Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Contracting communities: Conceptualizing Community Benefits Agreements to improve citizen involvement in urban development projects
Janssen-Jansen, Leonie ; Veen, Menno van der - \ 2017
Environment and Planning A 49 (2017)1. - ISSN 0308-518X - p. 205 - 225.
citizen involvement - Community Benefits Agreements - contracts - development agreements - urban planning
Contractual agreements are becoming increasingly important for city governments seeking to manage urban development. Contractual governance involves direct relations between the local state and different public and private actors and citizens. Although abundant literature exists on public–private partnerships related to urban development projects, agreements made between
citizens, interest organizations and market parties, such as Community Benefits Agreements remain under-explored and under-theorized. While it may seem that the state is absent from contemporary forms of contractual governance, such agreements remain highly intertwined with government policies. The central aim of this paper is to better conceptualize Community Benefits
Agreement practices in order to build understanding of how contractual governance caters for direct end-user involvement in urban development, and to yield insights into its potential as to render development processes more inclusive. Based on academic literature in planning and law, expert interviews and several case studies in New York City, this paper conceptualizes enduser
involvement in urban development projects and innovates within urban planning and governance theory through the use of two new concepts—project collectivity and the image of a fourth chair.
Participatory slum upgrading as a disjunctive process in Recife, Brazil : Urban coproduction and the absent ground of the city
Vries, Pieter de - \ 2016
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 37 (2016)3. - ISSN 0129-7619 - p. 295 - 309.
(in)formality - Badiou - community leaders - coproduction - Recife - urban planning

This article engages with the coproduction of urban space by focusing on a slum upgrading project in Recife, Brazil. It argues that the urban situation is essentially inconsistent, unpredictable and unstable. It documents the history of urban planning in Recife, paying special attention to the coexistence of two different planning traditions, one aimed at what city planners call the informal city, which is participatory, bottom up and democratic, yet susceptible to be corrupted by political clientelism, and another aimed at the formal city, which is ‘strategic’, top down, technocratic and neoliberal. It argues that the informal/formal binary operates as a disjunctive synthesis that separates social actors rather than connecting them and provides the coordinates within which processes of coproduction take place. The disjunctive synthesis renders possible all sorts of fantastic imaginations that both disavow and reveal the missing ground of the city. Community leaders play a central role in the coproduction of urban space and function as the symptom of this absent ground. The article concludes that participatory urban development interventions aiming to curtail the role of community leaders end up as veritable tyrannies of participation, which should be seen as evidence of the disjointed character of planning rather than as forms of effective governmentality.

Making a difference : boundary management in spatial governance
Westerink, Judith - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink; Katrien Termeer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578685 - 216
spatial analysis - governance - landscape architecture - space - space utilization - integrated spatial planning policy - landscape planning - urban planning - land use planning - land policy - government policy - netherlands - european union - ruimtelijke analyse - landschapsarchitectuur - ruimte - gebruik van ruimte - gebiedsgericht beleid - landschapsplanning - stedelijke planning - landgebruiksplanning - grondbeleid - overheidsbeleid - nederland - europese unie

In trying to influence spatial development, people engage in discussions about distinctions between places or areas, and the roles of government and society, while they need to relate to other groups of stakeholders. In other words, boundaries (between meanings of places, between government and society, and between different groups of people) are omnipresent in spatial governance. Does the peri-urban area belong to the city or to the countryside? Can nature be integrated into farming? What should be the role of governments in relation to bottom-up initiatives? And how can people collaborate in spite of their differences in background, culture and knowledge? People have devised various tools and strategies to deal with boundaries. This study investigates those boundary arrangements in practices of spatial governance, such as boundary concepts, boundary organisations and social learning. This is done by analysing a number of case studies of spatial governance practices, mainly in the Netherlands.

Chapter 1 introduces the theoretical concepts, research question and aims and the research design. The study distinguishes physical (between meanings of places), institutional (between social institutions) and social boundaries (between groups of people). Such boundaries are socially constructed, not only through their delineation, but also through their contestation and change. In other words, people take actions towards boundaries. For such actions they make use of boundary arrangements. In this thesis, boundary management is performing boundary actions by means of boundary arrangements in order to influence a governance process. The research question is: what is the role of boundary arrangements in the management of physical, social and institutional boundaries in spatial governance?

Chapter 2 analyses how the compact city concept is applied in four urban regions across Europe, how this concept yields trade-offs among dimensions of sustainability. In addition, it analyses strategies that have been developed by planners in the four regions to deal with those trade-offs. The urban – rural boundary is important in this chapter. Chapter 3 compares and analyses two overlapping and competing place concepts for peri-urban areas in The Hague Region, the Netherlands. The urban - rural boundary is central. Chapter 4 reveals discourses of collaborative planning in an urban region characterised by population growth and in a region characterised by population decline, both in the south of the Netherlands. One alternative discourse envisions a leading role for governmental actors in spatial planning, while another discourse envisions a leading role for societal actors. This chapter is mainly concerned with the boundary between government and non-government.

Chapter 5 analyses two Dutch approaches to more effective agri-environmental management: one landscape approach and one farming system approach, both with increased self-governance by farmers. This chapter is about the nature – agriculture boundary as well as the boundary between government and non-government. Chapter 6 tells the story of a collaborative project with farmers’ organisations and regional governments for a rural landscape with more landscape services. Social boundaries among different groups are important, as are the boundary between government and non-government, and the one between nature and agriculture. Chapter 7 analyses three cases in which a landscape concept supported mutual understanding and learning leading to collective action. Dealing with social boundaries in trans-disciplinary landscape planning is the main issue.

Chapter 8 answers the research question, specifies the contribution to scientific debate and provides suggestions for further research. In addition, it gives reflections on the usefulness of the theoretical lens, the research design and the role of the researcher, and specifies societal relevance of the research and policy implications. The chapter includes a typology of boundary arrangements and yields a number of insights for the study of boundaries as well as for the study of spatial governance.

Shaping tomorrow’s urban environment today : Environmental Policy Integration in urban planning: the challenges of a communicative approach
Grift-Simeonova, V.S. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold van der Valk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578364 - 215 p.
urban planning - environmental policy - urban areas - ecological network - communication - participation - nature conservation - bulgaria - netherlands - stedelijke planning - milieubeleid - stedelijke gebieden - ecologische hoofdstructuur - communicatie - participatie - natuurbescherming - bulgarije - nederland

The debate on sustainable development emphasizes the importance of integrating environmental policy into other policy sectors. It is increasingly recognized that such integration is needed at the national, regional and local levels of governance. Hence the Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) principle has been proposed, which is defined as “the incorporation of the environmental objectives into all stages of policy making in non-environmental policy sectors, with the recognition of this goal as the guiding principle for the planning and execution of policy”. Currently EPI is agreed upon in a number of EU commitments and is receiving the attention of urban planning scholars. The achievability of EPI, however, has not yet been well studied, particularly in the urban planning context, while its implementation often seems to be hindered by organizational fragmentation.

This thesis assesses the potential role of EPI as an operational principle for achieving sustainable urban development in Europe. It addresses the scientific premises of EPI and the current knowledge gaps in applying it in the urban planning domain. The research combines theoretical and empirical dimensions. The theoretical dimension includes evidence of the current knowledge gap regarding the integration of environmental aspects into urban planning and the emergence of EPI as a promising perspective in urban sustainability research and planning practice. This includes reflections on EPI’s definitions, interpretations and its different approaches. The empirical dimension of the thesis explores evidence regarding the EPI process in actual planning practices, with an assessment of the relevance of different EPI approaches. Based on the exploration of case studies within different planning contexts, the empirical research provides insights into the key challenges and barriers to achieving EPI in urban planning and identifies key success factors for local governments addressing specific environmental issues in urban land-use plans. The key objective of the thesis is, therefore, to explore the responses of planning systems to the current EPI challenges, with the twin goals of gaining insight into the role of EPI in integrating environmental concerns in urban land-use planning processes and of identifying the most promising approaches for achieving EPI. The thesis provides an answer about the potential benefits of, among other approaches, a communicative approach to achieve EPI in urban planning practice.

Tools voor klimaatbestendig inrichten van stedelijk gebied
Ven, Frans van der; Brolsma, R. ; Snep, R.P.H. ; Koole, S. - \ 2016
H2O online (2016)29 maart. - 7 p.
stedelijke gebieden - ruimtelijke ordening - waterbeheer - overstromingen - stedelijke planning - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - urban areas - physical planning - water management - floods - urban planning - climatic change - climate adaptation
Er zijn tools ontwikkeld waarmee ontwerpers, deskundigen en belanghebbenden samen conceptuele ontwerpen kunnen opstellen om te helpen de gebouwde omgeving waterrobuust en klimaatbestendig te maken. De Climate Adaptation App helpt deelnemers een long list van mogelijke maatregelen op te stellen. Vervolgens kan met de Adaptation Support Tool worden geschetst waar welke maatregelen getroffen kunnen worden en wordt direct berekend hoe doelmatig ze naar verwachting zullen zijn (rekenen en tekenen). Water- en klimaatopgaven worden op (kosten)effectieve wijze ingevuld en de toegevoegde waarde van ingrepen voor de leefbaarheid gemaximaliseerd. Deze werkwijze en tools zijn met succes toegepast in diverse ontwerpworkshops.
Het landschap vormt de stad
Timmermans, Wim - \ 2016
urban areas - urban development - urban planning - physical planning - landscape - climatic change - future

Succes of verval van Europese steden was vaak nauw gekoppeld aan hun ligging in het landschap. Ook nu nog zijn handelsroutes, water, voedsel, en bescherming cruciaal. En daar komt klimaatverandering bij. Hoog tijd om een eeuw vooruit te kijken.

Sanitation planning in developing countries : added value of resource recovery
Kerstens, S.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): Ingo Leusbrock. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576889 - 316 p.
sanitation - developing countries - recovery - urban planning - waste water treatment - waste treatment - waste management - environmental technology - volksgezondheidsbevordering - ontwikkelingslanden - terugwinning - stedelijke planning - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalverwerking - afvalbeheer - milieutechnologie

Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery

Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that resource recovery can be a potential driver to accelerate sanitation. A new sanitation decision framework for policy makers was created and tested in Indonesia.

The variety of advantages and disadvantages of sanitation interventions complicates the sanitation planning process. Conventional sanitation systems consume energy, chemicals and land or produce a sludge that requires disposal, whereas a range of opportunities exists that enables valorization of resources from our “waste”. To support policy makers in planning sanitation that considers sustainability dimensions (social, environment and economy), a new sanitation framework was developed. This framework resolves trade-offs of sanitation alternatives across spatial and temporal scales in three steps. First, it identifies feasible wastewater and solid waste systems in relation to the type of residential area. Secondly, the anticipated population development, current access and formulated targets are an input to generate the number of required systems, their location and associated implementation costs. The required systems are visualized in geographical maps, while budgets are allocated to responsible implementing institutions. Thirdly, the potential demand from “back-end users” of sanitation products, such as agriculture for compost and phosphorus, aquaculture for produced duckweed and industries for recovered plastic and paper, to substitute conventionally produced materials is determined. These three steps are then combined to quantitatively evaluate the (1) environmental impact, (2) operational costs and benefits, and (3) the potential of selected sanitation alternatives to close material cycles. A case study of the Citarum River was performed in which (monetized) benefits such as health, welfare and revenues from the sale of recovered resources were compared with the costs of different (conventional and resource recovery) sanitation systems. The study showed that the economic Benefit to Cost Ratio (BCR) of resource recovery technologies is bigger than BCR of conventional (low cost) technologies, while improving the water quality. It thus shows that resource recovery is a potential driver to accelerate sanitation development. The framework was illustrated using Indonesia as an example, but its application can benefit the quality of millions of lives worldwide.

Op zoek naar écht verkoelend water
Kleis, R. ; Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 10 - 10.
stedelijke gebieden - stadsomgeving - waterbeheer - stadsontwikkeling - klimaat - nachttemperatuur - ontwerpend onderzoek - stedelijke planning - urban areas - urban environment - water management - urban development - climate - night temperature - research by design - urban planning
Water neemt op een warme dag veel zonne-energie op. Het fungeert daardoor overdag als een soort warmtebatterij die wordt opgeladen en die het stedelijke hitte-eilandeffect een beetje dempt. Maar deze batterij loopt na zonsondergang langzaam leeg en versterkt daarmee juist het hitte-eilandeffect in de nacht. Daar is iets tegen te doen, denkt landschapsarchitect Sanda Lenzholzer. Door waterpartijen slim te ontwerpen kan water een echt koelelement zijn in een warme stad. Met haar project Realcool mag ze de komende twee jaar aantonen of en hoe dat precies werkt.
Agenda stadslandbouw. Impact op initiatieven
Veen, E.J. ; Jansma, J.E. - \ 2015
collectieve overeenkomsten - stadslandbouw - gemeenten - openbare mening - steden - stedelijke planning - vragenlijsten - collective agreements - urban agriculture - municipalities - public opinion - towns - urban planning - questionnaires
In het voorjaar van 2013 bracht het Stedennetwerk Stadslandbouw (een landelijk netwerk van pioniers in de stadslandbouw, zie de Agenda Stadslandbouw naar buiten. Groningen was de eerste die ondertekende, inmiddels gevolgd door 25 andere gemeenten. Met de ondertekening committeren gemeenten zich aan het stimuleren en faciliteren van stadslandbouw. In 2014 hebben we bij twaalf ondertekenaars verkend wat het ondertekenen van de agenda voor de gemeente heeft betekend. De resultaten van deze verkenning zijn terug te vinden in de brochure ‘Agenda Stadslandbouw. Wat was de impact?’. Graag wilden we ook nagaan wat de agenda betekend heeft voor andere betrokkenen bij stadslandbouw. In een vervolgonderzoek richtten we ons daarom op de partijen ‘buiten het stadhuis’. Doel was te inventariseren wat de impact van de agenda voor stadslandbouwinitiatieven zélf is geweest.
Agenda Stadslandbouw. Wat was de impact?
Veen, E.J. ; Jansma, J.E. ; Jong, D. de - \ 2015
stadslandbouw - stedelijke gebieden - stedelijke planning - steden - overheidsbeleid - gemeenten - collectieve overeenkomsten - urban agriculture - urban areas - urban planning - towns - government policy - municipalities - collective agreements
Voorjaar van 2013 bracht het Stedennetwerk Stadslandbouw (een landelijk netwerk van gemeentelijke pioniers in de stadslandbouw, zie hun gezamenlijke Agenda Stadslandbouw naar buiten. Tijdens de Dag van de Stadslandbouw 2013, in het bijzijn van Rotterdams wethouder en tevens ambassadeur stadslandbouw Alexandra van Huffelen, was Groningen de eerste die de agenda tekende. Vervolgens stuurde de wethouder begin september 2013 alle Nederlandse gemeenten een brief met het verzoek de agenda te ondertekenen. Tijdens de Dag van de Stadslandbouw 2014, in het bijzijn van Staatssecretaris Sharon Dijksma was Leeuwarden de 24ste gemeente die de agenda tekende. Inmiddels (voorjaar 2015) hebben 26 gemeenten getekend. Waar heeft de agenda toe geleid? In deze factsheet proberen we daar antwoord op te geven.
Weather in the City - How Design Shapes the Urban Climate
Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2015
Rotterdam : Nai 010 Uitgevers/Publishers - ISBN 9789462081987 - 216
microklimaat - steden - stedelijke planning - omgevingspsychologie - stadsomgeving - groene infrastructuur - vegetatie - microclimate - towns - urban planning - environmental psychology - urban environment - green infrastructure - vegetation
A beautifully designed square where you are almost blown over, an apartment in the city where the summer heat keeps you awake at night. We all know examples of urban and landcape architectural design that doesn’t sufficiently take the urban climate into account. With clear texts and insightful and inspirational illustrations, this book shows how clever urban design can make the city more comfortable. The way we experience the microclimate depends on physical and environmental psychological factors. Based on these factors, the way the basic processes of the urban climate work, and how these can be influenced through spatial planning and urban design are explained. 'Weather in the city. How Design Shapes the Urban Climate' is richly illustrated with photographs, illustrations and many examples from temperate climate regions all over the world.
Burgerkracht is 'hot'
Dam, R.I. van - \ 2015
Groen : vakblad voor groen in stad en landschap 71 (2015)3. - ISSN 0166-3534 - p. 22 - 28.
stedelijke planning - levensomstandigheden - kwaliteit van het leven - nederland - stadsvernieuwing - urban planning - living conditions - quality of life - netherlands - urban renewal
Utrecht Groen & Gezond
Heide, R. van der; Meijer, A. ; Helsdingen, A. van; Paalvast, E. ; Klemm, W. - \ 2014
Architectuurcentrum Aorta - 36
stadsomgeving - utrecht - stedelijke planning - openbaar groen - woonwijken - ontwerp - economische analyse - beplantingen - stadsontwikkeling - welzijn - urban environment - urban planning - public green areas - residential areas - design - economic analysis - plantations - urban development - well-being
Met deze publicatie maakt Aorta een eerste stap naar een groenere en gezondere stad. Daarin wordt verkend wat dat betekent voor de inrichting van de stad (ontwerp), welke partijen daarin zouden kunnen acteren (rollen) en hoe dat betaald wordt (kosten en baten). Wat dat betekent en welke stappen nodig zijn, is uitgewerkt aan de hand drie schaalniveaus die in elkaars verlengde liggen: de stad, wijk en straat en drie deelgebieden: Rivierenwijk, Oud-Hoograven (Beatrixplein e.o.) en Nieuw-Hoograven Zuid.
Understanding Urban Metabolism: A Tool for Urban Planning
Chrysoulakis, N. ; Castro, E.A. de; Moors, E.J. - \ 2014
New York : Routledge - ISBN 9780415835114 - 240
stadsontwikkeling - stedelijke planning - sociale ecologie - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - stadsomgeving - urban development - urban planning - human ecology - sustainable development - sustainability - urban environment
This book addresses the gap between the bio-physical sciences and urban planning and illustrates the advantages of accounting for urban metabolism issues in urban design decisions. Urban metabolism considers a city as a system, and distinguishes between energy and material flows as its components. Based on research from the BRIDGE project, this book deals with how the urban surface exchanges and transforms energy, water, carbon and pollutants in cities. This book also introduces a new method for evaluating how planning alternatives can modify the physical flows of urban metabolism components and how environmental and socioeconomic components interact. The inclusion of sustainability principles into urban planning provides an opportunity to place the new knowledge provided by bio-physical sciences at the centre of the planning process, but there is a strong need to bridge knowledge and practice, as well as for a better dissemination of research results and exchange of best practice.
The Pulse of the city: exploring urban metabolism in Amsterdam
Voskamp, Ilse ; Stremke, S. - \ 2014
In: TOPOS Year book 2014 Wageningen : TOPOS - p. 86 - 91.
stedelijke planning - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landgebruiksplanning - architectuur - amsterdam - urban planning - sustainability - land use planning - architecture
Considering ongoing, rapid urbanisation and the vast resource consumption of metropolitan areas around the world, it is important to integrate urban resource management with the design of our future cities. But how can resource management become an integral part of planning and designing urban landscapes
Verkeersonderzoek Haarlem-Noord : een onderzoek naar verkeersdoorstroming en leefbaarheid
Beunen, R. ; Hoofwijk, H. ; Ridder, S. de - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 312) - ISBN 9789461738837 - 106
infrastructuur - wegen - stedelijke gebieden - stedelijke planning - milieueffect - infrastructure - roads - urban areas - urban planning - environmental impact
Dit rapport presenteert de resultaten van een onderzoek naar de noodzaak voor het verdubbelen van de Vondelweg in Haarlem Noord. Op basis van een analyse van de intensiteiten van het autoverkeer en de capaciteiten van kruispunten wordt geconcludeerd dat de doorstroming en de (economische) bereikbaarheid van het gebied goed zijn. Ook voor de toekomst worden geen problemen verwacht. Wel heeft het huidige autoverkeer een negatieve invloed op de leefbaarheid van de aanliggende wijken en is er dus een aanleiding om te werken aan de reductie van verkeersonveiligheid en de uitstoot van schadelijke stoffen.
Rethinking barriers to adaptation: mechanism-based explanation of impasses in the governance of an innovative adaptation measure
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2014
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 26 (2014). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 108 - 118.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - open ruimten - governance - stedelijke gebieden - rotterdam - stedelijke planning - climatic change - climate adaptation - open spaces - urban areas - urban planning - climate-change adaptation - causal mechanisms - social mechanisms - risk governance - policy - framework - reflections - management - relevance
Many of the possible barriers in the governance of climate change adaptation have already been identified and catalogued in the academic literature. Thus far it has proven to be difficult to provide meaningful recommendations on how to deal with these barriers. In this paper we propose a different perspective, with different epistemological assumptions about cause and effect than most existing barrier studies, to analyze why adaptation is often challenging. Using the mechanismic framework, we study how the idea for an innovative ‘‘Water Plaza’’ was realized in the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Mechanisms are understood as patterns of interaction between actors that bring about change in the governance process that lead to policy impasses. Our analysis reveals three mechanisms that explain the impasses in the first Water Plaza pilot project: the risk-innovation mechanism, the frame polarization mechanism, and the conflict infection mechanism. Only after several substantive changes in the project design, location choice, and process architecture was the project of Water Plaza’s revitalized. We discuss how the short-sighted ideas about cause–effect relationships, reflected in the superficial identification of barriers, may prove to be counterproductive; if there is high uncertainty about the risks of an innovation, the solution of offering more certainty is not very helpful and could, as it happened in the case study, trigger other mechanisms, creating an even tighter deadlock. Our study also suggests that when adaptation is considered as something innovative, the chances will increase that the risk-innovation mechanism will occur. We conclude that unearthing mechanisms offers new opportunities and different types of strategic interventions in practice than most existing studies have offered.
Seasonal dependence of the urban heat island on the street canyon aspect ratio
Theeuwes, N.E. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Hove, L.W.A. van; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2014
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 140 (2014)684. - ISSN 0035-9009 - p. 2197 - 2210.
warmte - steden - stedelijke planning - warmtebalans - seizoenvariatie - meteorologie - nederland - heat - towns - urban planning - heat balance - seasonal variation - meteorology - netherlands - boundary-layer - energy-balance - climate zones - model - temperature - parameterization - simulation - schemes - cabauw - field
In this paper we study the relation between the urban heat island (UHI) in the urban canyon and street geometry, in particular the aspect ratio. Model results and observations show that two counteracting processes govern the relation between the nocturnal UHI and the building aspect ratio: i.e. trapping of longwave radiation and shadowing effects. In general, trapping of longwave radiation supports the UHI, whereas shadowing effects reduce the UHI. The net effect depends on the UHI definition and the amount of available shortwave radiation penetrating the canyon. In summer, autumn and spring the shadowing effects can already reduce the UHI starting at an aspect ratio between 0.5 and 1. The analysis is carried out using several methods. Firstly, the single-column model version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used extensively. Two separate runs, one rural and one urban, are used to estimate the UHI. Secondly, the urban canyon temperature at the two meter level is introduced, which allows for direct comparison between modelled and observed air temperatures within the urban canyon. Finally, the model is evaluated for all four seasons. The results of this research provide important insights for urban planning on how to use the aspect ratio to mitigate the UHI in the urban canyon
Versterking van het vestingkarakter van Wageningen : verkenning van de mogelijkheden voor herstel van de stadsgracht
During, R. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 297) - ISBN 9789461731845 - 41
stedelijke planning - historische geografie - stadsontwikkeling - verdedigingswerken - governance - gelderse vallei - urban planning - historical geography - urban development - defensive works
Wageningen is nog vrijwel geheel door een stadsgracht omgeven. Vrijwel, maar niet helemaal... Aan de oostkant van de stad, tussen Bergpoort en Plantsoen, is in 1967 een stukje stadsgracht gedempt. Het Platform Stadsgracht Wageningen wil de gracht hier graag herstellen. De gemeentelijke overheid laat het aan de marktwerking over. Een projectontwikkelaar heeft initiatieven getoond via de aankoop van een cruciaal gelegen kantoorpand. Aan de Wetenschapswinkel de vraag hoe er toch initiatieven te nemen zijn richting herstel van de stadsgracht.
Het weer in de stad : hoe ontwerp het stadsklimaat bepaalt
Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2013
Rotterdam : Nai 010 Uitgevers/Publishers - ISBN 9789462080959 - 224
microklimaat - steden - stedelijke planning - omgevingspsychologie - stadsomgeving - groene infrastructuur - vegetatie - microclimate - towns - urban planning - environmental psychology - urban environment - green infrastructure - vegetation
Een prachtig aangelegd plein waar je wegwaait, een moderne stadswoning waarin je ’s zomers door de hitte niet kan slapen. Iedereen kent voorbeelden van stedelijke architectuur waarvan het ontwerp onvoldoende rekening houdt met het stadsklimaat. In deze publicatie wordt op begrijpelijke en beeldende wijze uiteengezet hoe uitgekiend stadsontwerp het comfort in de stad kan verhogen. De manier waarop wij het stadsklimaat beleven, is afhankelijk van fysieke en omgevingspsychologische factoren. Aan de hand van deze factoren wordt in dit boek uitgelegd hoe de basisprocessen van het stadsklimaat werken en hoe deze met ruimtelijke ordening en stadsontwerp kunnen worden beïnvloed. Het boek is rijk geïllustreerd met foto’s, principetekeningen en praktijkvoorbeelden. Het is een naslagwerk én inspiratieboek voor iedereen die werkt aan een leefbare stad: opdrachtgevers, beleidsmakers, professionals en studenten in stedenbouw, landschapsarchitectuur en planologie.
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