Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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On the role of the polychaete Dendronereis spp. i the transmission of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp ponds
Desrina, Haryadi - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth; Just Vlak, co-promotor(en): Marc Verdegem. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570856 - 181
polychaeta - witte-vlekken-syndroom-virus - garnalen - ziekteoverdracht - visvijvers - garnalenteelt - voer - reservoir hosts - aquacultuur - white spot syndrome virus - shrimps - disease transmission - fish ponds - shrimp culture - feeds - aquaculture

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is by far the most devastating shrimp virus. Control measures have lowered the WSSV incidence to various degrees, but the pathogen remains plaguing shrimp culture worldwide. Continuous exposure may cause WSSV to adapt and infect non-crustacean benthic fauna in ponds such as polychaetes, hence, extending WSSV host range to maintain virus persistence in ponds. Dendronereis spp. (Pieters 1854) are ubiquitous Nereid polychaetes in shrimp ponds in Indonesia and part of the shrimp’s natural diet. This thesis aimed to investigate the possible role of Dendronereis spp. in the transmission of WSSV in shrimp ponds. The significance of the findings may provide new insight on the persistence of WSSV in the pond environment and novel strategies for disease management. The investigation started with a survey to determine the occurrence of WSSV in Dendronereis spp. in Indonesia, followed by subsequent laboratory observations to determine the role of Dendronereis spp. in white spot syndrome disease development. Field surveys in selected ponds in two research locations in Indonesia, the Mahakam delta (East Kalimantan) and the vicinity of Semarang (Central Java), showed that WSSV infection in Dendronereis spp. is quite common. Point prevalence of WSSV infected Dendronereis spp. was 44 ± 27% (± SD). The average prevalence in Mahakam delta was 73 ± 22% and in Java 26 ± 38%. This result implied that WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. are widely distributed. WSSV replicated in the gut of naturally-infected Dendronereis spp. as detected in cell nuclei via immunohistochemistry (IHC) using monoclonal antibodies and via RT-PCR to detect the viral mRNA. These experiments showed that Dendronereis spp. are natural and susceptible hosts of WSSV. WSSV was transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) through the oral route and further to new naïve shrimp showing natural transmission of WSSV from polychaetes to shrimp. This indicates that the transmission of WSSV from polycheates to shrimp is possible. An experiment using Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller 1776) as a more amenable alternative model animal to study WSSV infection in polychaetes showed that this polychaete was not susceptible to WSSV infection using methods commonly used to induce infection in shrimp. In ponds, WSSV infection incidence in Dendronereis spp. correlated positively with Dendronereis spp. density and with the proportion of WSSV infection in shrimp. Findings of the present study underscore that Dendronereis spp., as ubiquitous and resident animals in the shrimp ponds can be reservoir hosts of WSSV and responsible for disease transmission. However, further studies are needed to obtain a better understanding of the importance of Dendronereis spp in WSSV epidemiology in and beyond shrimp ponds.

Zomerziekten in de visvijver
Haenen, O.L.M. - \ 2013
Aquacultuur 28 (2013)4. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 24 - 26.
visvijvers - visteelt - viskwekerijen - visziekten - virusziekten - bacterieziekten - fish ponds - fish culture - fish farms - fish diseases - viral diseases - bacterial diseases
Met het stijgen van de watertemperatuur in het voorjaar komt ook het metabolisme van de vis op gang. Veel vissoorten paaien bovendien in het voorjaar of de vroege zomer, dus ook hormonaal verandert er van alles. Dit hoort bij een natuurlijke gang van zaken maar geeft ook stress aan de vis. Stress is een basis voor ziekte. Welke ziekten kunnen we zoal aantreffen in de buitenvijver met het stijgen van temperatuur naar zomerse waarden?
Tegen de stroom in (interview met Arjan Palstra)
Ramaker, R. ; Palstra, A.P. - \ 2013
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 8 (2013)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 14 - 15.
kweekvis - aquacultuur - zwemmen - beweging - viskwekerijen - visvijvers - dierlijke productie - vissen - diergedrag - diergezondheid - farmed fish - aquaculture - swimming - movement - fish farms - fish ponds - animal production - fishes - animal behaviour - animal health
Vet, gestrest en ongezond. Veel kweekvissen zijn hopeloos uit vorm. Dat is niet alleen slecht voor de vis, maar ook voor de kweker. De oplossing is simpel: vis moet zwemmen.
Myxidium giardi, een myxospore parasiet van wilde paling
Engelsma, M.Y. ; Haenen, O.L.M. - \ 2012
Aquacultuur 27 (2012)4. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 33 - 35.
palingen - palingteelt - visteelt - myxidium giardi - parasieten - protozoa - visziekten - visvijvers - eels - eel culture - fish culture - parasites - fish diseases - fish ponds
In Nederland is de myxospore parasiet Myxidium giardi in mei 2005 in beeld gekomen bij palingen in fuiken op het IJsselmeer. Op palingkwekerijen in broedhuizen komt de parasiet doorgaans niet voor, wel in vijversystemen.
Het monitoren van kwantiteit en kwaliteit van afvalwater van pangasiusvijvers in Vietnam
Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Poelman, M. ; Bosma, R. - \ 2011
Aquacultuur 26 (2011)4. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 7 - 12.
afvalwater - viskwekerijen - aquacultuur - visteelt - visvijvers - monitoring - vietnam - waste water - fish farms - aquaculture - fish culture - fish ponds
In 2010 hebben twee Vietnamese onderzoeksinstituten onder begeleiding van Wageningen UR het inkomende water en het water dat de vijvers van vier pangasiuskwekerijen verlaat, maandelijks bemonsterd en de gemonitord. Doel was om een simpele methode te vinden om hoeveelheid en kwaliteit van het afvalwater te meten om hiermee bedrijven en organisaties die betrokken zijn bij certificering van kwekerijen te kunnen adviseren. De effecten van de kwekerijen op het milieu vormen een onderdeel van de certificering en dienen door de kwekerijen geregeld gemeten te worden. In dit artikel wordt verslag gedaan van de resultaten van deze studie.
De bijdrage van visvijvers aan de nutriënthuishouding op gemengde kleinschalige landbouwbedrijven
Verdegem, M.C.J. ; Muendo, P.N. - \ 2007
Aquacultuur 22 (2007)1. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 26 - 32.
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - gemengde landbouw - voedingsstoffenbalans - visvijvers - visteelt - voedingsstoffenbeschikbaarheid - experimenteel veldonderzoek - toegepast onderzoek - farm management - mixed farming - nutrient balance - fish ponds - fish culture - nutrient availability - field experimentation - applied research
Vijvers kunnen een aanzienlijke bijdrage leveren aan de nutriëntenkringloop op gemenge landbouwbedrijven. Het integreren van water- en landgebonden productie in gemengde bedrijven kan leiden tot een verhoogde efficiëntie van het nutriëntengebruik. Bij evaluatie van de visteelt wordt vaak alleen gekeken naar de oogst zonder aandacht voor andere voordelen van visteelt zoals waterbeschikbaarheid of efficiëntie van nutriëntengebruik. Bovendien verkiezen boeren vaak geformuleerde voeders, hoewel het voordeel voor de oogst hiervan niet evident is in de gemiddelde eenvoudige onbeluchte vijvers. Een onderzoeksproject is gestart om mogelijkheden voor verbetering in kaart te brengen
The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems
Nhan, D.K. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Marc Verdegem. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047391 - 162
visvijvers - aquacultuur - landbouw - bedrijfssystemen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedingsstoffen - kringlopen - recycling - optimalisatie - vietnam - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - fish ponds - aquaculture - agriculture - farming systems - sustainability - nutrients - cycling - optimization - integrated farming systems
In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a farm, which allows to improve resource use efficiency and income while reducing environmental impacts. This study monitored and analyzed water use in and nutrient flows through ponds that are part of an IAA-farming system. The goal was to improve the nutrient management of ponds which in turn lead to improved water and nutrient use efficiency of the whole IAA-farm. The study included three main parts: (1) understanding the context and characteristics of IAA-systems (chapters 2 and 3), (2) analyzing the performance of IAA-systems, suggesting and testing improvements (chapters 4 and 5), and (3) recommending procedures for the continuous upgrading of existing IAA-farming systems (chapter 6). The research was done on-farm in freshwater areas of the Mekong delta and followed a Participatory Learning in Action approach. Different multivariate statistical methods were applied for data analysis. At community and household level, results showed that the type of IAA-farming systems applied was determined by a mixture of bio-physical, technological and socio-economic factors (chapter 2). Three major IAA-systems were identified: (1) low-input fish farming in fruit-dominated area (system 1), (2) medium-input fish farming (system 2), and (3) high-input fish farming (system 3) in rice-dominated areas. System 1 was commonly practiced in a rural and intensive fruit production area with fertile soils, while systems 2 and 3 were more frequent in peri-urban and in rice production areas with less fertile soils. In the study areas, poor farmers usually did not adopt IAA-farming. With good market accessibility, richer farmers tended to intensify fish farming. The principal factors why farmers did not start aquaculture were the inappropriateness of the technology available, lack of capital, insufficient land holding, poor access to extension services, limited farm management, and a fear of conflicts associated with pesticide use on crops. The main motivations to practice IAA-farming were increased farm resource uses, which resulted in improved income, a better supply of foods for home consumption and a reduction of the environmental impacts from the farming. In low- and medium-input ponds, nutrient inputs, the accumulation of nitrogen (N), organic carbon (OC) and phosphorus (P) and environmental impacts were closely linked (chapter 3). Parameters related to nutrients input levels and water exchange rates in ponds explained most of the variability between farms. Parameters linked to agro-ecological sites, pond physical properties and livestock or human excreta inputs explained most of the remaining variability. A combination of these variables allowed to characterize three indicative integrated systems: (1) the low water-exchange-rate ponds in the fruit-dominated area, (2) the low water-exchange-rate ponds in the rice-dominated area receiving home-made feed, and (3) the high water-exchange-rate ponds in the rice-dominated areas receiving excreta. These systems concurred to a large extend with the systems identified on the basic of the community and household survey. In the rice-dominated area with deep ponds, more livestock or human wastes were supplied, and high water exchange rates were practiced. In these ponds, large excreta-OC loads reduced dissolved oxygen and increased total phosphorus concentrations in the water column and nitrogen, organic carbon and phosphorus accumulation in the sediments. In the rice-dominated area with wide ponds, more home-made feed was applied and low water-exchange rates were practiced, which resulted in a high phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity. On the contrary, in the fruit-dominated area fish were grown in shallow and narrow ditches with a low phytoplankton biomass and only a small fraction of the nutrient input accumulated in the sediments. The water and nutrient budgets of a selected number of ponds, representing either low or high water-exchange systems were determined (chapter 4). The sluice-gate water inflow and outflow largely dominated the total pond water budgets, accounting for 72-97% of the total water budget. On-farm livestock manures were the most important nutrient source for ponds. High water-exchange rate ponds received larger quantities of livestock and/or human excreta and had significantly higher volumes of water passing through ponds than low water-exchange rate ones. Only 5-6% of the total N, OC and P inputs were retained in the harvested fish, but 18-91% accumulated in the pond sediments, the rest was lost through pond water discharges. Fish yields and the quantity of nutrients accumulating in the sediments increased with increasing on-farm nutrient input levels at the cost of higher nutrient discharges. Its was concluded that farmers need to manage water and nutrient flows between the pond and the other IAA-farm components with the goals to maximize productivity and profitability while minimizing nutrient discharges of the farm as a whole. Excreta were the principle type of nutrient input applied to ponds in the study areas. Therefore, the economic and nutrient discharge tradeoffs stemming from the use of livestock and human excreta were analyzed (chapter 5). Data collected during three consecutive production years were combined in the analysis. Results showed that increased excreta input levels resulted in lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, higher water exchange rates practiced, and increased discharge of chemical oxygen demand (COD), N, P and total suspended solids (TSS). Fish yields and the accumulation of N, OC and P in pond sediments, however, increased with increasing excreta input levels. Through regression analysis, it was predicted that with an input of 5 kg N ha-1 day-1, a fish yield of 8379 kg and an economic return of 52 million VND ha-1 yr-1 will be obtained while about 2057 kg COD, 645 kg N, 213 kg P and 39203 kg TSS ha-1 yr-1 will be discharged from the farm. At this input level, about 9% of input-N will be retained in harvested fish, 52% will accumulate in the sediments and 39% will be discharged. Further development of IAA-farming practices should focus on reducing nutrient discharges while maintaining favorable economic returns. In brief, this study demonstrated that the adoption of one type of IAA-system by farmers is determined by a mixture of factors at different scales ranging from the individual pond to community or village level. Within each IAA-system, the pond fulfils multiple roles, in part influenced by the existing resource base, agricultural development pathways and the household's goals and aspirations. An important function of ponds is the trapping and storage of nutrients for subsequent reuse within IAA-systems, which otherwise would be lost. Optimizing nutrient storage in ponds also concurs with best management practices from an environmental and economic point of view. The key challenge to the further development and optimization if IAA-farming is to balance economic, environmental and social interests within a highly dynamic setting of the Mekong delta today.
Fishponds in farming systems
Zijpp, A.J. van der; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Quang Tri, Le; Mensvoort, M.E.F. van; Bosma, R.H. ; Beveridge, M.C.M. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860135 - 311
visvijvers - visteelt - bedrijfssystemen - geïntegreerde systemen - landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kringlopen - fish ponds - fish culture - farming systems - integrated systems - agriculture - sustainability - cycling
Throughout the last century, specialisation and intensification were buzz words for farmers in the Western world. However, this approach has not resulted in sustainable development as evidenced by the fact that scientists now need to create technologies to reduce negative impacts. In this book we demonstrate that an alternative exists. Case studies from Bangladesh, Thailand, and Vietnam show that integration and diversification increase both farm productivity and farmers' incomes. By adopting a participatory approach, farmers and scientists identified a range of technologies that strengthen the positive impacts of integrated aquaculture-agriculture systems for the environment. This book is a collection of refereed papers on a controversial subject in agricultural development. Arguing that sustainability of fish culture in ponds needs a new paradigm - feed the pond to grow fish - two chapters focus on nutrient cycling in such systems. Another chapter makes the case for breeding Nile tilapia for resource poor farmers and presents practical options to avoid the pitfalls that arise from natural tilapia mating in low-input ponds. The book contains chapters on livelihood and development aspects and ends with a general discussion completing the picture of the integrated aquaculture-agriculture systems. Overall it composes a review which addresses one of the key issues of the new century: how to sustainably produce food without compromising environmental integrity.
Mixed culture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based ponds
Uddin, S. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth; M.A. Wahab, co-promotor(en): Marc Verdegem. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046424 - 208
oreochromis niloticus - tilapia - macrobrachium rosenbergii - steurgarnalen - visvijvers - substraten - vegetatie - prestatieniveau - dierlijke productie - aquacultuur - prawns - fish ponds - substrates - vegetation - performance - animal production - aquaculture
Fingerponds: managing nutrients and primary productivity for enhanced fish production in Lake Victoria's wetlands, Uganda
Kaggwa, R.S. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P. Denny, co-promotor(en): A.A. van Dam; F. Kansiime. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085044987 - 202
aquacultuur - visteelt - visvijvers - wetlands - kleine landbouwbedrijven - voedingsstoffen - mest - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - visproductie - uganda - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - aquaculture - fish culture - fish ponds - small farms - nutrients - manures - sustainability - fish production - integrated farming systems - livelihood strategies
Fingerponds: seasonal integrated aquaculture in East African freshwater wetlands : exploring their potential for wise use strategies
Kipkemboi, J. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P. Denny, co-promotor(en): A.A. van Dam. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9780415416962 - 168
aquacultuur - visteelt - visvijvers - wetlands - kleine landbouwbedrijven - milieueffect - bestaan - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kenya - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - aquaculture - fish culture - fish ponds - small farms - environmental impact - subsistence - sustainability - integrated farming systems - livelihood strategies
The role of fish ponds in the nutrient dynamics of mixed farming systems
Muendo, P.N. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Marc Verdegem; Jetse Stoorvogel. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9085044596 - 120
visvijvers - gemengde landbouw - voedingsstoffen - aquacultuur - visproductie - bedrijfssystemen - landbouwbijproducten - kringlopen - fish ponds - mixed farming - nutrients - aquaculture - fish production - farming systems - agricultural byproducts - cycling
Food web interactions and nutrients dynamics in polyculture ponds
Rahman, M.M. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Marc Verdegem; Leo Nagelkerke. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9085044472 - 157
karper - labeo - voedselwebben - visvijvers - voedingsstoffen - visteelt - aquacultuur - visproductie - ecologie - waterkwaliteit - voer - diergedrag - plassen - bangladesh - carp - food webs - fish ponds - nutrients - fish culture - aquaculture - fish production - ecology - water quality - feeds - animal behaviour - ponds
Afbraak van organisch materiaal en bacteriële biomassa in aquacultuur productiesystemen
Verdegem, M.C.J. ; Torres Beristain, B. - \ 2005
Aquacultuur 2 (2005). - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 15 - 19.
aquacultuur - visteelt - viskwekerijen - visvijvers - waterkwaliteit - organische verbindingen - anaërobe afbraak - aquaculture - fish culture - fish farms - fish ponds - water quality - organic compounds - anaerobic digestion
Ophoping van mest, voerresten en ander organisch materiaal kan in de vijverteelt tot waterkwaliteitsproblemen leiden. In het laboratorium van de Leerstoelgroep Visteelt en Visserij, Wageningen Universiteit, is de afgelopen jaren onderzoek gedaan naar de omstandigheden die de afbraak van mest, voerresten en ander organisch materiaal bepalen. Dit artikel vat enkele resultaten samen
Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds
Torres Beristain, B. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Marc Verdegem. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085041708 - 138
visvijvers - visteelt - aquacultuur - organische verbindingen - decompositie - microbiële afbraak - microbiële ecologie - biomassa productie - recycling - fish ponds - fish culture - aquaculture - organic compounds - decomposition - microbial degradation - microbial ecology - biomass production
Optimisation of the pond rearing of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). The impact of stunting processes and recruitment control
Graaf, G.J. de - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.A. Huisman; Johan Verreth. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085041201 - 167
tilapia - oreochromis niloticus - visvijvers - visteelt - voortplanting - geslachtsrijpheid - groei - populatie-aanwas - simulatiemodellen - aquacultuur - fish ponds - fish culture - reproduction - sexual maturity - growth - recruitment - simulation models - aquaculture
Nitrogen transformations and fluxes in fish ponds: a modelling approach
Jiménez-Montealegre, R.A. - \ 2001
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.A. Huisman; Johan Verreth; Marc Verdegem. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084019 - 185
visteelt - aquacultuur - visvijvers - stikstof - stikstofretentie - stikstofkringloop - stikstofmetabolisme - visvoeding - modellen - fish culture - aquaculture - fish ponds - nitrogen - nitrogen retention - nitrogen cycle - nitrogen metabolism - fish feeding - models
<p>Nitrogen is a key element in aquatic environments, and in Aquaculture it is an important pond management variable. In current aquaculture research two important goals are to maintain the water quality within the system, and to improve the retention of nutrients applied to the system in order to minimize the discharge. The principal objectives of this study were to integrate the information available of nitrogen processes in fish ponds into a predictive model, and to investigate further the nitrogen dynamics between the water, the sediments and the biota present in this systems. First, a nitrogen balance in fish ponds was followed along a growing cycle; by combining estimates of the deposition rates of uneaten feed, faeces and dead phytoplankton with measurements of nitrogen accumulation in the sediment, the rate of decomposition of organic matter in the sediment was evaluated. The cumulative recovery at the end of the experiment was almost 100%, meaning that the nitrogen budget in the system studied can be fully explained without any consideration of nitrogen volatilisation, due to either denitrification or ammonia volatilisation. The interactions between various N-species are complex and difficult to integrate. A model that calculates the amounts of various N-compounds in the water column and in the sediment was constructed, and used to gain insight into the relative importance of transformation processes between the various N-compounds. The model was divided into three modules: fish, phytoplankton and sediment-water.</p><p>All concentrations of the various N-species present were simulated well except the N retained in organic matter in the sediment. To improve our understanding of the bottom organic matter dynamics, and make the model a more comprehensive predictive tool, an estimation of the principal sources of organic matter that accumulate in fish pond bottoms was assessed. Organic matter accumulation in fish ponds was quantified, and the data was used to construct, to calibrate and to validate a dynamic simulation model of organic matter deposition/decomposition in fish ponds. Besides, the rates of sedimentation and resuspension were measured along a growing cycle, following the influence of nutrient input, water parameters, fish biomass and fish size on these processes. Using a dilution analysis method to differentiate between sedimented and resuspended particles, sedimentation and resuspension rates were calculated. The rate of material collected in sediment traps increased from 88.5 to 330 g/m <sup>2</sup> per day along the growing cycle, but the relative resuspension did not change significantly, being always in the range of 42 to 47% of the total collected material. The processes of sedimentation of organic matter and resuspension were included in the original model. The proportion of three principal sources of organic matter that accumulate in the pond bottom were also included as parameters of the sedimentation process. A logistic equation relating the rate of resuspension and the fish biomass was calculated; and seepage, as a potential loss of nitrogen from the system, was also considered. The additions to the model represented a substantial improvement to model simulations.</p>
Ecologisch onderzoek Bubali-plas, Aruba
Halewijn, R. van; Higler, L.W.G. ; Spaans, A.L. - \ 1992
Arnhem : IBN-DLO (RIN - rapport 92/30)
aruba - biogeografie - vogels - ecologie - fauna - visvijvers - hydrologie - meren - bedrijfsvoering - nationale parken - natuurreservaten - beleid - plassen - selectie - rioolwater - locatiekeuze - afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - ecohydrologie - biogeography - birds - ecology - fish ponds - hydrology - lakes - management - national parks - nature reserves - policy - ponds - selection - sewage - site selection - waste water - waste water treatment - water treatment - ecohydrology
In het voor- en najaar van 1988 werd hydrobiologisch en ornithologisch onderzoek verricht in de Bubali-plas op Aruba, een van de Benedenwindse eilanden voor de kust van Venezuela. De plas, die water ontvangt van een rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallatie en regenwater, is de enige permanente zoetwaterplas op de Benedenwindse eilanden. Daarom is de aantrekkingskracht op broed- en trekvogels groot.
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