Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Human nutrition : a crunchy bite
Kok, F.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573703 - 28 p.
obesity - malnutrition - infant nutrition - nutrition and health - nutrition research - human nutrition research - vitamins - aging - pregnancy - abdominal fat - body fat - obesitas - slechte voeding - zuigelingenvoeding - voeding en gezondheid - voedingsonderzoek - voedingsonderzoek bij de mens - vitaminen - verouderen - zwangerschap - buikvet - lichaamsvet
Farewell address upon retiring as Professor of Nutrition and Health
at Wageningen University on 15 October 2015
Socioeconomic differences in micronutrient intake and status in Europe
Novakovic, R.N. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer; Lisette de Groot, co-promotor(en): Anouk Geelen; M. Gurinovic. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789461735775 - 154
sporenelementen - voedingsstoffenopname (mens en dier) - voedingstoestand - sociale economie - sociaal-economische positie - europa - vitaminen - trace elements - nutrient intake - nutritional state - socioeconomics - socioeconomic status - europe - vitamins

The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European countries. We addressed the micronutrients that have been prioritized because of their relevance for nutritional health by the EC-funded EURRECA Network of Excellence. Moreover, we assessed the association between folate intake and status which can be used in the process of setting folate DRVs.

Micronutrient intake and status of CEE countries versus other European countries

CEE countries have recently experienced rising income inequalities over a period of economic transition. There is some evidence that these reforms have been accompanied by health inequalities. Inadequacy in micronutrient intake and status may contribute to these inequalities. Because in more affluent Western European countries wide ranges in micronutrient intake and status are observed, we studied if low micronutrient intake and status levels are prevailing in CEE. The findings from this thesis signal no differences in micronutrient intake and status between CEE populations in comparison to those of other European regions with the exception of calcium intake in adults and iodine status in children that were lower in CEE than in other European regions. Since data from Western Europe indicate that inadequacies do exist among SES strata, more insight in the nutritional situation of lower SES populations in CEE and an understanding of both its determinants and consequences is needed. It is important to mention that evidence from grey literature added to that from open access sources. Fundamental to further studying of nutritional health in CEE, is suitable data. We underline the necessity for conducting nutritional surveillances on micronutrient intake and status in CEE as we have identified significant knowledge gaps for many life-stage groups.

Differences in micronutrient intake between SES groups

Considering that not enough studies have addressed the relationship between SES and micronutrient intake and status in their analyses of nutritional health, we performed a systematic review on this topic and we used data from the large European EPIC cohort to address that issue.

To be able to conclude on socioeconomic, i.e. educational, occupational and income, inequalities associated with intake and status of prioritized micronutrients for all life stages in Europe, substantial knowledge gaps should be filled. Currently, data are mostly available for the intake of calcium, vitamin C and iron as collected from adults in Western European countries. When either of the above mentioned SES indicators was applied to estimate relative differences in micronutrient intake and status between the lowest and the highest SES category within one study, the results often, but not consistently, indicated a lower intake and/or status in low versus high SES groups. For example, in eight out of ten studies a lower intake for calcium intake was found with relative differences ranging from -2 to -14%. Similar patterns were found for vitamin C and iron: in eleven out of twelve studies relative differences ranged from -5 to -48% for vitamin C, whereas in nine of ten studies on iron relative differences went up to -14%. Studies on intake and/or status of folate, vitamin B12, zinc, iodine, and intake of vitamin D, selenium and copper were limited. Still, when differences were observed, it appeared that lower intake in low than in high SES groups was found except for vitamin B12 and zinc for which the findings were inconsistent.

Furthermore, using education as a proxy for SES, we assessed differences in micronutrient intake between educational levels using the individual-participant data on European adults and elderly from the EPIC cohort. Based on data from 10 Western European countries it appeared that intake of calcium (except in France and a distinctive ‘health-conscious’ group in the UK), folate (except in Greece), and vitamin C was lower in the lowest than in the highest education groups: relative differences ranged up to 12, 13 and 23%, respectively. The intake of iron differed marginally, whereas the variation in intake of vitamins D and B12 was inconsistent. The observed association between educational level and intake of micronutrients was the same for men and women. Furthermore, differences in micronutrient intake were found to be larger between countries than between SES groups.

With respect to SES differences in micronutrient intake and status, there are significant gaps in the open source literature for many life-stage groups in Europe, but particularly in CEE countries. There is a clear need for cross-country and within country comparative research and for the monitoring of trends in dietary intake across different SES groups and European countries.

Relationship between folate intake and status to add complementary evidence for deriving folate dietary reference values (DRVs)

DRVs are under continuous review and periodic revision as the cumulative evidence base and body of knowledge evolve. Folate is considered a public health priority micronutrient for which re-evaluation of DRVs is needed. For this micronutrient, a systematic review of observational studies on the relationship between intake and status was done followed by meta-analysis. The intake of folate was significantly associated with markers of folate status. The results of our meta-analysis showed that an average person with a folate intake of 100 µg/day has a serum/plasma folate status concentration that is 26% higher and a red blood cell folate status that is 21% higher than a person who has a folate intake of 50 µg/day; plasma homocysteine was found to be 16% lower. The difference between natural food folate and that from supplements and fortified foods (folic acid) significantly influenced the estimated relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma status. Associations were stronger when assessed as folate from the diet than as folate from diet and supplements. Dietary assessment method did not significantly influence the association, although pooled estimates were somewhat higher when FFQs were used as compared to 24-hour recalls combined with food records. To focus on the impact of poor intakes on related health outcomes, data modelling can be conducted to produce estimates for Average Nutrient Requirements. For this analysis datasets and statistical models developed within the EURRECA NoE are available and can be used.

Overall, further research would benefit from methodologically comparable data on food intake in all age ranges, especially on so far understudied CEE populations. Both intakes obtained through diet and from supplements and fortified foods should be assessed. Monitoring of trends across SES strata should be done with standardized SES measurements that would also facilitate cross-country comparative research. The findings on the level and distribution of micronutrient intake and status could be used for development of food based dietary guidelines. To make them effective in meeting populations’ micronutrient needs, they should be created accounting for the country specific dietary patterns giving consideration to the socioeconomic context.

Mineralen-, sporenelementen- en vitaminenbehoeften van paarden
Top, A.M. van den; Blok, M.C. ; Everts, H. - \ 2012
Lelystad : CVB, Productschap Diervoeder (CVB-documentatierapport nr. 54) - 68
paarden - diervoeding - voeding - voedering - voedingsstoffen - mineralenvoeding - sporenelementen - vitaminen - horses - animal nutrition - nutrition - feeding - nutrients - mineral nutrition - trace elements - vitamins
In deze publicatie wordt beschreven hoe de in CVB verband tot stand gekomen voedernormen voor deze voedingsstoffen tot stand zijn gekomen. De publicatie is het resultaat van een deskstudie waarbij allereerst de Duitse DLG normen en de Amerikaanse NRC normen zijn geëvalueerd. Daar waar nodig is gericht gekeken of er nieuwe studies beschikbaar zijn, of is teruggegrepen op de oorspronkelijke publicaties. Voor de macromineralen (calcium, fosfor, magnesium, natrium, kalium, chloor) zijn de voedernormen gebaseerd op de zgn. factoriële methode. Voor sporenelementen en de vitamines bleek deze benadering niet mogelijk. Het rapport bevat een groot aantal tabellen waarin de voedernormen voor de genoemde nutriënten voor alle relevante fysiologische stadia.
Analytical standards for the measurement of nutrients in infant formula : vitamins, inositol and choline
Capuano, E. ; Alewijn, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT Wageningen UR 2012.004) - 54
analytische methoden - voedingsstoffen - bepaling - voedselanalyse - vitaminen - myo-inositol - choline - analytical methods - nutrients - determination - food analysis - vitamins
This report provides an overview of the available standardised analytical methods for the determination of nutrients in formula. This report focusses on the vitamins, inositol and choline compounds. In addition, several analytical method characteristics are provided i.e target compound(s) being actually measured, the matrixes wherein the methods have been validated and the method performance characteristics.
Vitamine B12, D, foliumzuur en leeftijdgerelateerde aandoeningen
Brouwer, E.M. ; Wijngaarden, J.P. van - \ 2011
Voeding Nu 4 (2011)13. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 20 - 21.
ouderen - botbreuken - gezondheidsbescherming - ziektepreventie - vitaminen - supplementen - foliumzuur - vitamine b12 - vitamine d - deficiëntie - voeding en gezondheid - elderly - bone fractures - health protection - disease prevention - vitamins - supplements - folic acid - vitamin b12 - vitamin d - deficiency - nutrition and health
Dat vitaminen en mineralen een positieve invloed uit kunnen oefenen op specifieke lichaamsprocessen is bekend. Twee promovendi van Wageningen Universiteit richten zich op het mogelijke verband tussen vitamine B12, foliumzuur en vitamine D en verschillende leeftijdgerelateerde aandoeningen. De associatie tussen een verhoogd homocysteïnegehalte en een verhoogd risico op fracturen was aanleiding voor een groot trial onderzoek onder ouderen. Dit B-PROOF onderzoek loopt nog.
Mitofood conference : bioactive food components, energy metabolism and human health, 13-15 April 2011, Wageningen, The Netherlands : celebrating 90 years of human and animal physiology at Wageningen University : final conference of COST Action FA0602: bioactive food components, mitochondrial function and health
Keijer, J. - \ 2011
[Wageningen] : Wageningen UR - 87
voedselsamenstelling - bioactieve verbindingen - voedingsstoffen - energiemetabolisme - gezondheid - polyfenolen - lipiden - vitaminen - hormonen - verouderen - bio-energetica - mitochondria - voeding - food composition - bioactive compounds - nutrients - energy metabolism - health - polyphenols - lipids - vitamins - hormones - aging - bioenergetics - nutrition
Estimation of micronutrient intake distributions: development of methods to support food and nutrition policy making
Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): M.C. Ocké. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859451 - 192
sporenelementen - vitaminen - voedingsstoffenopname (mens en dier) - dieet - beleid inzake voedsel - volksgezondheid - fortificatie - voedselsupplementen - trace elements - vitamins - nutrient intake - diet - food policy - public health - fortification - food supplements


Introduction
Adequate and safe micronutrient intake is important. Both insufficient and excessive intakes should be prevented as these can be associated with negative health effects. Therefore, the population intake distribution will ideally lay between insufficient and excessive intakes. For the development and evaluation of nutrition and food policy a good estimation of dietary micronutrient intake is of great importance.

Aim
Three challenges were addressed to improve the estimation of population micronutrient intake distributions: 1) how to estimate current habitual micronutrient intake when (detailed) data are lacking or data from different sources should be combined, 2) how to predict future intakes in order to support policy making, and 3) how to estimate a maximum safe fortification level per food item. The aim of this PhD-thesis is to further develop and apply statistical models which can cope with these challenges.

Methods & Results
Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCSs) were used to develop and apply statistical models which can cope with the defined challenges. In addition, data from the Dutch food composition database (NEVO) and the Dutch dietary supplement database (NES) were used.

Three main methodological improvements have been made. First, the combination of a deterministic approach with probabilistic approaches to be able to take into account uncertainty and variability were needed. This method was applied to estimate habitual iodine and salt intake distributions. From DNFCSs no detailed information was available on the discretionary use of (iodized) salt and no up to date information was available on the use of iodized salt in industrially processed foods. Estimates of the proportion of the population discretionarily using (iodized) salt and the proportion of industrially processed foods applying iodized salt were obtained from other data sources. The model accurately estimates habitual iodine and salt intake distributions when compared with studies measuring urinary iodine and sodium excretion. Additionally a framework was developed to simulate the habitual intake distribution for potential scenarios of future fortification strategies. Within this framework, deterministic and probabilistic approaches were combined when uncertainty or variability had to be taken into account. This framework was illustrated by the estimation of habitual folate-equivalent intake for different scenarios of mandatory or voluntary fortification with folic acid. Further this framework was applied to estimate the habitual iodine intake for several potential changes in the Dutch iodine policy and also for several scenarios of salt reduction strategies.

A second methodological improvement was the development of a new statistical model to estimate habitual total micronutrient intake aggregated from food and dietary supplements. Within this 3-part model, habitual intake is estimated separately for a) intake from food for non-users of dietary supplements, b) intake from food for users of dietary supplements, and c) intake from dietary supplements for users only. Habitual total intake for the whole population was obtained by combination of the three separate habitual intake distributions (‘first shrink then add’). This 3-part model was illustrated by vitamin D intake for young children. With a more simple ‘first add then shrink’ approach the estimation of habitual total vitamin D intake distribution may give inconsistent results for the distribution of intake from foods and dietary supplements combined as compared to the intake from food only. In addition, this more simple approach may not be able to cope with multi modal distributions. With the newly developed model this inconsistency problem was solved and the multi-modal shape of the distribution as observed in the ‘raw’ data was preserved.

Third, a model calculating the maximum safe fortification level per 100 kcal of a food was developed for the Dutch situation. By considering the tolerable upper intake level and reasonable high micronutrient intakes from food and dietary supplements, the ‘free space’ for voluntary fortification was calculated. This amount was divided over the amount of energy intake that can and may be fortified. The model was applied to derive safe maximum fortification levels for vitamin A, D, and folic acid. Based on these results the risk manager decided to legally allow voluntary fortification with vitamin D and folic acid up to a maximum level of 4.5 and 100 μg/100 kcal respectively.

Conclusion
The methodological improvements have resulted in higher accuracy for estimations of habitual intake distributions, which are essential for nutritional and food policy making. Furthermore, scenario analyses provide (under specific conditions) quantitative insight into proposed changes or areas such as maximum safe fortification levels. Several results and methods described are currently being used in research to assist Dutch and European food and nutrition policy making, which shows these methodologies are of immediate value to the practice of policy development and support.

Mineralenvoorziening van geiten
Smolders, E.A.A. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Govaerts, W. - \ 2010
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut (Rapport biogeit / Louis Bolk Instituut nr. 21) - 59
biologische landbouw - geitenhouderij - voedertoevoegingen - vitaminen - mineralen - voersamenstelling - organic farming - goat keeping - feed additives - vitamins - minerals - feed formulation
Biologische geitenhouders vragen zich af of een gezonde geitenhouderij mogelijk is zonder synthetische vitaminen. De afgelopen jaren zijn van verschillende groepen geiten bloedmonsters genomen voor bepaling van mineralen, spoorelementen en vitaminen. Ze zijn, waar mogelijk, vergeleken met bestaande referentiewaarden in Nederland en buitenlandse literatuur. Voor die bepalingen waarvoor referentiewaarde beschikbaar is, worden streefwaarden voorgesteld op basis van de bepalingen. Per element is gekeken of er tekorten (kunnen) ontstaan.
Gezondheidswaarde van appel en peer
Vreeburg, R.A.M. ; Sluis, A.A. van der - \ 2009
De Fruitteelt 99 (2009)19. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 14 - 15.
fruitteelt - fruitgewassen - appels - peren - gezondheidsvoedsel - vitaminen - antioxidanten - fruit growing - fruit crops - apples - pears - health foods - vitamins - antioxidants
Algemeen wordt aangenomen dat groente en fruit gezond zijn voor de mens. Maar hoe onderbouwd is de gedachte eigenlijk dat appels en peren gezond zijn
Zinkgehalte geit niet altijd op peil
Smolders, E.A.A. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Govaerts, W. - \ 2009
V-focus 2009 (2009)12. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 19 - 21.
geitenhouderij - geiten - zink - biologische productie - begrazing - weiden - ruwvoer (forage) - sporenelementen - mineralen - vitaminen - biologische landbouw - goat keeping - goats - zinc - biological production - grazing - pastures - forage - trace elements - minerals - vitamins - organic farming
In de biologische geitenhouderij is weidegang verplicht en bevat het rantsoen ook in de stalperiode meer ruwvoer dan in de gangbare geitenhouderij. Ook wordt soms eigen graan gevoerd ter vervanging van commercieel krachtvoer. De voorziening met mineralen, spoorelementen en vitaminen moet daarbij bewuster gestuurd worden. Binnen het project Biogeit is op veertien biologische geitenbedrijven bloed onderzocht op gehalten aan mineralen en vitaminen. Ook is gekeken naar de gehalten in het rantsoen. In dit artikel staat zink centraal
Identification of specific demands on Feed in Dutch Organic Aquaculture
Poelman, M. - \ 2009
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES C070/09) - 19
biologische landbouw - aquacultuur - visvoeding - biologische productie - certificering - garnalenteelt - visteelt - vitaminen - dierenwelzijn - organic farming - aquaculture - fish feeding - biological production - certification - shrimp culture - fish culture - vitamins - animal welfare
The evaluation of specific demands for organic feed focussed on feed demands for four fish species which can be cultured in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS), tilapia, African Catfish, shrimp and turbot. The evaluation of the various feed formulations indicates that there are several ingredients, which are common for the four species, and will therefore be used for further elaboration on the organic availability. These feed ingredients, are: fishmeal and oil, corn meal, wheat meal, blood meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix, and antioxidants. Besides the evaluation of the feed ingredients an inventory was made on the demands set by three key organic standards and legislation documents; European legislation (in prep), IFOAM and Naturland. A draft consensus standard containing a synthesis of all demands has been described. The implication of the demands, and the possibilities and bottlenecks for organic feed production were evaluated for the selected feed ingredients. It was concluded that organic feed production for RAS can meet the general criteria set for feed, on GMO material and organic composition. However, for the production of organic feed, a bottleneck will be the necessary requirement of synthetic amino acids for health improvement. The lack of these amino acids in organic feed can result in potential disadvantage for animal needs. This raw material restrictions will most likely also result in the lack of possibilities for fine tuning the feed for animal needs
Voedingswaarden champignons en andere paddenstoelen
Baars, J.J.P. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Plant Research International (PRI rapport 2008-6)
eetbare paddestoelen - voedingswaarde - voeding en gezondheid - vezelgehalte - vitaminen - eiwitgehalte - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - edible fungi - nutritive value - nutrition and health - fibre content - vitamins - protein content - novel foods
Uit de analyse van de voedingswaarden van paddenstoelen en verschillenden onderzoeken blijkt dat een advies om de paddenstoelenconsumptie bij de bevolking te verhogen op zijn plaats is. Er zijn volop mogelijkheden om de ontwikkeling van functioneel foods op basis van paddenstoelen te stimuleren maar dan moeten de gezondheids-effecten voor claims wel nog verder worden onderbouwd.
Vitamines, mineralen en smaak : verschillen tussen biologische en gangbare winkelmelk
Vries, A. de; Wit, J. de; Slaghuis, B.A. ; Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M. ; Vijver, L.P.L. van de - \ 2008
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 28
biologische landbouw - biologische voedingsmiddelen - melk - melksamenstelling - vetzuren - vitaminen - vitaminegehalte - analyse - voeding en gezondheid - organic farming - organic foods - milk - milk composition - fatty acids - vitamins - vitamin content - analysis - nutrition and health
Melk van biologische en gangbare oorsprong laat verschillen in vetzuursamenstelling zien. Uit onderzoek in het buitenland zijn ook verschillen gevonden in vitaminehoeveelheden tussen melk van biologische of gangbare herkomst. Dit was aanleiding om ook in Nederlandse winkelmelk na te gaan of de vitamines een onderscheidend kenmerk vormen. Daarnaast is onderzocht of biologische en gangbare melk onderscheidend is ten aanzien van smaak.
Extra vitaminen voor biologische geiten soms nodig
Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2005
V-focus 2 (2005)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 20 - 21.
geitenhouderij - geiten - biologische landbouw - geitenvoeding - voer - voersamenstelling - vitaminen - vitaminetekorten - goat keeping - goats - organic farming - goat feeding - feeds - feed formulation - vitamins - vitamin deficiencies
In een onderzoek binnen het project biogeit zijn 3 bedrijven, die geen synthetische vitaminen voeren, in maart 2005 doorgelicht op vitminegehalten in zowel het rantsoen als het bloed van de dieren. Bij het niet toevoegen van extra vitaminen lijken problemen zich te concentreren in de stalperiode rond vitamine E en in mindere mate vitamine A.
Toevoegen vitaminen : biologisch kan zonder synthetische vitaminen
Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2005
Veeteelt (2005)11. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 71 - 71.
melkveehouderij - rundveeteelt - biologische landbouw - rundveevoeding - voer - voersamenstelling - vitaminen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - toevoegingen - dairy farming - cattle farming - organic farming - cattle feeding - feeds - feed formulation - additives - vitamins - farm management
Op Europees niveau is de discussie over het definitief opheffen van het verbod op synthetische vitaminen in de biologische rundveehouderij weer geopend. Nederlands onderzoek geeft aan dat er nauwelijks tekorten aan vitaminen optreden, met uitzondering gedurende de droogstand.
Het Cliche: Mineralen en vitaminen: nooit genoeg
Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2005
Ekoland 25 (2005)6. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 12 - 13.
biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - diervoeding - mineralen - mineralenvoeding - vitaminen - voedingsstoffen - vitaminetekorten - organic farming - dairy farming - animal nutrition - minerals - mineral nutrition - vitamins - nutrients - vitamin deficiencies
De auteur gaat uitvoerig in op de risico's van zowel te veel als te weinig mineralen en vitaminen. Beide uitersten kunnen schadelijk zijn.
Vitaminen in rantsoenen voor biologisch melkvee = Fat soluble vitamins in rations for organic dairy cows en goat
Smolders, G. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Neijenhuis, F. - \ 2005
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (PraktijkRapport / Animal Sciences Group, Praktijkonderzoek : Rundvee ) - 39
melkvee - geiten - melkveehouderij - biologische landbouw - vitaminen - voedingsrantsoenen - diervoeding - diervoedering - bèta-caroteen - vitamine d - vitamine e - rundveevoeding - kennis - dairy cattle - goats - dairy farming - organic farming - vitamins - feed rations - animal nutrition - animal feeding - beta-carotene - vitamin d - vitamin e - cattle feeding - knowledge
On five organic dairy cow farms during the period spring 2004/2005 feedstuffs and blood samples were taken 3 times to analyse beta carotene, vitamin D and vitamin E (tocopherols). On 3 organic dairy goat farms feeds and blood samples were taken only in spring 2005. Within types of feeds there are large differences in vitamin content. Vitamin shortages are not to be expected during the grazing season. During the housing period shortages of vitamin D and E might occur in dry cow and in fresh calved cows. In cow, coming into heat sometimes was a problem. On one of the goat farms animal health was not optimal. Rations with a variety of good quality grass silage, artificial dried grass or whole plant silage do not need extra supplementation of vitamins. For supplementation of rations with natural vitamin E plants rich in vegetable oil can be used, supplementation of diets with vitamin D could be found in sun cured products.
Variatie in rantsoen verkleint kans op tekort aan vitaminen
Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2005
V-focus 2 (2005)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 14 - 15.
vitaminegehalte - diervoeding - voedersupplementen - vitaminetoevoegingen - vitaminetekorten - vitaminen - melkveehouderij - rundveevoeding - diergezondheid - vitamin content - animal nutrition - feed supplements - vitamin supplements - vitamin deficiencies - vitamins - dairy farming - cattle feeding - animal health
In de EU is de discussie over het wel of niet toestaan van synthetische vitamines in veevoer weer opgelaaid. Met name de noordelijke EU-landen willen af van het verbod op deze stoffen omdat zij vrezen voor diergezondheidsklachten. Op vijf melkveebedrijven waar al jaren geen vitamines worden bijgevoerd, zijn de gevolgen onderzocht. Onderzoek is gedaan naar de vitaminegehalten in het voer, de bloedwaarden van de koeien, de diergezondheid en de vruchtbaarheid
Voldoende vitaminen: Gezonde koeien zonder toevoeging
Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2004
Veeteelt 21 (2004)15. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 63 - 63.
melkveehouderij - biologische landbouw - rundveevoeding - vitaminen - voedertoevoegingen - diergezondheid - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - graskuilvoer - klaverkuilvoer - dairy farming - organic farming - cattle feeding - grass silage - clover silage - vitamins - feed additives - animal health - farm management
Volgens biologische richtlijnen mogen geen synthetische vitaminen verstrekt worden aan koeien. Maar zonder extra toevoeging kan er volgens berekeningen bij koeien een tekort ontstaan aan vitamine D en E. Met het oog hierop zijn op Bioveem-bedrijven en op bedrijven van het Vitamineproject de grasklaverkuilen op vitamine-gehaltes onderzocht
Vitamin B12: a novel indicator of bone health in vulnerable groups
Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. - \ 2004
University. Promotor(en): Wija van Staveren, co-promotor(en): Lisette de Groot. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085041074
voeding - ouderen - voedselsamenstelling - vitaminen - vitamine b12 - beenderen - skelet - beendervorming - botontkalking - gezondheid - nutrition - elderly - food composition - vitamins - vitamin b12 - bones - skeleton - bone formation - osteoporosis - health
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