Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Predicting methane emission of dairy cows using milk composition
Gastelen, Sanne van - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Jan Dijkstra; Kasper Hettinga. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437097 - 266
dairy cows - dairy cattle - methane production - emission - milk composition - fatty acids - cattle feeding - fermentation - nutrition physiology - animal nutrition - pollution - melkkoeien - melkvee - methaanproductie - emissie - melksamenstelling - vetzuren - rundveevoeding - fermentatie - voedingsfysiologie - diervoeding - verontreiniging

Enteric methane (CH4) is produced as a result of microbial fermentation of feed components in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminant livestock. Methane has no nutritional value for the animal and is predominately released into the environment through eructation and breath. Therefore, CH4 not only represents a greenhouse gas contributing to global warming, but also an energy loss, making enteric CH4 production one of the main targets of greenhouse gas mitigation practices for the dairy industry. Obviously, reduction of CH4 emission could be achieved by simply reducing livestock numbers. However, the global demand for dairy products has been growing rapidly and is expected to further grow in the future. Therefore, it is critical to minimize environmental impact to produce high-quality dairy products. The overall aim of this PhD research was, therefore, to develop a proxy for CH4 emission that can be measured in milk of dairy cows.

There are currently a number of potentially effective dietary CH4 mitigation practices available for the livestock sector. The results of Chapter 3 show that replacing fiber-rich grass silage with starch-rich corn silage in a common forage-based diet for dairy cattle offers an effective strategy to decrease enteric CH4 production without negatively affecting dairy cow performance, although a critical level of starch in the diet seems to be needed. Little is known whether host genetics may influence the CH4 emission response to changes in diet. Therefore, the interaction between host DGAT1 K232A polymorphism with dietary linseed oil supplementation was evaluated in Chapter 7. The results of Chapter 7 indicate that DGAT1 K232A polymorphism is associated with changes in milk composition, milk N efficiency, and diet metabolizability, but does not affect digestibility and enteric CH4 emission, whereas linseed oil reduces CH4 emission independent of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism.

Accurate and repeatable measurements of CH4 emission from individual dairy cows are required to assess the efficacy of possible mitigation strategies. There are several techniques to estimate or measure enteric CH4 production of dairy cows, including climate respiration chambers, but none of these techniques are suitable for large scale precise and accurate measurements. Therefore, the potential of various metabolites in milk, including milk fatty acids (MFA), as a proxy (i.e., indicators or animal traits that are correlated with enteric CH4 production) for CH4 emission of dairy cows gained interest. Until recently, gas chromatography was the principal method used to determine the MFA profile, but this technique is unsuitable for routine analysis. This has led to the application of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for determination of the MFA profile. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the recent research that relates MFA with CH4 emission, and discusses the opportunities and limitations of using FTIR to estimate, indirectly via MFA or directly, CH4 emission of dairy cattle. The recent literature on the relationship between MFA and CH4 emission gives inconsistent results. Where some studies found a clear and strong relation, other studies consider MFA to be unreliable predictors for CH4 emitted by dairy cows. Even the studies that do find a clear relation between MFA and CH4 emissions do not describe similar prediction models using the same MFA. These discrepancies can be the result of many factors, including dietary composition and lactation stage. Additionally, literature showed that the major advantages of using FTIR to predict CH4 emission include its simplicity and potential practical application on a large scale. Disadvantages include the inability to predict important MFA for the prediction of CH4 emission, and the moderate power of FTIR to directly predict CH4 emission. The latter was also demonstrated in Chapter 9, in which the CH4 prediction potential of MFA was compared with that of FTIR using data from 9 experiments (n = 218 individual cow observations) covering a broad range of roughage-based diets. The results indicate that MFA have a greater potential than FTIR spectra to estimate CH4 emissions, and that both techniques have potential to predict CH4 emission of dairy cows, but also limited current applicability in practice. Much focus has been placed on the relationship between MFA and CH4 emission, but milk also contains other metabolites, such as volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Currently, milk volatile metabolites have been used for tracing animal feeding systems and milk non-volatile metabolites were shown to be related to the health status of cows. In Chapter 4, the relationship between CH4 emission and both volatile and non-volatile metabolites was investigated, using data and milk samples obtained in the study described in Chapter 3. In general, the non-volatile metabolites were more closely related to CH4 emissions than the volatile metabolites. More specifically, the results indicate that CH4 intensity (g/kg fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM) may be related to lactose synthesis and energy metabolism in the mammary gland, as reflected by the milk non-volatile metabolites uridine diphosphate-hexose B and citrate. Methane yield (g/kg dry matter intake) on the other hand, may be related to glucogenic nutrient supply, as reflected by the milk non-volatile acetone. Based on the metabolic interpretations of these relationships, it was hypothesized that the addition of both volatile and non-volatile metabolites in a prediction model with only MFA would enhance its predictive power and, thus, leads to a better proxy in milk for enteric CH4 production of dairy cows. This was investigated in Chapter 5, again using data and milk samples described in Chapter 3. The results indicate that MFA alone have moderate to good potential to estimate CH4 emission. Furthermore, including volatile metabolites (CH4 intensity only) and non-volatile metabolites increases the CH4 emission prediction potential.

The work presented in Chapters 3, 4 and 5, was based upon a small range of diets (i.e., four roughage-based diets in which grass silage was replaced partly or fully by corn silage) of one experiment. Therefore, in Chapter 6, the relationship between CH4 emission and the milk metabolome in dairy cattle was further quantified. Data (n = 123 individual cow observations) were used encompassing a large of roughage-based diets, with different qualities and proportions of grass, grass silage and corn silage. The results show that changes in individual milk metabolite concentrations can be related to the ruminal CH4 production pathways. These relationships are most likely the result from changes in dietary composition that affect not only enteric CH4 production, but also the profile of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in milk. Overall, the results indicate that both volatile and non-volatile metabolites in milk might provide useful information and increase our understanding of CH4 emission of dairy cows. However, the development of CH4 prediction models revealed that both volatile and non-volatile metabolites in milk hold little potential to predict CH4 emissions despite the significant relationships found between individual non-volatile metabolites and CH4 emissions. Additionally, combining MFA with milk volatile metabolites and non-volatile metabolites does not improve the CH4 prediction potential relative to MFA alone. Hence, it is concluded that it is not worthwhile to determine the volatile and non-volatile metabolites in milk in order to estimate CH4 emission of dairy cows.

Overall, in comparison with FTIR, volatile and non-volatile metabolites, the MFA are the most accurate and precise proxy in milk for CH4 emission of dairy cows. However, most of MFA-based models to predict CH4 emission tend to be accurate only for the production system and the environmental conditions under which they were developed. In Chapter 8 it was demonstrated that previously developed MFA-based prediction equations did not predict CH4 emission satisfactory of dairy cows with different DGAT1 genotypes or fed diets with or without linseed oil. Therefore, the greatest shortcoming today of MFA-based CH4 prediction models is their lack of robustness. Additionally, MFA have restricted practical application, meaning that most MFA retained in the current CH4 prediction models cannot be determined routinely because of the use of gas chromatography. The MFA that can be determined with the use of infrared spectroscopy are however no promising predictors for CH4 emission. Furthermore, MFA have only a moderate CH4 prediction potential. This together suggests that it might not be the best option to focus in the future on MFA alone as a proxy for CH4 emission of dairy cows.

The FTIR technique has a low to moderate CH4 prediction potential. However, FTIR has a great potential for practical high throughput application, facilitating repeated measurements of the same cow potentially reducing random noise. Results of this thesis also demonstrated that FTIR spectra do not have the potential to detect differences in CH4 emission between diets which are, in terms of forage level and quality, commonly fed in practice. Moreover, the robustness of FTIR spectra is currently unknown. Hence, it remains to be investigated whether FTIR spectra can predict CH4 emissions from dairy cows housed under different conditions from those under which the FTIR-based prediction equations were developed. It is therefore concluded that the accuracy and precision to predict CH4 emission using FTIR needs to increase, and the capacity of FTIR to evaluate the differences in CH4 emission between dairy cows and different types of diets needs to improve, in order to actually be a valuable proxy for CH4 emission of dairy cows.

Oil slick fate in 3D : predicting the influence of (natural and chemical) dispersion on oil slick fate
Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Tinka Murk, co-promotor(en): W. Koops. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579279 - 174
oil spills - pollution - adverse effects - oils - dispersion - models - thickness - olieverontreinigingen - verontreiniging - nadelige gevolgen - oliën - dispersie - modellen - dikte
Growth and Innovation in the Ocean Economy : North Sea Checkpoint : Data Adequacy Report – Oil Platform Leak Challenge
Wal, J.T. van der; Vries, P. de; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2016
Den Helder : IMARES Wageningen UR (IMARES rapport C095/16) - 67
oceans - economics - innovations - emergencies - pollution - case studies - oil spills - north sea - oceanen - economie - innovaties - noodgevallen - verontreiniging - gevalsanalyse - olieverontreinigingen - noordzee
Monitoring landbouwkundige risico’s bij actief bodembeheer in Krimpenerwaard : monitoringsplan en nulmeting
Groenenberg, J.E. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2726) - 27 p.
sloten - stortterreinen - vuilnisbelten - verontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - monitoring - afdeklagen - bodembeheer - krimpenerwaard - ditches - landfills - refuse tips - pollution - soil pollution - coatings - soil management
In de Krimpenerwaard liggen circa 6500 slootdempingen en vuilstorten. Het dempingsmateriaal bevat regelmatig verontreinigingen, zodat voor de hele regio sprake is van een geval van ernstige bodemverontreiniging. Het gebiedsgerichte bodembeheerplan voorziet in het afdekken van de verontreinigde slootdempingen met gebiedseigen schone grond. De effectiviteit van de sanering wordt geëvalueerd op basis van monitoring van ecologische en landbouwkundige risico’s. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de monitoring in het kader van de landbouwkundige risico’s. Er zijn metingen verricht aan het dempingsmateriaal, de afdeklaag en het gras, zowel voorafgaand aan als na het afdekken. Het gras dat groeide op de demping had verhoogde gehalten aan met name zink. De kwaliteit van het gras op de afgedekte dempingen wijkt niet af van de referentielocaties zonder dempingsmateriaal. De zeer lage PCB-concentraties in de afdeklaag en de hoge concentraties in de demping op de monitoringslocaties maken het in principe mogelijk om eventueel optredende veranderingen als gevolg van bioturbatie te monitoren.
Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli
Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Penny, Christian ; Ragimbeau, Catherine ; Schets, Franciska M. ; Blaak, Hetty ; Duim, Birgitta ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Boer, Albert de; Cauchie, Henry-Michel ; Mossong, Joel ; Pelt, Wilfrid Van - \ 2016
Water Research 101 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 36 - 45.
campylobacter - surface water - water quality - pollution - water pollution - microbiology - wild birds - poultry - campylobacter jejuni - campylobacter coli - netherlands - luxembourg - oppervlaktewater - waterkwaliteit - verontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - microbiologie - wilde vogels - pluimvee - nederland - luxemburg
Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44–50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions.
Beehold : the colony of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) as a bio-sampler for pollutants and plant pathogens
Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Grotenhuis; Willem Jan de Kogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577510 - 206 p.
apis mellifera - honey bees - honey bee colonies - biological indicators - sampling - instruments - pollution - pollutants - heavy metals - plant pathogenic bacteria - erwinia amylovora - erwinia pyrifoliae - analytical methods - honingbijen - honingbijkolonies - biologische indicatoren - bemonsteren - instrumenten (meters) - verontreiniging - verontreinigende stoffen - zware metalen - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - analytische methoden

Bio-sampling is a function of bio-indication. Bio-indication with honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L) is where the research fields of environmental technology and apiculture overlap. The honeybees are samplers of the environment by collecting unintentionally and simultaneously, along with nectar, pollen, water and honeydew from the flowers or on the leaves, other matter (in bio-indication terms: target matter) and accumulating this in the colony. Collected target matter, in this thesis heavy metals, the plant pathogens Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora and the soil pollutant γ-HCH, is collected from the colony by subsampling. Subsampling the honeybee colony is done by taking and killing bees from the hive (sacrificial) or by collecting target matter from the bee’s exterior without killing the bee (non-sacrificial). In environmental technology terms the application of the honeybee colony is a Passive Sampling Method (PSM). In this thesis the possibilities and restrictions of the PSM honeybee colony are explored.

Bio-indication is a broad research field with one common factor: a living organism (bio) is applied to record an alteration of the environment (indication). The environment may be small such as a laboratory or big such as an ecosystem. Alterations in the organism may vary from detecting substances foreign to the body to mortality of the organism. In environmental technology the concept Source-Path-Receptor (SPR) is applied to map the route of a pollutant. It describes where in the environment the pollution is, how it moves through the environment and where it ends. This environment is the same environment of all living organisms, ergo also honeybees. Honeybees depend on flowers for their food. In the SPR concept, a flower can be a source, path or receptor. Along with collecting pollen, nectar, water and honeydew, target matter is collected by honeybees. Each honeybee functions as a micro-sampler of target matter in the environment, in this case the flower. Each honeybee is part of a honeybee colony and in fact the honeybee colony is the bio-sampler. The honeybee colony is a superorganism. The well-being of the colony prevails over the individual honeybee. Food collection is directed by the colony’s need. Foragers are directed to the most profitable food sources by the bee dance and food exchange (trophallaxis). The result of this feature is that mainly profitable sources are exploited and poor food sources less or not at all. During the active foraging period hundreds to thousands of flowers are visited daily. The nectar, pollen, water and honeydew plus the unintentionally collected target matter is accumulated in the honeybee colony. In order to obtain target matter the colony must be subsampled. This is done by picking bees from the hive-entrance (hive-entering bees) or inside the hive (in-hive bees) and processing them for analysis (sacrificial). This is the most commonly applied method. However, it is possible to subsample the colony without picking and processing the bees by collecting target matter from the hive-entering bee’s exterior (non-sacrificial). For non-sacrificial subsampling of the honeybee colony the Beehold device with the sampling part Beehold tube has been developed. The results of bio-indication with honeybee colonies are qualitative and indicative for follow up study (Chapter 1).

Six bio-indication studies with honeybee colonies for bio-indication of heavy metals, the plant pathogens Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora and the soil pollutant γ-HCH are presented. Chapter 2 describes how the concentration of eighteen heavy metals in honeybees fluctuate throughout the period of July, August and September (temporal) at the study sites: the city of Maastricht, the urban location with an electricity power plant in Buggenum and along the Nieuwe Waterweg at Hoek van Holland (spatial). A number of the metals have not been previously analysed in honeybees. To study whether honeybees can be used for bio-indication of air pollution, the concentrations of cadmium, vanadium and lead were compared to concentrations found in honeybees. The honeybee colonies were placed next to the air samplers. Only significant differences of metal concentrations in the ambient air also show in honeybees. This was the case with vanadium in ambient air and honeybees. The spatial and temporal differences of cadmium and lead were too futile to demonstrate a correspondence (Chapter 3). In a national surveillance study in 2008 the concentration of eighteen metals in honeybees has been analysed. The results showed a distinct regional pattern. Honeybees in the East of the Netherlands have higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the bees in the West. Besides regional differences local differences were also recorded. An approximate description of the land use around 148 apiaries (> 50% agriculture, > 50% wooded area, > 50% urban area and mixed use) indicated the impact of land use on metal concentrations in honeybees. In areas with > 50% wood significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were detected (Chapter 4). Subsampling of the honeybee colonies in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 was done sacrificially. In the studies presented in Chapter 5, 6, and 7 the honeybee colonies were subsampled non-sacrificially or simultaneously non-sacrificially and sacrificially. The plant pathogen E. pyrifoliae causes a flower infection in the strawberry cultivation in greenhouses. In greenhouse strawberry cultivation honeybees are applied for pollination. In Chapter 5 the combination pollination / bio-indication by honeybee colonies is studied. This proved to be a match. E. pyrifoliae could be detected on in-hive bees prior to any symptom of the infection in the flowers. In the Beehold tube, the bacterium was detected at the same time as the first tiny symptoms of the infection. In Chapter 5 the principles on which the Beehold tube is based are presented and discussed. The plant pathogen E. amylovora causes fireblight in orchards. The combination pollination / bio-indication has also been applied in this study performed in Austria in 2013. It is known that E. amylovora can be detected on honeybees prior to any symptom in the flower or on the fruit tree. A fireblight outbreak depends on flowering period, humidity and temperature. In 2013 no fireblight infection emerged in the orchards where the study was performed. Therefore, the bacterium could not be detected on the honeybees. γ-HCH (Lindane) is one of the soil pollutants in the Bitterfeld region in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany. It is the result of dumping industrial waste around the production locations. Although γ-HCH is bound to soil particles there is a flux to groundwater and surface water. Consequently, the pollution may end up in the sediments of the streambed and flood plains. The study objective was to investigate the hypothetic route of γ-HCH from polluted soil (source), via soil erosion and atmospheric deposition (route) to the receptor (flowering flowers) by detecting γ-HCH in the Beehold tube. Although on average over 17000 honeybees passed through the Beehold tube daily for a maximal period of 28 days, no γ-HCH has been detected. The pollen pattern in the Beehold tube revealed where the bees collected the food (Chapter 7).

The application of the honeybee colony has pros and cons. Distinctive pros are many micro samplers, the extensive collection of matter (both food and target matter) and the accumulation in the colony. For successful bio-indication with honeybee colonies, determining factors are: the target matter, location of the target matter, distance between target matter and the honeybee colony, individual or pooled subsampling, the minimal sampling frequency and sample size, and sacrificial or non-sacrificial subsampling applied solely or in combination. Taking bees from a colony impacts upon the colony’s performance and consequently the passive sampling method. Based on a long-years’ experience and inter-collegial discussion it is stated that 3% of the forager bees (hive-entering) and 1.5% of the in-hive bees can be sampled safely without impacting upon the colony. This restriction does not apply when carrying out non-sacrificial subsampling of the honeybee colony (Chapter 8).

Performing bio-indication with honeybee colonies has more applications than have been exploited so far. Further research can make a change. In particular I mention here the combination of pollination and bio-indication and the application of non-sacrificial subsampling solely or in combination with sacrificial subsampling.

Everywhere Apiculture is practiced (all over the world except the polar areas) bio-indication with honeybee colonies can be applied in a simple, practical and low cost way.

Verkenning doorvaren passieve vistuigen
Jak, R.G. - \ 2016
IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C014/16) - 20 p.
vistuig - visserij - vuilnis - vismethoden - verontreiniging - nederland - fishing gear - fisheries - refuse - fishing methods - pollution - netherlands
In deze studie is op basis van gesprekken met Nederlandse staandwantvissers en sleepnetvissers verkend in hoeverre het doorvaren van staandwantnetten kan leiden tot het ontstaan van zwerfvuil. Volgens de Nederlandse staandwantvissers zijn de problemen uit voorgaande decennia voorbij door de goede communicatie tussen staandwantvisssers enerzijds en sleepnetvissers anderzijds. Netten worden tegenwoordig nog doorvaren indien niet goed bekend is dat bepaalde activiteiten, zoals baggeren, gaan plaatsvinden. Doorvaren netten worden door de staandwantvissers zoveel mogelijk weer verzameld en eindigen dan niet als zwerfvuil. Door sleepnetvissers wordt aangegeven dat netten van Deense staandwantvissers regelmatig doorvaren worden, vooral gedurende de zomerperiode en binnen de 12-mijlzone. Deze netten worden losgesneden en dan òf als afval meegenomen naar wal, òf achtergelaten indien de netten zijn verankerd. Het is dan onduidelijk of de stukgesneden netten achterblijven als zwerfvuil. Op basis van de bevindingen wordt aanbevolen een betere communicatie te faciliteren tussen staandwantvissers en andere gebruikers van de kustzone.
Maatregelen ter vermindering van de ammoniakemissie uit de melkveehouderij: indicatieve beoordelingen van vloer- en keldermaatregelen
Dooren, H.J.C. van; Mosquera Losada, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 915) - 31 p.
melkvee - melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - vloeren - kelders - dierlijke meststoffen - verontreiniging - huisvesting van rundvee - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - dairy cattle - dairy farming - ammonia emission - floors - cellars - animal manures - pollution - cattle housing - farm buildings
Ammonia emission reducing housing systems are listed in the ‘Regeling ammoniak en veehouderij (Rav)’. Beside these list of around 30 housing systems a divers pallet of additional technical options to further reduce ammonia emission from housing is available. To allocate limited resources for research the ministry of economic affair asked for an assessment and selection of these available additional housing measures. As recommendation for further development toward implementation in practice the following measures are prioritized: • Adjusted slatted floor and the effectiveness on the long term of valves preventing air exchange between pits and rest of the housing. • Optimized scraper and the effect on scraping frequency and the use of other materials • Use of water for dilution and cleaning of the floor.
Ontwikkeling van de N-balans, het N-verlies en de beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Langenkamp-Niens in 2014/2015
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2016
Wageningen UR, Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 936) - 42 p.
melkvee - melkveehouderij - loopstallen - ligstro - samenstelling - stikstofverliezen - vervluchtiging - verontreiniging - dierlijke productie - dairy cattle - dairy farming - loose housing - litter - composition - nitrogen losses - volatilization - pollution - animal production
Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands - Update 2014
Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES C123/15) - 55 p.
marine environment - water pollution - pollution - wastes - monitoring - marien milieu - waterverontreiniging - verontreiniging - afval
Status and trends of St. Eustatius Coral reef ecosystem and fisheries: 2015 report card
Graaf, M. de; Piontek, S. ; Miller, D.C.M. ; Brunel, T.P.A. ; Nagelkerke, L.A.J. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C167/15) - 41 p.
coral reefs - ecosystems - fisheries - algae - fishery management - pollution - habitat degradation - nature conservation - sint eustatius - koraalriffen - ecosystemen - visserij - algen - visserijbeheer - verontreiniging - habitatdegradatie - natuurbescherming
Manure management in the (Sub-)Tropics : training manual for extension workers
Teenstra, E.D. ; Buisonjé, F.E. de; Ndambi, A. ; Pelster, D. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 919) - 41
dierlijke meststoffen - bedrijfsvoering - opleiding - voorlichters - veehouderij - verontreiniging - duurzame ontwikkeling - subtropen - handboeken - animal manures - management - training - extension agents - livestock farming - pollution - sustainable development - subtropics - handbooks
Having identified a general lack of knowledge about the value of livestock manure and integrated manure management at multiple levels in government and society, a concerted action led to the compilation of a training manual for extension workers on manure management in the (sub-)tropics. Covering the whole manure chain, from animal excretion to the final application, the manual describes the basic principles of integrated manure management. Although much information originates from more temperate regions, the manual focusses on farm practices in the tropics and subtropics.
TBT - gehalten en effecten bij de gewone Alikruik, de Gevlochten Fuikhoorn en de Purperslak langs de Nederlandse kust in 2015
Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, M. van; Jol, J.G. ; Kaag, N.H.B.M. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C147/15) - 33
littorina littorea - littorina - organo-tinverbindingen - genitaliën - afwijkingen - verontreiniging - zeeland - organotin compounds - genitalia - abnormalities - pollution
Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation
Butkovskyi, A. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts; Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): L. Hernández Leal. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574168 - 189
verontreinigende stoffen - verontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - afvalwater - stedelijk afvalwater - volksgezondheidsbevordering - waterzuivering - verwijdering - geneesmiddelen - farmaceutische producten - antibioticumresiduen - residuen - pollutants - pollution - water pollution - waste water - municipal wastewater - sanitation - water treatment - removal - drugs - pharmaceutical products - antibiotic residues - residues
Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and the rest of the domestic wastewater (grey water). Different characteristics of wastewater streams facilitate recovery of energy, nutrients and fresh water. To ensure agricultural or ecological reuse of liquid and solid products of source separated sanitation, the quality of these materials has to meet (future) standards, i.e. for micropollutant concentrations. Therefore the objectives of this thesis included assessment of micropollutant content of source separated sanitation products intended for resource recovery and examination of post-treatment technologies for micropollutant mitigation within source separated sanitation
Gehaltes aan zware metalen in biota op stort- en referentielocaties in de Oosterschelde & Westerschelde : data rapport 2014
Jansen, H.M. ; Glorius, S.T. ; Tangelder, M. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den - \ 2015
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C079/15) - 91
oeverbescherming van rivieren - zware metalen - sintels - metalen - verontreiniging - oosterschelde - westerschelde - monitoring - aquatische ecologie - ecotoxicologie - riverbank protection - heavy metals - slags - metals - pollution - eastern scheldt - western scheldt - aquatic ecology - ecotoxicology
Om erosie van de oevers en geulwanden tegen te gaan, is er in 2008 (pilot) en 2009 (structureel) begonnen om ‘bestortingen’ uit te voeren om de oevers te beschermen. Deze bestortingen zijn uitgevoerd met staalslakken (SS) en breukstenen (BS). Om met zekerheid vast te kunnen stellen dat als gevolg van deze bestortingen geen negatieve effecten optreden op het mariene milieu is een monitoringsprogramma ingevoerd om inzicht te krijgen in gehalten aan zware metalen in aanwezige biota meerdere jaren na het aanbrengen van vooroeververdediging. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de metaalanalyses in biota bemonsterd op verschillende locaties in de Oosterschelde en Westerschelde.
Simulating sanitation and waste flows and their environmental impacts in East African urban centres
Oyoo, R. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Arthur Mol. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738424 - 179
volksgezondheidsbevordering - afval - milieueffect - stadsomgeving - stedelijke gebieden - verontreiniging - afvalverwerking - oost-afrika - sanitation - wastes - environmental impact - urban environment - urban areas - pollution - waste treatment - east africa

Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres

Abstract

If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health. Just as many urban authorities in other developing countries, most cities in the vicinity of Lake Victoria (East Africa) have been unsuccessful in providing adequate solid waste and sanitation services to their residents. To effectively manage urban waste flows, the current and future trends for the solid waste and sanitation flows and their environmental impact need to be assessed. A model was developed that represents waste flows management through the social and natural systems of East African cities. This simulation tool was designed to enable the projection of future waste flow trends and their environmental impacts under different management regimes. The results for the model simulations indicate that the annual organic load to the inshore of Lake Victoria increased twofold between 2001 and 2011. The model projections also show that a lack of optimal measures to mitigate various waste flows would further deepen the current environmental crisis in the near future. The executed multi-criteria analysis reveals that mixtures of diverse waste technologies and management regimes matching with local socio-economic and environmental conditions have a positive impact on East African cities’ environmental quality. The integration of resource recovery into the formal waste management sector is found to improve the environmental performance of waste sector in East African cities. These results contribute to the development of an integrated policy support approach, which aims at strengthening the sustainable management of urban waste flows in East African cities. This could then form the basis for improving the urban environmental quality in these cities. Also, in agreement with the modernised mixture approach, this study can conclude that applying a mix of diverse waste technologies and management regimes, and matching these with the local conditions in each city will have positive impacts on East African cities’ environmental quality. This diversity in waste technologies and management strategies for waste flows should be driven by modernised mixture principles. This would safeguard the water quality for Lake Victoria from pollution by waste, and improve the well-being of humans depending on the lake.

Interreg Safeguard - Food safety mapping of mussels and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the Dutch Wadden Sea
Glorius, S.T. ; Poelman, M. ; Zweeden, C. van; Gool, A.C.M. van - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C0104/14) - 71
waddenzee - oesters - crassostrea gigas - besmetting - pathogenen - verontreiniging - voedselveiligheid - mossels - voedselbesmetting - wadden sea - oysters - contamination - pathogens - pollution - food safety - mussels - food contamination
The areal coverage and biomass of the invasive Pacific oyster has increased in both the Dutch and German part of the Wadden Sea area since its introduction in the late seventies. In the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea oyster beds have increased in areal coverage in the period 2003 –2008. The Pacific oyster has relevance for commercial exploitation since 2009. This arises special interest for food safety aspects. A joint monitor program named ‘Interreg Safeguard’ has been set up with German partners to firstly identify oyster bed location and subsequently obtain insight in the temporal and areal variation in both the level of chemical contamination as well as contamination with pathogens. Measured levels were compared with legislation standards currently in force and it was also researched what the relation of pollution levels found in oysters were with those found in mussels collected in the near vicinity. This report describes the results of the work carried within the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea and include; results of the mapping effort of oyster beds, concentrations of chemical and microbiological parameters in oyster and mussel tissue and the comparison of the contaminant levels found in oyster with those found in mussels.
Eggsposed : impact of maternally transferred POPs on fish early life development
Foekema, E.M. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Tinka Murk. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736659 - 208
vissen - persistente organische verontreinigende stoffen - maternale effecten - visseneieren - larven - biologische ontwikkeling - overleving - marien milieu - verontreiniging - ecotoxicologie - fishes - persistent organic pollutants - maternal effects - fish eggs - larvae - biological development - survival - marine environment - pollution - ecotoxicology

Persistent organic pollutants (POP), with well-known representatives as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and brominated flame retardants as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD), are still globally present in the marine environment, This despite the substantial reduction of application and emission that was achieved during the last decades. Apart from their persistency these compounds share low water solubility and a high lipophilicity which make that the highest concentrations in the aquatic environment are found in the organic matrix of sediments and in biota. Dissolved water concentrations are low. Hence, intake of contaminated food items forms the major source for POPs exposure of aquatic organisms, and through biomagnification the highest concentrations can be found in the tissue of top predators. POPs have the potency to cause a variety of toxic effects, among which endocrine disruption and teratogenic effects that especially apply to early life stages. As the early life stages of most fish species develop suspended in the water column, exposure to POPs may be considered relatively low, at least until the larvae start feeding after yolk absorption. However, POPs accumulated in the tissue of the mother are transferred to the eggs. The research presented in this thesis aims at the determination of the impact of such maternally transferred POPs on development and survival of fish early life stages, in order to assess if this exposure route can significantly impact the development of a fish population at current environmental concentrations, especially in combination with high fishing pressure.

For this purpose a bioassay was developed with the common sole (Solea solea). The advantages for this research of this new bioassay above standard fish early life stage (ELS) tests are that sole is a native West European species that as all flatfishes undergoes an obvious metamorphosis. The test set-up includes this metamorphosis that is thyroid hormone mediated and therefore expected to be easily disrupted by POPs, based on research with amphibians. The prolonged Early Life Stage test (p-ELS) with sole is presented in chapter 2. Early life stages were exposed to a concentration series of the dioxin-like PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) in seawater until 4, 8,10 and 15 days post fertilisation (dpf). Subsequently the development of the larvae was registered under further unexposed conditions. The LC50s at the start of the free-feeding stage (12 dpf) ranged between 39 and 83 ng PCB 126/l depending on exposure duration. After the fish had completed the metamorphosis, the LC50 values ranged between 1.7 and 3.7 ng PCB 126/l for the groups exposed for 4, 8 and 10 dpf respectively. Thus exposure for only 4 days, covering only the egg stage, was sufficient to cause adverse effects during a critical developmental phase two weeks later. This study indicates that ELS fish tests that are terminated shortly after the fish becomes free-feeding underestimate the toxic potential of compounds with low acute toxicity such as PCBs. The internal dosages of these larvae at the end of the exposure, determined by means of an in-vitro gene reporter assays as dioxin-equivalent values (TEQ), revealed an internal lethal concentration, ILC50 of 1 ng TEQ/g lipid, which is within the same order of magnitude as TEQ levels found in fish from highly polluted areas. This suggests that larval survival of fish populations at contaminated sites can be affected by persistent compounds that are accumulated by the female fish and passed on to the eggs.

Based on these first results the p-ELS test procedure was improved to reach a better control performance. The exposure period was terminated when all larvae had hatched (6 dpf), this in order to mimic exposure through maternal transfer as good as possible without exposing parent fish or manipulation the eggs. In a second test (Chapter 3) the eggs were exposed to a concentration series of methyltriclosan (MTCS), a metabolite of triclosan (TCS) that is commonly used as bactericide in a wide variety of human care products. MTCS and TCS are discharged with waste water, bioaccumulate in fish tissue, and are known to have the potency to disrupt the thyroid hormone system. Mortality occurred in the higher treatment levels until 20 dpf. Indications for thyroid hormone disruption were not observed; all surviving larvae completed metamorphoses without problems. Internal effect concentrations, reached in larvae at the end of the exposure (6 dpf), were 5.8 mg/g lipid weight (lw) and 2.1 mg/g lw for ILC50 and ILC10 respectively. These internal effect concentrations are at least 200 times higher than concentrations that due to maternally transfer can be expected in the eggs of highly exposed fish in a field situation. Our results thus do not indicate a high risk from maternally transferred MTCS for fish at the current field concentrations.

In order to get more insight in the fate of the POPs in the larvae, in Chapter 4 the existing bioaccumulation model OMEGA was adjusted for sole early life stages and validated with experimental data with PCBs. This study revealed, that tissue concentrations of compounds with log Kow>6, peak in the tissues of developing sole at the end of the yolk-sac stage, when lipid reserves are depleted. As a result, just before the larvae become free feeding, the peak tissue concentrations of the pollutants in the larvae exceed that of the adult fish. This also explains at least partly, the delayed effects that were observed in Chapter 2 (and 5).

Chapter 5 assesses the likelihood that early life development of fish from contaminated areas is affected by maternally transferred POPs. Following the p-ELS test protocol, effects on sole larvae were determined for the dioxin-like PCB 126, the technical PCB-mixture Arochlor 1254, PBDEs and HBCDs, for an artificial mixture of PCBs and PBDEs, and for ‘field mixtures’ extracted from sole collected from the North Sea and in the contaminated Western Scheldt estuary. As was earlier observed with PCB126 and MTCS, exposure to PCBs, PBDEs and the artificial and field mixtures caused mortality that started to occur shortly after the larvae became free-feeding and continued to increase until the onset of metamorphoses. The effects induced by the field mixtures correlated well with the ∑PCB concentrations in the tissue of the exposed larvae. No indications were found for synergistic effects or for substantial contribution of other (unknown) substances in the field mixtures. HBCD did not induce toxic effects. POP levels in sole from Western Scheldt estuary are about 20 times lower than the ILC50, the larval tissue concentration that produced 50% early life stage mortality. Levels in North Sea sole are an order of a magnitude lower.

Chapter 6 describes a risk assessment for toxicant induced larval survival for European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Eels are considered sensitive for the effect of POPs that can accumulate to high levels in their lipid rich tissue. During spawning migration without feeding high lipophilic dioxin-like POPs in the eel’s tissue were estimated to increase 1.33 or 2 fold, due to weight loss. As no toxicity data are available for eel larvae, the critical egg concentrations for larval survival was estimated from a sensitivity distribution based on literature data of other species. It was assumed that eel larvae belong to the 5% or 1% most sensitive teleost fish species. Given concentrations of dioxin-like pollutants as reported for European eel, and following the worst case scenarios with respect to sensitivity of the larvae and bio amplification during migration, it can be expected that larvae of eel from highly contaminated locations in The Netherlands and Belgium will experience more than 50% mortality due to maternally transferred dioxin-like toxicants.

Chapter 7 explores the potential impact of (toxicant induced) early life stage mortality on the population development of sole by application of a simple age structured matrix model. The model is used to explore the population response to a combination of (toxicant induced) larval mortality and fishing-related mortality of mature fish. The results indicate that the impact of larval mortality that occurs before metamorphosis is very low, even in population subject to high fishing pressure. This is the result of the combination of a high fecundity and the fact that the larval mortality occurs before the moment when the number of recruits is limited by the carrying capacity of the nursery areas. When colonising the nursery areas the, until than pelagic sole larvae metamorphose into flatfishes with a benthic life style. The individuals hence concentrate from the three dimensional pelagic environment to a two dimensional benthic environment, which caused density dependent mortality. This concentration of early life stages is typical for flatfish. Mortality that occurs after the nursery areas are populated will have a more pronounced impact on population development. The results further imply that population development of pelagic fish species that do not concentrate in nursery areas, and species with low fecundity is more vulnerable for disturbance through mortality of early life stages.

Chapter 8 synthesises and discusses the outcome of the research. It is stressed that short term fish tests, often covering only the embryonic development, will underestimate the real risk of lipophilic substances. Toxicity of these substances will peak after yolk sac absorption when these tests have already been ended. When the characteristics of the test substance are known this risk is predictable with for instance the ELS-OMEGA model. However, especially when mixtures of unknown composition (effluents, sediment extracts) are being tested one must realise that the contribution of lipophilic substances may be underestimated in test that are terminated before, or too soon after the fish larvae are free feeding.

The absence of effects on metamorphosis in our P-ELS test is explained by the prediction of the ELS-OMEGA model that the POPs concentrations in the larvae, had reached too low concentrations at the moment of metamorphoses to disrupt the thyroid hormone system. This was due to passive excretion (for substances with log Kow<6) and growth dilution.

It must be realised that the experimental set-up that was followed to mimic the effects of maternally transferred POPs does not include potential effects of maternally transferred metabolites of these POPs that can be formed by the parent fish and that are often more toxic than the mother compounds. Also effects of the mother’s condition on the quality of the eggs and epigenetic effects were not included. This implies that the results of the tests as performed in some cases might underestimate the actual effects of these substances.

The species most vulnerable to the effects of maternally transferred POPs share a high exposure, low fecundity and the absence of density dependent mortality of early life stages. According to these criteria sharks and especially the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) that is highly exposed to POPs can be considered as highly vulnerable. It is therefore recommended to investigate the actual sensitivity of this species, in order to get more insight in the potential vulnerability of the populations.

Appraising fertilisers: origins of current regulations and standards for contaminants in fertilisers : background of quality standards in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom and Flanders
Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Posthuma, L. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Wintersen, A.M. ; Wijnen, H. van; Dijk, T.A. van; Schöll, L. van; Groenenberg, J.E. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 336) - 128
rioolslib - compost - bemesting - kwaliteitsnormen - verontreiniging - overheidsbeleid - vergelijkingen - nederland - denemarken - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk - vlaanderen - sewage sludge - composts - fertilizer application - quality standards - pollution - government policy - comparisons - netherlands - denmark - germany - uk - flanders
The standards for contaminants in fertilisers in Denmark, Germany, Flanders, the Netherlands and United Kingdom, are given in the context of the proposals for new European fertiliser legislation. This EU legislation might result in generic limit values for contaminants and input lists of materials, and importantly specific waste materials, per categories of fertiliser. With the national and European targets of recycling and energy recovery, the sustainable use of waste materials as fertilisers is becoming more and more important. A revision of the fertiliser legislation is therefore not only relevant for agriculture but also for the waste and energy sector. Compared to the surrounding countries the limit values in the Netherlands are low for heavy metals and high for organic contaminants. The origin of the limit values, the basic protection policies and the risk analysis have been traced especially for the Netherlands, and roughly for the surrounding countries. The limits for heavy metals in fertilisers in the Netherlands are based on the protection of the soil, on practice, and in case of organic contaminants, also on a risk analysis. Also in the surrounding countries, the limit values have been derived using the same basic concepts of protection and risk analysis. The differences and similarities between the basic concepts to derive limit values between the countries give a starting point for a revaluation and new limit values for fertilisers
Schelpdierwateronderzoek 2012
Poelman, M. ; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, M. van; Gool, A.C.M. van - \ 2013
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C065/13) - 36
schaaldieren - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - verontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - westerschelde - oosterschelde - noordzee - waddenzee - monitoring - voordelta - shellfish - shellfish fisheries - pollution - water pollution - western scheldt - eastern scheldt - north sea - wadden sea
Rijkswaterstaat heeft IMARES verzocht om de gehalten aan fecale coliformen, E. coli (aanvullend), zware metalen en gehalogeneerde organische stoffen vast te stellen in schelpdiervlees in de productiegebieden. Ook is verzocht zintuiglijke waarnemingen op het schelpdiervlees en veldmetingen voor de verschillende parameters in het oppervlaktewater uit te voeren. IMARES heeft op 12 locaties waar schelpdierproductie/visserij voorkomt, namelijk in de Westerschelde, Grevelingen, Oosterschelde, Voordelta en de Waddenzee deze bepalingen uitgevoerd. Toetsing aan de bestaande normen leert dat de normen niet worden overschreden.
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