Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Binnenstebuiten : Stadswijngaarden
Vermeulen, Tycho - \ 2016
vineyards - urban agriculture - urban society - viticulture - netherlands
Stedelingen en regionaal voedsel
Vijn, M.P. ; Jansma, J.E. ; Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2015
stadslandbouw - regionale voedselketens - voedselproductie - stedelijke samenleving - bewonersparticipatie - stedelijke gebieden - urban agriculture - regional food chains - food production - urban society - community participation - urban areas
Stadslandbouw trekt steeds meer stedelingen. Wageningen UR onderzocht de rollen en interacties die stedelingen hebben bij stadslandbouwinitiatieven en identificeerde er drie: de interactie tussen stedeling en stedeling, stedeling en voedselproducent, en stedeling en gemeentelijke overheid.
Hoeveel water verdampt de stad?
Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Moors, E.J. ; Hove, L.W.A. van - \ 2015
Water Matters : Kenniskatern voor Waterprofessionals - Dutch edition (2015)oktober. - p. 34 - 37.
evaporatie - waterbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - stedelijke samenleving - waterbehoefte - klimaatverandering - zoet water - evaporation - water management - urban areas - urban society - water requirements - climatic change - fresh water
Hoeveel water verliest een stad door verdamping? Wat betekent dat? En is dat proces van verdamping te beïnvloeden? Onderzoek van Alterra Wageningen UR levert inzichten op die voor de steden steeds belangrijker zullen worden.
Geleerde lessen van de Kenniskring Buurtmoestuinen Almere : wat werkt, wat niet, en wat kun je daarmee als beginnende kenniskring? /
Veen, E.J. ; Vijn, M.P. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 321) - 37
volkstuinen - tuinieren - stadslandbouw - flevoland - zuidelijk flevoland - stedelijke samenleving - gezamenlijk eigendom - publiek-private samenwerking - handleidingen - financieren - vrije tijd - hobby's - allotment gardens - gardening - urban agriculture - urban society - coownership - public-private cooperation - guide books - financing - leisure - hobbies
De gemeente Almere heeft ambities ten aanzien van stadslandbouw. In Oosterwold ontstaat op lange termijn, op een enorme schaal (4.300 ha), een stadslandschap dat bestaat uit wonen, werken, natuur en stadslandbouw. In de Kenniskring Buurtmoestuinen Almere werken ondersteunende netwerken, burgers en gemeente samen aan recepten voor schooltuinen en buurtmoestuinen. Door kennis te delen, te leren van elkaars ervaringen en vooral door open te staan voor elkaar is deze handleiding voor het opzetten van een buurtmoestuin in Almere tot stand gekomen
Tijdelijk gebruik als antwoord op braakligging
Kruit, J. ; Jagt, P.D. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 310) - ISBN 9789461738813 - 48
stedelijke terreinen - braak - tijdigheid - buurtactie - stedelijke samenleving - urban sites - fallow - timeliness - community action - urban society
Een tijdelijke vrije ruimte midden in de wijk is een schatkamer voor een buurt. Met dit beeld voor ogen gingen actieve buurtbewoners en ouders van een aangrenzende school in 2012 aan de slag met plannen en ideeën om iets te doen met een tijdelijk braakliggend terrein. Doel van dit rapport: achterhalen hoe de buurt het tijdelijk gebruik heeft ervaren, met als achterliggend idee anderen onderbouwd te kunnen ondersteunen ook zoiets te doen. Een aanvullende vraag is wat tijdelijk gebruik nu interessant maakt en voor wie.
Beleving van water in de stad: een literatuurstudie
Hunen, S.E. van; Kruining, M. van; Leenen, I. ; Maessen, M. - \ 2015
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 43 (2015)19. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 34 - 35.
waterbeheer - stedelijke bevolking - stedelijke samenleving - watersystemen - ontwerp - participatie - stadsontwikkeling - landschapsbouw - literatuuroverzichten - water management - urban population - urban society - water systems - design - participation - urban development - landscaping - literature reviews
Mensen wonen en werken bij water in de stad en willen ook steeds meer betrokken raken bij het waterbeheer in de stad. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat een leefomgeving, die plezierig overkomt op mensen, leidt tot sterke tevredenheid en geluk. Die positieve beleving van burgers draagt bij tot meer acceptatie, medewerking en begrip bij ingrepen in en aanpassingen van het watersysteem. Het is daarom belangrijk om na te gaan hoe water door de burger wordt beleefd en dit mee te nemen in het ontwerp van watersystemen. Land en water zijn allebei bepalend voor de kwaliteit van het landschap en moeten op elkaar worden afgestemd. Het water moet passen in het beeld dat mensen van de omgeving hebben
Dutch City Network feeds the Innovation of Urban Agriculture
Jansma, J.E. ; Veen, E.J. ; Kop, P.J. van de; Eijk, O.N.M. van - \ 2015
Urban Agriculture Magazine 28 (2015). - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 38 - 41.
urban areas - urban society - urban agriculture - networks - innovations - cooperation - knowledge transfer - stedelijke gebieden - stedelijke samenleving - stadslandbouw - netwerken - innovaties - samenwerking - kennisoverdracht
Since 2010, the Dutch City Network on Urban Agriculture (Stedennetwerk in Dutch), has linked up civil servants of fourteen cities in order to see opportunities, share knowledge and solve issues on urban agriculture in their cities. Though it started as an internally focused network for civil servants to learn and share experiences, the network gradually evolved into a more outward-oriented Community of Practice that seeks to incorporate a broader range of participants. Participants developed an urban agriculture charter to influence local and national policies in support of urban agriculture.
Why we need small cows : ways to design for urban agriculture
Roggema, R.E. ; Keeffe, G. - \ 2014
Velp : VHL University of Applied Sciences - ISBN 9789082245110 - 329 p.
stadslandbouw - alternatieve landbouw - stedelijke gebieden - landbouw bedrijven - landbouw - voedselproductie - innovaties - stedelijke samenleving - urban agriculture - alternative farming - urban areas - farming - agriculture - food production - innovations - urban society
Shaping multiple Ajijics and development : a Mexican town in the context of the international retirement migration
Diaz Copado, F.V. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736772 - 221
migratie - gepensioneerden - buitenland - regionale ontwikkeling - sociale verandering - stedelijke samenleving - modernisering - steden - woonwijken - infrastructuur - economische ontwikkeling - plaatselijk bestuur - ontwikkeling - mexico - migration - retired people - foreign countries - regional development - social change - urban society - modernization - towns - residential areas - infrastructure - economic development - local government - development
Ajijic is a Mexican town that during the 1990s experienced its biggest social, economic, and physical transformation of the last 50 years. This transformation was mainly triggered by two factors: 1) a significant increase in the number of foreign retirees moving into Ajijic (effect of a global phenomenon identified as international retirement migration); and 2) the consequent increase in the construction of residential developments and infrastructure (mainly retiree-oriented). In this thesis the author argues that the international retirement migration phenomenon in Ajijic provoked the emergence of different projects of shaping the physical characteristics of this town. Through these projects, social actors shape Ajijic according to their different interpretations of what the town of Ajijic is, and what local development and modernisation mean to them. The transformation of the physical characteristics of Ajijic, through these projects, has also transformed the social life of this town.
Naar gekleurde recreatie in het groen
Kloek, M.E. - \ 2013
Wageningen UR
recreatie - stadsomgeving - stedelijke samenleving - natuur - diversiteit - cultuur - recreation - urban environment - urban society - nature - diversity - culture
In de Nederlandse multiculturele samenleving wonen, werken en recreëren mensen met verschillende culturele achtergronden. Deze diversiteit aan culturen zie je echter minder goed terug wanneer je de Nederlandse natuur in gaat. Daar kom je Nederlanders van allochtone afkomst nauwelijks tegen. Vinden zij de Nederlandse natuur te saai, te wild, of niet interessant? In een artikel in Trouw en tijdens het symposium van de Heimans en Thijsse Stichting over 'De relatie tussen mens en natuur in een verstedelijkte omgeving', laat onderzoeker Marjolein Kloek zien welke ideeën over recreatie en natuur leven onder Chinese, Turkse en Nederlandse jongeren.
Een groen spoor door Amersfoort : multifunctioneel landgebruik geeft meerwaarde voor alle partijen
Hoofwijk, H. ; Stobbelaar, D.J. ; Gestel, D. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR Wetenschapswinkel 294) - 128
stedelijke planning - stedelijke samenleving - groene zones - natuurontwikkeling - meervoudig landgebruik - governance - utrecht - urban planning - urban society - green belts - nature development - multiple land use
Vereniging Duurzaam Soesterkwartier heeft de afgelopen paar jaar onderzoek laten uitvoeren naar de haalbaarheid van het concept "Groene Spoor". De spoorzone van Amersfoort biedt namelijk een unieke mogelijkheid voor een groene recreatieve verbinding tussen binnenstad en buitengebied, voor meer groen en natuur in de stad, meer ruimte voor natuurspelen, ontmoeting, sport en bewegen. Juist hier liggen kansen doordat het gebied nog volop in ontwikkeling is.
Een groen spoor door Amersfoort
Hoofwijk, H. ; Stobbelaar, D.J. ; Gestel, D. van - \ 2013
stedelijke planning - stedelijke samenleving - natuurontwikkeling - utrecht - meervoudig landgebruik - governance - groene zones - urban planning - urban society - nature development - multiple land use - green belts
Vereniging Duurzaam Soesterkwartier heeft de afgelopen paar jaar onderzoek laten uitvoeren naar de haalbaarheid van het concept "Groene Spoor". De spoorzone van Amersfoort biedt namelijk een unieke mogelijkheid voor een groene recreatieve verbinding tussen binnenstad en buitengebied, voor meer groen en natuur in de stad, meer ruimte voor natuurspelen, ontmoeting, sport en bewegen. Juist hier liggen kansen doordat het gebied nog volop in ontwikkeling is. Voorwaarde is wel dat voor de betreffende percelen een partij gevonden wordt die zich als ‘adoptant’ in gaat zetten voor het vestigen van een tijdelijke functie op ‘zijn’ perceel. Adoptanten zijn bewoners, bedrijven of een combinatie daarvan, in ieder geval mensen die zich in willen zetten voor de verfraaiing van de leef- en werkomgeving. In eerste instantie wordt er uitgegaan van tijdelijke oplossingen, vanwege de lichtere procedurelast en om toekomstige ontwikkelingen niet in de wielen te rijden.
De stad heeft honger
Mansfeld, Madeleine van - \ 2012
urban areas - urban society - sustainable development - agroindustrial complexes - food production - food supply
Affective foodscapes in an economy of passion : repetition, opposition and adaptation in Mexican restaurants in Amsterdam, Madrid and San Francisco
Matus Ruiz, M. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Gerard Verschoor; K. Lindström. - [S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732828 - 274
mexicaanse kookkunst - restaurants - eetgelegenheden - amsterdam - nederland - spanje - pacifische staten van de vs - vs - voedselconsumptie - identiteit - landschap - adaptatie - stedelijke samenleving - mexico - mexican cookery - dining facilities - netherlands - spain - pacific states of usa - usa - food consumption - identity - landscape - adaptation - urban society

The
 main
 goal
 of
 my
 research
 was
 to
 analyze
 how
 the
 desire
 to
 affect
 and
 be
 affected
 by
 foreign
 signs
relates
 to
 the
 commoditization
 of
 food
 products
 offered
 in
 Mexican
 restaurants
 in
 Amsterdam,
 Madrid
and
 San
 Francisco.
 I
 conceive
 restaurants
 as
 foodscapes.
 Iargue
 that
 actors’
 attachments
 to
 passionate
networks
 enable
 their
 enactment.
 Foodscapes
 areintersemiotic
 translations
 of
 landscapes.
 In
 these
translations,
the
commoditization
of
food
has
been
based
on
its
relationships
with
idealized
entities
from the
Mexican
 and U.S.
 landscapes,
 giving
 rise
 to
 Tex‐Mex,
 Cal‐Mex,
 Mex‐Mex,
 Regional‐Mex
 and
“Real”‐ Mex
 restaurants.
The
 resulting
 foodscapes
 have
 the
 power
 to
 seduce
 consumers
 either
 by
 fixing
 their
beliefs
for
certain
foods
or
contaminating
new
passions.
My
approach
is
an
innovative
way
to
analyze
the
differentiation
of
markets
in
an
economy
that
bases
its
reproduction
in
the
contamination
of
desires
and
passions.



Living together in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods; The meaning of public spaces for issues of social integration.
Peters, K.B.M. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Jaap Lengkeek, co-promotor(en): Henk de Haan. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789086861903 - 266
openbare ruimte - buurten - sociale integratie - etnische groepen - culturele interactie - open ruimten - openbaar leven - stedelijke samenleving - stedelijke gebieden - vrije tijd - cultuursociologie - sociale geografie - nederland - public space - neighbourhoods - social integration - ethnic groups - cultural interaction - open spaces - public life - urban society - urban areas - leisure - cultural sociology - social geography - netherlands

This study examines the daily life in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods, and how people with different ethnic backgrounds live together. My research shows that positive experiences in public spaces contribute to feeling at home in a multi-ethnic neighbourhood. Not only intense and lasting contacts, but also short interactions contribute to feeling at home somewhere. By being in public space, relationships are formed with these spaces and with other people; residents feel at home and as such, integration has taken place. I therefore want to emphasize that politicians should look at the everyday realities in neighbourhoods like Lombok when discussing issues related to multi-ethnic societies. Repeatedly stressing the dichotomy between native and non-native Dutch citizens and focusing on problems, has a negative effect on the everyday lives of people because it produces and reproduces stereotyped images. I believe that integration is not only about non-native Dutch residents adapting themselves to Dutch society: it is also about the extent to which people from various backgrounds live together and feel at home in their neighbourhood.

Civil society in urban sanitation and solid waste management: The role of NGOs and CBOs in metropolises of East Africa
Tukahirwa, J. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730121 - 166
maatschappelijk middenveld - volksgezondheidsbevordering - afvalbeheer - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - stedelijke samenleving - bevolkingsgroepen met een laag inkomen - milieubeleid - steden - oost-afrika - uganda - civil society - sanitation - waste management - non-governmental organizations - community involvement - urban society - low income groups - environmental policy - towns - east africa

Urban sanitation and solid waste management are among the most significant factors that affect the poor in developing countries and contribute to their sustained poverty. It is the poorest people, particularly children, who suffer most from weak or non-existent services, through illness, distress and many early and preventable deaths. This intolerable state of affairs is caused by a combination of political, socio-economic, cultural, and technological aspects. In recent years, sanitation and solid waste management have received increasing attention as shown in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which aim at halving the proportion of the population without access to sustainable basic sanitation by 2015 and at achieving significant improvements in the lives of slum-dwellers by 2020 (MDG Goal 7). Today, with less than five and ten years to fulfill these targets,when compared to other developing continents, Africa is lagging behind and there is need for effective action to address this challenge.

This research is placed within this debate and tries to contribute to achieving the aim of universal access to sanitation and solid waste management services. The focus is on the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) in urban slums of East Africa because these organizations are considered key players in the provision of sanitary and solid waste disposal services in such areas and yet their work has not been critically assessed. Two main questions were addressed; (i) In what ways are NGOs/CBOs participating in the development and implementation of sanitation and solid waste management and what are the key factors influencing their participation? (ii) How and to what extent are the sanitation and solid waste management activities of NGOs/CBOs sustainable; accessible to the poor; and flexible and resilient under changing socio-political, institutional and economic conditions? The conceptual framework developed for answering these research questions was based on the Modernized Mixtures Approach and several other theories (such as partnership paradigm, social network theory and institutional pluralism) that serve to explain key factors influencing the role of NGOs/CBOs in such activities.

The research confirmed that NGOs/CBOs are fully involved in the provision of the two services and the idea of environmental partnership is widely shared and supported. Empirical evidence gathered showed a modernized mixture model emerging, where the conventional advocates of large-scale, privatized, and high-technological sanitation and solid waste services partner with NGOs/CBOs. This research also found that access to sanitation and solid waste services is driven by both NGOs/CBOs and the urban poor in collaboration. Social proximity is important, next to the conventional factors of spatial proximity, socio-economic characteristics and perception of the perceived competence of NGOs/CBOs. User acceptance of innovative technologies was found to be a key factor when trying to improve sanitary facilities for the urban poor.

Keywords: Sanitation, Solid Waste Management, East Africa, NGOs, CBOs, Modernized Mixtures Approach

Stadslandbouw brengt mensen bij elkaar
Veen, E.J. - \ 2011
Rooilijn 44 (2011)2 / maart 2011. - ISSN 1380-2860 - p. 122 - 127.
stadslandbouw - stedelijke samenleving - inventarisaties - sociale gevolgen - urban agriculture - urban society - inventories - social impact
Stadslandbouw staat in de belangstelling. Hoewel het verbouwen van voedsel in de stad op zich niet nieuw is, past stadslandbouw wel binnen een nieuwe stroming waarin aandacht is voor de kwaliteit en herkomst van voedsel. Stedelijke voedselproductie wordt gezien als een bijdrage aan de oplossing voor vele stedelijke problemen. Zo kan stadslandbouw ontmoetingen tussen mensen stimuleren door de openbare ruimte aantrekkelijk te maken voor het gebruik. Dit effect wordt versterkt wanneer mensen gezamenlijk aan het werk zijn in de stadslandbouwprojecten. Door de buurten aantrekkelijker te maken kan stadslandbouw ook leiden tot identificatie met de buurt, wat gemeenschapszin kan bevorderen.
De vraag van de stad; Analyse en Aanbevelingen
Bakker, T. - \ 2010
Den Haag :
relaties tussen stad en platteland - stedelijke samenleving - landbouw in voorsteden - stadslandbouw - voedselproductie - regionale voedselketens - innovaties - randstad - rural urban relations - urban society - suburban agriculture - urban agriculture - food production - regional food chains - innovations
Het onderzoek van het LEI Wageningen UR richt zich op de marktpotentie van producten en diensten uit het groengebied voor het metropolitane gebied: “de vraag van de stad”, met als casusgebied Hof van Delfland.
Marktkansen voor etnisch voedsel en etnische diensten
Schans, J.W. van der; Dvortsin, L. ; Berg, I. van den; Haubenhofer, D.K. ; Hassink, J. ; Vijn, M.P. ; Buck, A.J. de - \ 2009
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2009-103) - ISBN 9789086153879 - 83
stedelijke samenleving - relaties tussen stad en platteland - etnisch voedsel - etnische groepen - consumentengedrag - consumentenvoorkeuren - agro-industriële sector - marktverkenningen - multifunctionele landbouw - regionale voedselketens - urban society - rural urban relations - ethnic foods - ethnic groups - consumer behaviour - consumer preferences - agroindustrial sector - market surveys - multifunctional agriculture - regional food chains
De bevolkingssamenstelling van de Nederlandse steden is afgelopen jaren sterk veranderd. De stedelijke vraag naar producten en diensten van het platteland is ook sterk veranderd. Uit de quick scan is gebleken dat de 'ethnic food & services' een belangrijk onderdeel vormen van de nieuwe vraag. Dit dient niet alleen ten behoeve van de nichemarkt van ethnic food & services maar kan tegelijkertijd als een strategisch middel ingezet worden om de algemene stadplattelandsrelaties aan te halen, uit te breiden en te verbeteren
In fear of abandonment : slum life, community leaders and politics in Recife, Brazil
Koster, M. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): Th. Blom Hansen, co-promotor(en): Monique Nuijten; Pieter de Vries. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852971 - 356
sociologie - sociale antropologie - steden - stedelijke gebieden - armoede - economisch achtergestelden - buurten - sociale structuur - stedelijke samenleving - stedelijke bevolking - gemeenschappen - leiderschap - politiek - stadsontwikkeling - brazilië - latijns-amerika - sociology - social anthropology - towns - urban areas - poverty - economically disadvantaged - neighbourhoods - social structure - urban society - urban population - communities - leadership - politics - urban development - brazil - latin america
This book sets out to contribute to the pursuit of ‘making nonpersons full human beings’
(Boff & Boff:1987:8). It provides insights in the lives of residents of the slum of “Chão de
Estrelas” in Recife, Brazil. I argue that slum dwellers should not be mystified and
misrecognised as “the other”, as different from “normal” citizens, because of their
marginalised position. I show that the slum is, in fact, an eminently knowable world.
This book presents how slum dwellers, directed by local lideres comunitarios, community
leaders, strive for material and intangible resources and engage in utopian projects. I
argue that the needs and aspirations of these people, who are at constant risk of being
ignored, disconnected, and abandoned, emerge from their yearnings for recognition and
connectivity, and a fear of abandonment. To understand this life in the slum, I focus on
the ways slum dwellers attempt to realise their needs and aspirations, modes of
operating which I call “slum politics”.
Chapter 1 defines slum politics as grounded in the needs and aspirations of those
who live in the margins. Drawing on the work of Oscar Lewis (1959, 1965), it analyses
how life in the slum, through stigmatisation and a long history of marginalisation, is
reproduced in ways that are fundamentally different from middle- and upper-class
people. This difference, expressed in particular needs and aspirations, is not generated
because slum dwellers are a different kind of people, but because have they been
structurally segregated in the dominant political and economic order. This chapter
documents how these particular needs and aspirations, although not solely held by
slum dwellers, are more emphatically and urgently present in their lives in the margins
of the political and economic order, and have material, intangible and utopian
dimensions. Material needs exist, for instance, for money, food, and employment.
Intangible, or social, needs can be viewed in attempts to establish connections to all
kinds of people and to gain prestige. Utopian aspirations find their expression in slum
dwellers’ cravings for solidarity, a better environment, and a desire to be connected to
the world instead of being ignored by it.
This chapter coins the concept of slum politics as the ongoing and never finished
endeavour of slum dwellers of creating connections and possibilities which break off all
the time. Slum politics, driven by attempts to be connected to the political and economic
order, centres on the notion of connectivity, the intricate face-to-face relations between
persons which need to be constantly maintained, and a fear abandonment, which means
being forsaken and excluded by everybody. It includes practices in the realms of family
life, making a living, and dreaming about the future.
Chapter 2 provides a portrait of community leadership. It shows how community
leaders are the main facilitators of slum politics, as they articulate and consolidate needs
and aspirations of their fellow slum dwellers, which they, being slum dwellers
340
themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
those of their fellow slum dwellers.
Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
and making money.
Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
give shape to slum politics in their projects.
Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
electoral and themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
those of their fellow slum dwellers.
Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
and making money.
Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
give shape to slum politics in their projects.
Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
electoral and governmental politics. I follow Partha Chatterjee’s theorising on popular
politics, conceptualised as those ‘contrary mobilisations’ that may have ‘transformative
effects … among the supposedly unenlightened sections of the population’ (2004:49).
Chatterjee distinguishes the politics of marginalised people from the politics of the state
apparatus and the government, and argues that the former should not be understood as
“pre-political” and backward, but as a politics with its own parameters and logics,
‘different from that of the elite’ (idem:39). My reservation to Chatterjee’s theorisations is that he presents popular politics as a residual category, derived from governmental
politics. I argue instead that slum politics is not primarily reactive to or derived from
governmental politics, but co-exists with it as it is constituted in the needs and
aspirations of slum dwellers.
Chapter 6, zeroing in on the 2004 municipal elections, shows the overlap between
slum politics and electoral politics. It documents how electoral politics penetrates into
the slum and contaminates slum politics. Community leaders employ the moment of the
elections to negotiate with candidates to garner resources for the community and
themselves. However, electoral politics entails the possible risk of steering away from
community interests into issues of self-interested yearnings for power and money. Two
case studies show attempts of community leaders, as political canvassers, to manoeuvre
in the realm of electoral politics in such ways as to also make money, cater to needs and
aspirations of fellow slum dwellers, and steer clear of accusations of being selfinterested.
Chapter 7 presents a case study of encounters between slum politics and
governmental politics. Parts of Chão de Estrelas were planned to be regenerated by a
large World Bank funded slum upgrading programme. I analyse the preamble of the
programme, how it affected the population of the slum, and how community leaders
dealt with it. With reference to Bruno Latour’s work, I argue that the ambiguity which
existed around the programme actually called it into existence. I contend that a project
creates a context in which it becomes real, through rumours and ‘little solidities’ (Latour
1996:45), like meetings, surveys, maps, aerial photographs, offices, brochures, registers,
maps, surveyors and their reports, and census stickers.
I also argue that the programme affected slum dwellers in their most vulnerable
places: their homes, neighbourhoods, and possibilities for work. As a consequence,
feelings of despair, evoking fears of being ignored as a person with specific needs and
aspirations, hit hard in the lives of slum dwellers.
Chapter 8 analyses how life in the slum is framed by violence. Next to the symbolic
and structural violence of discrimination, slum dwellers face acts of violence on a daily
basis, like fights, assaults and shoot-outs, often related to drug trade. Community
leaders and drug traders maintain a tacit balance by which they steer clear of contact
with each other. Slum dwellers, I show, perceive of violence as extraordinary through
acts of mentioning it, reflecting upon it, avoiding it, and expressing aspirations for a life
without it. In contrast, they also see violence as normal, as it is an everyday life
experience.
Furthermore, this chapter argues that, whereas actual violence occurs at random,
potential violence is structured and structuring. Dealing with potential violence, slum
dwellers ban violence discursively from their personal lives by depicting it as related to
‘the other’ and ‘elsewhere’. In addition, they adhere to moral categories which define
those who die from violence as evil, as such seeing their death as a good thing which rids the community of wrong-doers.
Turning again to the intersection between slum politics and governmental politics,
the chapter argues that the concept of citizenship does not resonate with the lives of
slum dwellers who reside in sites where citizenship rights per definition do not hold.
Part of the violence slum dwellers face is related to the intrusive workings of the statedesigned
project of registered citizenship, which centres on the compulsory carrying of
identity cards. Slum dwellers, instead of being recognised as citizens through their
identity cards, are discriminated and approached in violent ways by the police who
consider them as criminals.
Chapter 9, as a conclusion, argues once more against the mystification and
“othering” of slum dwellers, and distances them from the philosopher Giorgio
Agamben’s notion of homo sacer (1998, 2005). Slum dwellers do not coincide with homo
sacer, as they are not officially abandoned by law and maintain personal connections
with people outside the slum. Further, the dominant image of the slum dweller as a
dangerous criminal separates him from homo sacer, who is harmless. Moreover, slum
politics assigns a political quality to life in the slum, which makes it a politically
qualified life (bios) instead of the bare life (zoē) of homo sacer. Slum dwellers’ position in
the political and economic order, although marginalised, is different from the position of
homo sacer, who exists outside of the order. Finally, in contrast to homo sacer, slum
dwellers are not a minority, but a fast growing social class which will soon exist of more
than half of the world’s population. I incite anthropologists to study not only the general
exclusionary workings of political systems, but also the mundane practices and utopian
aspirations of people living in the margins, as an analysis of these may help to imagine
novel political possibilities.
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