA-mediated peptidoglycan modification partly contributes to lysozyme resistance. Furthermore, inactivation of the murMN operon provided evidence that additional peptidoglycan crosslinking is not involved in lysozyme resistance in S. suis. Besides a targeted approach, we also used an unbiased approach for identifying factors involved in lysozyme resistance. Based on whole genome comparisons of a lysozyme sensitive strain and selected lysozyme resistant derivatives, we detected several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were correlated with the lysozyme resistance trait. Two SNPs caused defects in protein expression of an autolysin and a capsule sugar transferase. Analysis of specific isogenic mutants, confirmed the involvement of autolysin activity and capsule structures in lysozyme resistance of S. suis. Conclusions This study shows that lysozyme resistance levels are highly variable among S. suis isolates and serotypes. Furthermore, the results show that lysozyme resistance in S. suis can involve different mechanisms including OatA-mediated peptidolycan modification, autolysin activity and capsule production
Lgt processing is an essential step in Streptococcus suis lipoprotein mediated innate immune activation
Wichgers, P.J. ; Rebel, J.M.J. ; Smits, M.A. ; Putten, J.P. van; Smith, H.E. - \ 2011
PLoS One 6 (2011)7. - ISSN 1932-6203
bacterial lipoproteins - lipid modification - virulence - serotype-2 - identification - pneumoniae - proteins - type-2 - prelipoproteins - polysaccharide
Background Streptococcus suis causes invasive infections in pigs and occasionally in humans. The host innate immune system plays a major role in counteracting S. suis infections. The main components of S. suis able to activate the innate immune system likely include cell wall constituents that may be released during growth or after cell wall integrity loss, however characterization of these components is still limited. Methology/Principal Findings A concentrated very potent innate immunity activating supernatant of penicillin-treated S. suis was SDS-PAGE fractionated and tested for porcine peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) stimulating activity using cytokine gene transcript analysis. More than half of the 24 tested fractions increased IL-1ß and IL-8 cytokine gene transcript levels in porcine PBMCs. Mass spectrometry of the active fractions indicated 24 proteins including 9 lipoproteins. Genetic inactivation of a putative prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) gene resulted in deficient lipoprotein synthesis as evidenced by palmitate labeling. The Lgt mutant showed strongly reduced activation of porcine PBMCs, indicating that lipoproteins are dominant porcine PBMC activating molecules of S. suis. Conclusion/Significance This study for the first time identifies and characterizes lipoproteins of S. suis as major activators of the innate immune system of the pig. In addition, we provide evidence that Lgt processing of lipoproteins is required for lipoprotein mediated innate immune activation
Weight change and incident diabetes: addressing an unresolved issue
Jacobs-van der Bruggen, M.A.M. ; Spijkerman, A.M.W. ; Baal, P.H.M. van; Baan, C.A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Picavet, H.S.J. ; A, A.D. van der; Verschuren, W.M.M. - \ 2010
American Journal of Epidemiology 172 (2010)3. - ISSN 0002-9262 - p. 263 - 270.
body-mass index - impaired glucose-tolerance - life-style intervention - overweight adults - fat distribution - womens-health - risk-factors - type-2 - obesity - mellitus
The impact of weight change on diabetes incidence remains unclear. To clarify the role of weight change as a risk factor for diabetes, the authors assessed the association between weight change and diabetes incidence conditional upon either initial or attained body mass index (BMI). They used 7,837 observations available from repeated measurements of 4,259 participants (men and women aged 20–59 years) in the Dutch population-based Doetinchem Cohort Study (1987–2007) to analyze the association between 5-year weight change and diabetes incidence (n = 124) in the subsequent 5 years. When adjusted for initial BMI, 5-year weight change was a significant risk factor for diabetes (odds ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.13 per kilogram of weight change). However, no significant association was found between weight change and diabetes if the association was adjusted for attained BMI (odds ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.04 per kilogram of weight change). Results suggest that weight change is associated with diabetes incidence because, conditional upon initial BMI, weight change determines attained BMI. This finding implies that lifestyle interventions can contribute to diabetes prevention because they affect attained BMI. Weight change appears to have no effect on diabetes incidence beyond its effect on attained BMI.
Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults
He, Y. ; Ma, G. ; Zhai, F. ; Li, Y. ; Hu, Y. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Yang, X. - \ 2009
Diabetes Care 32 (2009)11. - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 1972 - 1976.
diabetes-mellitus - food-consumption - glycemic index - meat intake - type-2 - risk - women - men - fat - perspective
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included. Information on dietary intake was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to identify the food factors and dietary pattern clusters. RESULTS Four dietary pattern clusters were identified (“Green Water,” “Yellow Earth,” “Western Adopter,” and “New Affluence”). The prevalence of glucose tolerance abnormalities ranged from 3.9% in the Green Water to 8.0% in the New Affluence. After adjustment for area, age, sex, current smoking, and physical activity, subjects in the Yellow Earth cluster (prevalence ratio 1.22 [95% CI 1.04–1.43]) and New Affluence cluster (2.05 [1.76–2.37]) had significantly higher prevalence rates compared with those for the Green Water cluster. After further adjustment for BMI and waist-to-height ratio, the elevated risk in the New Affluence remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Dietary patterns and food factors are associated with the presence of glucose tolerance abnormalities in China, even independent of obesity. A New Affluence diet is an important modifiable risk factor, which needs attention from the prevention point of view
Abdominal obesity and the prevalence of diabetes and intermediate hyperglycaemia in Chinese adults
He, Y. ; Zhai, F. ; Ma, G. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Zhang, J. ; Fu, P. ; Veer, P. van 't; Yang, X. - \ 2009
Public Health Nutrition 12 (2009)8. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1078 - 1084.
body-mass index - to-height ratio - waist circumference - national-health - risk-factors - cardiovascular-disease - fat distribution - cutoff points - type-2 - nutrition
Objective: To assess the association of indicators of general and abdominal obesity with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and intermediate hyperglycaemia (IHG) in the Chinese population. Methods: We used data of 50 905 adults aged 18¿79 years in the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Recommended Chinese cut-off values were used for BMI (24 kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC; 85 cm in men, 80 cm in women). Optimal cut-offs for waist:height ratio (WHtR) were determined from analyses of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: The prevalence of T2DM and IHG was 2?6% and 1?9% respectively. ROC curve analyses indicated 0?5 as the optimal cut-off value for WHtR in both sexes. High BMI, WC and WHtR were all associated with the prevalence of glucose tolerance abnormalities, with the highest prevalence ratio (PR) for high WHtR (men: PR52?85, 95% CI 2?54, 3?21; women: PR53?10, 95% CI 2?74, 3?51). When combining BMI and WHtR, in men either a high BMI or a high WHtR alone was associated with increased risk. Among women, a high BMI without a concomitant high WHtR was not associated with increased glucose tolerance abnormalities risk, whereas a high WHtR was associated with risk irrespective of BMI. Conclusions: Among the Chinese adult population measures of central obesity are better predictors of glucose tolerance abnormalities prevalence than BMI. AWHtR cutoff point of 0?5 for both men and women can be considered as optimum for predicting (pre-) diabetes and may be a useful tool for screening and health education.
Elimination of strains of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 from the tonsils of carrier sows by combines medication and vaccination
Swildens, B. ; Nlelen, M. ; Wisselink, H.J. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. ; Stegeman, J.A. - \ 2007
Veterinary Record 160 (2007)18. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 619 - 621.
extracellular factor - released protein - pigs - type-2 - prevalence - infection - colonization - piglets - live - pcr
The effect of vaccination with a killed whole-cell vaccine of extracellular factor-positive Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S suis 2 EF+) combined with medication with amoxicillin on the presence of virulent S suis 2 EF+ strains on the tonsils of sows and their offspring was evaluated. In two herds, 14 pregnant sows that carried these virulent strains, as detected by PCR in three consecutive tonsillar brush samples, were selected and randomly assigned to be treated or left untreated as controls. The treated sows were vaccinated at six and three weeks before the expected farrowing date and medicated from one week before expected farrowing until the end of the experiment. Two weeks before parturition, the sows were housed in individual isolation farrowing rooms, and the sow and its litter were sampled by using tonsil brushes and tonsil swabs, respectively. Approximately 27 days postpartum, the sows and their piglets were euthanased and their tonsils were collected and analysed by PCR. No S suis 2 EF+ could be detected in the tonsils of the seven treated sows, but the tonsils of the seven untreated sows remained positive. Only one of the litters of the untreated sows became infected, five days after birth, and none of the litters of the treated sows became infected.
Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine
Wisselink, H.J. ; Veldman, K.T. ; Salmon, S.A. ; Mevius, D.J. - \ 2006
Veterinary Microbiology 113 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 73 - 82.
capsular types - swine - resistance - ceftiofur - denmark - type-2 - pathogens - serotypes - traits
The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n = 384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Using breakpoints established by CLSI for veterinary pathogens, all strains were susceptible to ceftiofur, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and penicillin. MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were
Detection of extracellular factor-positive Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains in tonsillar swabs of live sows by PCR
Swildens, B. ; Wisselink, H.J. ; Engel, B. ; Smith, H.E. ; Nielen, M. ; Verheijden, J.H. ; Stegeman, J.A. - \ 2005
Veterinary Microbiology 109 (2005)3-4. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 223 - 228.
palatine tonsils - released protein - diagnostic-tests - pigs - type-2 - prevalence - specificity - sensitivity - validation - state
In this study, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of a PCR for the detection of EF-positive Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains in tonsillar swabs of live sows were assessed. We sampled 471 sows originating from four farrow-to-finish farms by tonsillar swabbing and collected their tonsils after slaughter. On these specimens, a PCR, a bacterial examination (BE) or both were performed for the detection of EF-positive S. suis serotype 2 strains. Swab-PCR, Tonsil-PCR and Tonsil-BE were regarded as three integral tests. A Bayesian approach was used to calculate the Se and Sp of the tests. Se and Sp for Swab-PCR were 0.63 (95% credibility interval ) and 0.96 (), respectively. Values for Se and Sp of Tonsil-PCR amounted to 0.88 () and 0.94 (), respectively. For Tonsil-BE, Se was 0.65 () and Sp was 0.97 (). Repetition of the swabbing procedure after 10 min resulted in a higher Se 0.85 () than the Se of the first-Swab-PCR. Repetition of the PCR on the same sample did not result in any significant changes in the outcome of the analysis
Distribution of environmentally regulated genes of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 among S-suis serotypes and other organisms
Greeff, A. de; Buijs, H. ; Verhaar, R. ; Alphen, L. van; Smith, H.E. - \ 2002
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40 (2002)9. - ISSN 0095-1137 - p. 3261 - 3268.
muramidase-released protein - highly virulent-strains - germ-free pigs - type-2 - identification - competence - infections - loci - pcr
The occurrence of 36 environmentally regulated genes of Streptococcus suis strain 10 among all 35 S. suis serotypes was determined by using hybridization with the amplified genes as probes. In addition, the distribution of these genes among the virulence phenotypes of serotypes 1 and 2 was assessed. Hybridization was also performed with various other streptococcal species and nonstreptococcal bacterial species which may be present in pigs. Interestingly, probe ivs-25/iri-1, similar to agrA and sapR, hybridized only with S. suis serotype 1 and 2 strains with virulent phenotypes and is therefore suitable as a diagnostic parameter. Only one probe was specific for S. suis. This probe's sequence was identical to the epf gene, a putative virulence factor of S. suis. Probe ivs-31 was similar to a virulence factor of S. suis, namely, a gene encoding a fibronectin- and fibrinogen-binding protein. This probe hybridized only with oral streptococci. Nearly half of the probes (45%) hybridized with the oral streptococci (S. oralis, S. milleri, S. sanguis, S. gordonii, and S. mitis) and with Streptococcus pneumoniae. This indicates a close relationship between S. suis, the oral streptococci, and S. pneumoniae with respect to the selected environmentally regulated genes. One probe only hybridized with gram-negative species and therefore seems to be obtained by S. suis from a gram-negative organism by horizontal transfer
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