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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Modelling of ammonia volatilisation in fertilised and flooded rice systems
Khairudin, Nurulhuda - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Nurul Khairudin, co-promotor(en): Karel Keesman; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576698 - 209
oryza - flooded rice - ammonia - volatilization - modeling - dynamic modeling - flooded land - nitrogen - natte rijst - ammoniak - vervluchtiging - modelleren - dynamisch modelleren - overstroomde gronden - stikstof

In flooded rice systems that are broadcast with urea, significant amounts of nitrogen (N) may be lost to the atmosphere in the form of ammonia (NH3). Many models with different complexities with regards to describing the process of NH3 volatilisation and the overall N dynamics in the systems are available. However, given the differences in local conditions, both too simple and too complex models may not be able to predict NH3 volatilisation correctly or may lead to large prediction uncertainties. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to provide a framework to determine an appropriate process-based model with corresponding uncertainty characteristics for estimating NH3 volatilisation in fertilised and flooded rice systems.

As a first step in the selection of a model for a specific application, an overview on the modelling concepts and the performance of 14 models developed to simulate N dynamics in flooded soil systems is given. Next, in order to understand differences in modelling concepts for a specific process, co-validation was conducted at single process level: urea hydrolysis, NH3 volatilisation, and floodwater pH. Then, a new process-based model for estimating NH3 volatilisation in fertilised and flooded rice systems, which is of a complexity appropriate for scarce soil N data, is presented and evaluated with field observations. For the flooded rice systems in the Philippines, conceptualisation of the two-step urea hydrolysis, partitioning between ammonium and NH3, and a time-varying rate coefficient of NH3 volatilisation in the proposed model improved the prediction of the net NH3 loss. Subsequently, a set-membership parameter estimation approach with soft-error-bounds was used to characterise the uncertainty in the parameter estimates in the proposed model. The set-membership approach is appropriate for poor quality data sets as it allows simultaneous consideration of the different sources of uncertainty affecting the model prediction, such as uncertainty in the model structure, parameters, and observations. Findings of this study can be used as criteria for stakeholders to make an informed selection of models, to modify the existing models for a specific purpose, and to interpret model-output responses critically.

Ontwikkeling van de N-balans, het N-verlies en de beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Langenkamp-Niens in 2014/2015
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2016
Wageningen UR, Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 936) - 42 p.
melkvee - melkveehouderij - loopstallen - ligstro - samenstelling - stikstofverliezen - vervluchtiging - verontreiniging - dierlijke productie - dairy cattle - dairy farming - loose housing - litter - composition - nitrogen losses - volatilization - pollution - animal production
NPK balans, N-verlies en beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Hoogland in 2014
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 886) - 24
rundvee - huisvesting van koeien - loopstallen - dierenwelzijn - stikstofkringloop - stikstof - vervluchtiging - bemesting - vergelijkingen - landbouw en milieu - stikstofverliezen - dierlijke productie - melkvee - milieu - cattle - cow housing - loose housing - animal welfare - nitrogen cycle - nitrogen - volatilization - fertilizer application - comparisons - agriculture and environment - nitrogen losses - animal production - dairy cattle - environment
Een aantal Nederlandse melkveehouders stapt de laatste jaren over van een ligboxenstal met roostervloer naar een vrijloopstal zonder boxen en met een organische bedding. Een belangrijke reden voor deze overstap is het realiseren van een beter dierenwelzijn in de stal. Naast een beter dierenwelzijn heeft de overstap ook andere effecten, waaronder op de stikstofkringloop op het bedrijf. Stikstof (N) verdwijnt uit deze kringloop onder andere door vervluchtiging uit de stal, uit de mestopslag en na het uitrijden van mest op het land. N kan vervluchtigen in de vorm van ammoniak (NH3), lachgas (N2O), stikstofgas (N2) en overige stikstofoxiden (NOx). De vervluchtiging van ammoniak kan bijdragen aan verzuring en eutrofiëring van de natuur en vervluchtiging van lachgas aan opwarming van de aarde. De vervluchtiging van stikstofgas heeft geen directe negatieve effecten op de omgeving. Echter, door het verdwijnen van N uit de bedrijfskringloop moet er wel meer N op het bedrijf aangevoerd worden om de productiviteit van de bodem, de gewassen en de koeien op niveau te houden. Gebeurt dit met dierlijke mest of kunstmest, dan leidt dit alsnog tot een hogere milieubelasting. Gezien de bovenstaande consequenties is het wenselijk om de N-vervluchtiging op het melkveebedrijf zo laag mogelijk te houden. Om inzicht te krijgen in milieu- en productiviteitseffecten van de omschakeling van een ligboxenstal naar een vrijloopstal is het dus nodig om inzicht te krijgen in de hoeveelheid N die vervluchtigt uit de vrijloopstal en deze te vergelijken met de ligboxenstal. N vervluchtigt niet alleen uit de stal maar ook na het uitrijden van mest uit de stal op het land. Een stalsysteem met een relatief lage Nvervluchtiging direct uit de stal kan een relatief hoge N-vervluchtiging na mesttoediening hebben, en omgekeerd. Bij de ligboxenstal met productie van drijfmest wordt bijna de helft van de totale Nvervluchtiging (stal + land) na het emissiearm uitrijden van de mest op het land gerealiseerd (zie paragraaf 2.4). Om een meer volledig en betrouwbaar beeld te hebben van de N-vervluchtiging van een stalsysteem is het daarom gewenst om de N-vervluchtiging direct uit de stal en na mestaanwending gezamenlijk te beoordelen.
Ontwikkeling van de N-balans, het N-verlies en de beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Ottema-Wiersma in 2013/2014
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 881)
huisvesting van koeien - melkveehouderij - stikstofbalans - stikstofverliezen - stikstofkringloop - vervluchtiging - rundveemest - stalinrichting - loopstallen - rundveeteelt - dierenwelzijn - landbouw en milieu - cow housing - dairy farming - nitrogen balance - nitrogen losses - nitrogen cycle - volatilization - cattle manure - animal housing design - loose housing - cattle farming - animal welfare - agriculture and environment
Een aantal Nederlandse melkveehouders stapt de laatste jaren over van een ligboxenstal met een roostervloer naar een vrijloopstal met een organische bedding. Deze overstap heeft meerdere effecten, waaronder op de stikstofkringloop op het melkveebedrijf. Het onderzoek in dit rapport richtte zich op het vaststellen van het N-verlies door vervluchtiging uit de vrijloopstal van de VOF Ottema-Wiersma in Midwolde (Groningen).
Pesticide volatilization from small surface waters : rationale of a new parameterization for TOXSWA
Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Adriaanse, P.I. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2316) - 42
pesticiden - vervluchtiging - waterverontreiniging - oppervlaktewater - modellen - pesticides - volatilization - water pollution - surface water - models
In the TOXSWA (TOXic substances in Surface WAters) model volatilization of pesticides from surface water is computed because it may be an important component of the mass balance of pesticides in water bodies. Here, we briefly review the physics of air-water gas exchange relevant in this context. A new parameterization of volatilization is proposed. This new TOXSWA parameterization would take into account key physical aspects of the air-water gas exchange process, while still fitting into the TOXSWA philosophy. It is recommended to cast the new parameterization into a micrometeorological framework, based on two atmospheric resistances and one aqueous resistance against gas transport. In this context, the dimensionless Henry coefficient is a crucial characteristic of the pesticides and determines whether atmospheric properties as modelled by the atmospheric resistances exert the main dynamic control on air-water gas exchange or the aqueous properties and resistance. Most pesticides will be subject to atmospherically controlled volatilization.
Ammonia emission from crop residues : quantification of ammonia volatilization based on crop residue properties
Ruijter, F.J. de; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 470) - 30
oogstresten - oogstresten als veevoer - ammoniak - vervluchtiging - nederland - degradatie - akkerbouw - ammoniakemissie - crop residues - stover - ammonia - volatilization - netherlands - degradation - arable farming - ammonia emission
This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.
Methods for estimating the vapour pressure of organic chemicals; Application to five pesticides
Leistra, M. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2215) - 60
dampdruk - vervluchtiging - pesticiden - chloorthalonil - chloorpyrifos - lindaan - pirimicarb - chinolinefungiciden - vapour pressure - volatilization - pesticides - chlorothalonil - chlorpyrifos - lindane - quinoline fungicides
When studying and modelling the volatilisation of pesticides from crops, their vapour pressure is an essential property. In the critical evaluation of vapour pressures stated by various sources, problems were encountered. Therefore, an inventory was made of readily-usable methods for estimating vapour pressures of organic chemicals, for checking the stated values. When applied to some of the five example pesticides, the estimates were at the same level as the stated values. However, for other pesticides there were substantial differences. Unfortunately, there is a wide range of uncertainty in both measurement and estimation of comparatively low vapour pressures. The solid (crystalline) and sub-cooled-liquid states of the chemical have to be distinguished when specifying and using vapour pressures, because the latter can be much higher. The influence of the uncertainty in vapour pressure on the source strength of volatilisation from plants is illustrated in a few computations. Only data for pesticides with accurately known vapour pressure are usable in the development and testing of computation models on the volatilisation from crops.
NH3 dynamics in composting : assessment of the integration of composting in manure management chains
Szanto, G.L. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Rulkens, co-promotor(en): A.H.M. Veeken. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853695 - 140
dierlijke meststoffen - compostering - ammoniak - vervluchtiging - nitrificatie - mestverwerking - ammoniakemissie - animal manures - composting - ammonia - volatilization - nitrification - manure treatment - ammonia emission
The Dutch animal production sector copes with a manure problem. Their high nitrogen content makes manures popular fertilizers, but most of this nitrogen is emitted before it could be used by plants. Ammonia is the main emission form during the manure management chain of storage, transportation and land application. Composting these manures could improve their general storage and transport features, and produce stable composts. Still, the nitrogen retaining efficiency of composting is a matter of debate. This aspect of high- and low-tech composting treatments was examined through a technological research. The low-tech applications appeared to retain the nitrogen from ammonia by facilitating a complete nitrogen conversion process. High-tech processes do lose most of the ammonia, but this ammonia can be trapped to manufacture a separate fertilizer product. Although composting treatments are not free of emissions, their abilities to control the form and extent of harmful nitrogen emissions makes them potential choices in manure management.
Mitigation strategies for greenhouse gas emissions from animal production systems: synergy between measuring and modelling at different scales
Groenigen, J.W. van; Schils, R.L.M. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Oudendag, D.A. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2008
Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48 (2008). - ISSN 0816-1089 - p. 46 - 53.
distikstofmonoxide - emissiereductie - methaan - nitraatuitspoeling - dierlijke productie - agrarische productiesystemen - milieubeleid - ammoniak - vervluchtiging - nitrous oxide - emission reduction - methane - nitrate leaching - animal production - agricultural production systems - environmental policy - ammonia - volatilization - nitrous-oxide emissions - dairy farming systems - hippuric-acid content - soil n2o fluxes - urine composition - denitrification - netherlands - losses - cattle
Animal production systems are large and complex sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Emissions from these systems are expected to rise over the coming decades due to the increasing global population and shifting diets, unless appropriate mitigation strategies are implemented. In this paper, we argue that the main constraints for such implementation are: (i) the complex and often poorly understood controls of GHG sources in animal production systems; (ii) the lack of knowledge on the economic and social costs involved in implementing mitigation strategies; and (iii) the strong political emphasis on mitigating nitrate leaching and ammonia volatilisation, rather than GHG emissions. We further argue that overcoming these three constraints can only be achieved by initiating integrated mitigation strategies, based on modelling and experimental work at three scales. At the `laboratory and field scale¿, basic causal relationships with respect to processes of GHG formation and other detrimental fluxes need to be experimentally established and modelled. As management options are considered at the `farm scale¿, this is the ideal scale to evaluate the cost-effectiveness, feasibility and possible pollution swapping effects of mitigation measures. Finally, at the `national and supra-national scales¿, environmental legislation is implemented, effectiveness of environmental policies and emissions abatement measures are being monitored, and the social costs of various scenarios are being weighed. We illustrate the need for integral measures and working across different scales using our own work on the relationship between nitrogen surplus and fluxes to the environment. At the field scale, a clear positive relation between nitrogen surplus and N2O emission, NO3¿ leaching and NH3 volatilisation was experimentally established. At the farm scale, the model DAIRYWISE was used to evaluate effects of minimising nitrogen surplus on the nutrient flow and economic viability of an average Dutch dairy farm. Even after including trade-off effects of CH4 emissions from cattle and manure storage, there was still a clear positive relationship between farm gate nitrogen surplus and GHG emission. At this scale, the prime issue was balancing environmental gains with economic viability. Finally, at the `national and supra-national scale¿ we developed the MITERRA-EUROPE model, and used it to quantify the effects on GHG emissions of environmental policies aimed at reducing NO3¿ leaching and NH3 volatilisation in the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27). This showed the intricate relationship between different environmental goals, with both positive feedback (balanced fertilisation reduced both NO3¿ leaching and N2O emission) and negative feedback (`low-emission¿ manure application reduced NH3 volatilisation but increased N2O emission) possible. At this scale, there is a clear need for an integral approach towards reducing environmental assessment to the environment. Our studies so far suggest that `balanced fertilisation¿ is among the most promising mitigation measures for simultaneously lowering N2O emission, NO3¿ leaching and NH3 volatilisation, without pollution swapping to CH4 emission
Chemical characterization of manure in relation to manure quality as a contribution to a reduced nitrogen emission to the environment
Stelt, B. van der - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem van Riemsdijk, co-promotor(en): Erwin Temminghoff. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046301 - 152
dierlijke meststoffen - ammoniak - vervluchtiging - dieet - stikstofkringloop - graslandgronden - organisch bodemmateriaal - samenstelling - voer - animal manures - ammonia - volatilization - diet - nitrogen cycle - grassland soils - soil organic matter - composition - feeds
Estimating input data for computations on the volatilisation of pesticides from plant canopies and competing processes
Leistra, M. - \ 2005
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1256) - 79
pesticiden - depositie - diffusie - vervluchtiging - emissie - oppervlakten - bladeren - opname (uptake) - gewassen - kroondak - kroondak penetratie - gebladerte - oppervlakkige afvoer - verontreiniging - pesticides - deposition - diffusion - volatilization - emission - surfaces - leaves - uptake - crops - canopy - canopy penetration - foliage - runoff - pollution
Volatilisation of pesticides from the crop can be an important emission pathway to the environment. A computation module was developed for making estimates on this emission. However, various input data for this module are not measured directly in registration procedures, so they have to be estimated from theory or from a diversity of experimental data. Vapour pressure is the most important property in volatilisation, which needs a critical evaluation in case of conflicting data. Diffusion coefficients for transport in a laminar boundary layer are estimated from theory. Penetration of pesticides into the leaves is highly affected by substances in the formulation and by environmental conditions. Pesticide deposit is often vulnerable to washoff by rainfall. Often, no directly measured rates are available for photochemical transformation on plant surfaces, so these have to be estimated from a variety of experimental results. In critical cases, comprehensive experiments with micro-agro-ecosystems and/or in the field are needed.
Actualisering forfaitaire waarden voor gasvormige N-verliezen uit stallen en mestopslagen van varkens, pluimvee en overige dieren
Groenestein, C.M. ; Hoek, K.W. van den; Monteny, G.J. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2005
Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Rapport / Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 465) - ISBN 9067549347 - 33
ammoniak - stikstof - dierhouderij - varkens - koeien - pluimvee - vervluchtiging - verliezen - dierlijke meststoffen - paardenstallen - nederland - ammonia - nitrogen - animal husbandry - pigs - cows - poultry - volatilization - losses - animal manures - stables - netherlands
Door technische ontwikkelingen en veranderingen in het management zijn de hoeveelheid N in de mest en de gasvormige N-verliezen uit de mest in stallen en mestopslagen veranderd. Het Ministerie van LNV heeft daarom aan de Commissie van Deskundigen Meststoffenwet (CDM) gevraagd om de forfaitaire waarden voor N-excreties en voor N-verliezen uit stallen en mestopslagen te actualiseren. Dit rapport beschrijft geactualiseerde waarden voor N-verliezen uit de mest in stallen en mestopslagen van de overige landbouwhuisdieren (varkens, pluimvee en overig vee)
Het "Veld"-project : een gedetailleerde inventarisatie van de ammoniakemissies en -concentraties in een agrarisch gebied
Smits, M.C.J. ; Jaarsveld, J.A. van; Mokveld, L.J. ; Vellinga, O. ; Stolk, A. ; Hoek, K.W. van den; Pul, W.A.J. van - \ 2005
Wageningen [etc.] : RIVM (RIVM rapport 500033002) - ISBN 9067549193 - 186
ammoniak - emissie - reductie - luchtverontreiniging - gegevens verzamelen - vervluchtiging - dierlijke meststoffen - statistiek - ammonia - emission - reduction - air pollution - data collection - volatilization - animal manures - statistics
Effect of application method, manure characteristics, weather and field conditions on ammonia volatilization from manure applied to arable land
Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Vermeulen, G.D. - \ 2003
Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003)26. - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 3669 - 3680.
varkenshouderij - varkensmest - bemesting - bouwland - dierlijke meststoffen - ammoniakemissie - vervluchtiging - weer - modellen - voorspelling - pig farming - pig manure - fertilizer application - arable land - animal manures - ammonia emission - volatilization - weather - models - prediction - cattle slurry - grassland - model
To predict ammonia (NH3) volatilization from field-applied manure, factors affecting volatilization following manure application need to be known. A database of field measurements in the Netherlands was analysed to identify these factors and to quantify their effects on the volatilization of NH3 from liquid pig manure applied and incorporated on arable land. The combination and the statistical analysis of these data, together with the models that were designed, yielded valuable information about the factors that influence NH3 volatilization, and about the magnitude of their effects when applying and incorporating manure on arable land. Factors analysed were application method, characteristics of the manure, weather and field conditions. The results show that useful prediction of ammonia volatilization following manure application on arable land in the Netherlands is feasible on the basis of information about application method, characteristics of the manure and weather conditions.
To predict ammonia (NH3) volatilization from field-applied manure, factors affecting volatilization following manure application need to be known. A database of field measurements in the Netherlands was analysed to identify these factors and to quantify their effects on the volatilization of NH3 from liquid pig manure applied and incorporated on arable land. The combination and the statistical analysis of these data, together with the models that were designed, yielded valuable information about the factors that influence NH3 volatilization, and about the magnitude of their effects when applying and incorporating manure on arable land. Factors analysed were application method, characteristics of the manure, weather and field conditions. The mean total volatilization, expressed as % of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied, was 68% for surface spreading, 17% for surface incorporation and 2% for deep placement. The volatilization rate increased with an increase in TAN content of the manure, manure application rate and air temperature. Wind speed had a substantial effect on the volatilization rate, only when manure was surface applied or surface incorporated. The results show that useful prediction of ammonia volatilization following manure application on arable land in the Netherlands is feasible on the basis of information about application method, characteristics of the manure and weather conditions. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manure application and ammonia volatilization
Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jos Metz; L. Speelman, co-promotor(en): Jan Willem Hofstee. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9058089371 - 160
mest - dierlijke meststoffen - toedieningswijzen - ammoniak - vervluchtiging - emissie - reductie - manures - animal manures - application methods - ammonia - volatilization - emission - reduction
Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric pollutant. The need arose for more quantitative knowledge about NH3 volatilization and for practical tools to reduce the NH3 volatilization from manure. A database of field measurements was analysed to identify factors that effect the volatilization of NH3 from manure applied by various techniques on grassland and arable land. The analyses showed that NH3 volatilization is substantially reduced by application techniques like narrow band application and shallow injection, and by effective manure incorporation techniques. Also the manure composition, the application rate and the weather conditions substantially influenced the NH3 volatilization rate. Draught force required for different application techniques on grassland varied considerably. The design of the shallow injection element, the working depth and soil circumstances had a substantial influence on the required draught force. For the trailing foot a lower draught force was required than for shallow injection. On arable land the time-lag between application and incorporation of the manure substantially affected the total NH3 volatilization. The costs of application techniques designed to reduce NH3 volatilization were assessed across a range of farm characteristics, and compared with the conventional technique of broadcast spreading. The results of the study supply sound and workable guidelines for the application and incorporation of manure to farmers and policy makers.
Risks of vapour-phase herbicides in the atmosphere of non-target plants
Dueck, T.A. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Note / Plant Research International 272) - 28
herbiciden - vervluchtiging - emissie - toxiciteit - concentratie - luchtverontreiniging - ethofumesaat - 2,4-d - chloorprofam - herbicides - volatilization - emission - toxicity - concentration - air pollution - ethofumesate - chlorpropham
Improvement of concepts for pesticide volatilisation from bare soil in PEARL, PELMO, and MACRO models
Berg, F. van den; Wolters, A. ; Jarvis, N. ; Klein, M. ; Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Leistra, M. ; Linnemann, V. ; Smelt, J.H. ; Vereecken, H. - \ 2003
In: Pesticide in air, plant, soil & water system. - - p. 973 - 983.
bestrijdingsmiddelen - bodemvocht - emissie - luchtverontreiniging - milieu - pesticiden - simulatiemodel - vervluchtiging
Volatilization patterns of tri-allate formulations : a report for Monsanto Europe, Bruxelles and Monsanto USA, St. Louis
Ruiter, H. de - \ 2002
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Note / Plant Research International 181) - 26
thiocarbamaatherbiciden - tri-allaat - vervluchtiging - formuleringen - thiocarbamate herbicides - tri-allate - volatilization - formulations
Ammonia volatilization from field-applied animal slurry - the ALFAM model.
Sogaard, H.T. ; Sommer, S.G. ; Hutchings, N.J. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Bussink, D.W. ; Nicholson, F. - \ 2002
Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002)20. - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 3309 - 3319.
varkenshouderij - rundveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - dierlijke meststoffen - drijfmest - bemesting - graslanden - vervluchtiging - statistische analyse - seizoenen - modellen - bodemwatergehalte - pig farming - cattle husbandry - ammonia emission - animal manures - slurries - fertilizer application - grasslands - volatilization - statistical analysis - seasons - models - soil water content
A statistical analysis of European ammonia (NH3) volatilization data (from Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and UK) collated in a database produced a model that is supported by theoretical considerations of the effect of explanatory variables (see www.alfam.dk). Volatilization could be described mathematically by a Michaelis-Menten-type equation, with the loss rates as the response variable (R2=80Ž Variables significantly affecting NH3 volatilization throughout Europe are soil water content, air temperature, wind speed, slurry type, dry matter content of slurry, total ammoniacal nitrogen content of slurry (TAN=NH3 NH4 ), application method and rate, slurry incorporation and measuring technique. The model was used to estimate the NH3 volatilization from typical cattle and pig slurries applied in Italy, England, Norway and Denmark. Climate observations from the following three periods in year 2000 were used as input: (1) 1 week before the normal sowing time for spring crops, (2) mid-season, and (3) 1 week after harvesting. There was little difference in the total NH3 volatilization from slurry applied in the three periods, principally due to interactions between soil water content and air temperature. The time from application to when 10␘f the applied TAN was lost was similar for countries in the south and north of Europe, primarily due to the low wind speeds counteracting the effect of higher air temperatures at the southern location. To reduce NH3 volatilization, the slurry should be incorporated faster in mid- and late-season than in the early spring, due to increasing air temperatures during the growing season.
Beschrijving van de emissie van bestrijdingsmiddelen naar lucht bij bespuiting van bodem of gewas in ISBEST 3.0
Smidt, R.A. ; Smit, M.F.R. ; Berg, F. van den; Denneboom, J. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Holterman, H.J. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra (Reeks Mileuplanbureau / Alterra-rapport 207) - 62
pesticiden - emissie - lucht - vervluchtiging - bodem - depositie - gewassen - toedieningswijzen - kassen - nederland - pesticides - emission - air - volatilization - soil - deposition - crops - application methods - greenhouses - netherlands
Voor landsdekkende berekeningen van de emissie van bestrijdingsmiddelen naar de lucht is het informatiesysteem bestrijdingsmiddelen (ISBEST) verbeterd. Hierbij is zoveel mogelijk gebruik gemaakt van bestaande methoden en kennis. Tabellen met de emissiefactor vanaf bodem en gewas en vanuit de kas voor circa 250 bestrijdingsmiddelen en tabellen met de mate van bodemdepositie en gewasinterceptie van een bestrijdingsmiddel als functie van het gewasontwikkelingsstadium zijn gecombineerd met de gegevens over het verbruik van bestrijdingsmiddelen in Nederland in de database ISBEST versie 3.0. Verdere verbetering van het instrumentarium kan onder meer worden bereikt door het ontwikkelen en inbouwen van een methode voor de emissie tijdens de toepassing en dekoppeling met het consensusmodel PEARL voor uitspoeling. Daarbij dient een verbeterd concept voor de vervluchtiging van bestrijdingsmiddel vanaf onbegroeide bodem in PEARL ingebouwd te worden
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