Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==voedingsstoffenbehoeften
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Potassium, the major organiser in numerous plant processes : involved in almost everything the plant turns into plant
Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2016
In Greenhouses : the international magazine for greenhouse growers 5 (2016)4. - ISSN 2215-0633 - p. 46 - 47.
greenhouse horticulture - crop production - crop quality - potassium - plant development - nutrient requirements - glastuinbouw - gewasproductie - gewaskwaliteit - kalium - plantenontwikkeling - voedingsstoffenbehoeften
No potassium no plant: A huge number of processes are dependent on this element. Luckily, hardly any problems occur because the plant is good at looking after itself in this respect.
Stikstof blijkt behalve essentieel voedingselement ook signaalstof : aansturing van processen, zoals een hormoon
Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2016
Onder Glas 13 (2016)9. - p. 20 - 21.
glastuinbouw - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - stikstof - plantenontwikkeling - greenhouse horticulture - nutrient requirements - nitrogen - plant development
Er is geen voedingselement waarvan de plant zoveel nodig heeft als stikstof. Het gehalte kan wel 5% van de drogestof uitmaken. Behalve als essentieel onderdeel van veel plantonderdelen en inhoudsstoffen, wordt ook steeds meer duidelijk dat stikstof een signaalstof is, die processen aanstuurt, bijna zoals een hormoon.
Response of broilers on incremental dietary P content and consequences for P- requirements
Krimpen, M.M. van; Dekker, R.A. ; Emous, R.A. van; Bikker, P. ; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Lee, A.G. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 931) - 44 p.
broilers - phosphorus - nutrient requirements - poultry feeding - broiler performance - feeds - poultry farming - vleeskuikens - fosfor - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - pluimveevoeding - vleeskuikenresultaten - voer - pluimveehouderij
The aim of the current experiment was to determine the aP requirements in modern broilers by performing a dose-response experiment. This study showed that for realizing maximal performance, in phase 1 (d1-d10) 5.4 g aP per kg of feed was required, in phase 2 (d11-d21) 4.3 g aP per kg of feed, and in phase 4 (d31-d38) 2.6 g aP per kg of feed. In phase 3 (d22-d30), performance of the broilers was not affected by dietary aP content. For realizing maximal tibia ash content in phase 3, an aP-level of 3.8 g/kg was required.
Phosphorus metabolism in dairy cattle : literature study on recent developments and gaps in knowledge
Goselink, R.M.A. ; Klop, G. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Bannink, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 910) - 36
dairy cattle - phosphorus - nutrient requirements - animal nutrition - metabolism - melkvee - fosfor - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - diervoeding - metabolisme
Goal of this literature study is to define the uncertainties related to P requirement models and ways to make them more precise and more reliable than current systems and to find biomarkers to monitor P balance in living animals. Milk P is an important factor in P balance, and concentration may vary between individual cows. Bone represents a large P reserve and can have a profound impact on cow P balance and plasma P regulation. Plasma P concentration is still the most commonly used diagnostic measurement available to judge the P status of an animal, with all restrictions for good interpretation; new biomarkers defining P status are needed. Further research into mechanisms and quantification of the is needed to improve our understanding of P metabolism.
Minerals in fish: does the source matter?
Antony Jesu Prabhu, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): C. Mariojouls; S. Kaushik; Johan Schrama. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574809 - 267
visvoeding - mineralen - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - mineraalmetabolisme - voer - minerale supplementen - groei - lichaamssamenstelling - visteelt - aquacultuur - fish feeding - minerals - nutrient requirements - mineral metabolism - feeds - mineral supplements - growth - body composition - fish culture - aquaculture
Mineral nutrition of cocoa : a review
Vliet, J.A. van; Slingerland, M.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462577053 - 57
cacao - mineralenvoeding - bevruchting - kunstmeststoffen - mestbehoeftebepaling - vruchtbaarheid - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - voedingsstoffenbeschikbaarheid - grondanalyse - voedingsstoffentekorten - kaliummeststoffen - stikstofmeststoffen - fosformeststoffen - agrarische productiesystemen - overzichten - cocoa - mineral nutrition - fertilization - fertilizers - fertilizer requirement determination - fertility - nutrient requirements - nutrient availability - soil analysis - nutrient deficiencies - potassium fertilizers - nitrogen fertilizers - phosphorus fertilizers - agricultural production systems - reviews
This literature review on mineral nutrition of cocoa was commissioned by the Scientific Committee of the Cocoa Fertiliser Initiative to address the following questions: What knowledge is currently available about mineral nutrition of cocoa? What are the current knowledge gaps? What are the key areas for further research?
Impact of health status on amino acid requirements of growing pigs : towards feeding strategies for farms differing in health status
Kampman-van de Hoek, E. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Walter Gerrits; Alfons Jansman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573437 - 184
varkens - afmesten - diergezondheid - aminozuren - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - voedingseiwit - aminozuurmetabolisme - stikstofretentie - immuniteitsreactie - immuunsysteem - varkensvoeding - diervoeding - pigs - finishing - animal health - amino acids - nutrient requirements - dietary protein - amino acid metabolism - nitrogen retention - immune response - immune system - pig feeding - animal nutrition

Abstract

There is large variation in the production performance of commercial growing-finishing pig farms. This variation even exists when pigs have a similar genetic background and fed similar diets. The health status is one of the major factors contributing to this large variation in pig performance, as activation of the immune system can decrease feed intake, body weight gain and increase nutrient utilisation for immune system functioning. As a consequence, amino acids (AA) are repartitioned from skeletal muscle deposition towards utilisation for immune system functioning. Current requirement estimates for growing-finishing pigs are formulated to maximize protein deposition for growth and do not take into account the increased utilization of AA for immune functioning as induced by health challenging conditions. This lack of knowledge hampers the ability of feed manufacturers to optimize diets and improve pig performance. The main objective of the present thesis was to quantify the effect of health status on AA requirements for body protein deposition and for immune system functioning of growing pigs.

A health status web was developed as a tool to categorize growing-finishing pig farms on the basis of their health status. The health status web can be of use for feed manufacturers to develop targeted strategies to accommodate the nutritional requirements of pigs belonging to particular groups of farms sharing a common health status. A dose-response technique was developed, which is a simple, accu­rate technique to quantitatively estimate changes in AA requirements of individual meal-fed pigs. Nevertheless, a minimum time period of 21 days is required for each individual, which makes the technique inappropriate for studying the effect of immune system activation on AA requirements. The combined measurements of whole body N retention, plasma irreversible loss rate (ILR, i.e. the amount of free AA that disappears per unit of time from the plasma pool for protein synthesis or oxidation), urea entry and appearance of 13C into plasma proteins, provided insight into the consequences of immune system activation on AA metabolism.

Pigs selected from a farm with a suboptimal health status had greater serum haptoglobin, lower serum albumin concentrations, and greater leukocyte counts in blood at the start of the experiment than pigs selected from a farm with a high health status, indicating a higher level of immune system activation. The occurrence of compensatory gain in pigs from a farm characterized as having a suboptimal health status proves, however, that it is difficult to maintain a contrast in health status, and that pigs can adapt quickly to a change in housing conditions. In the absence of effects on feed intake, health challenging conditions may affect performance due to alterations in post-absorptive AA metabolism, as also indicated by increased urinary N losses, and a tendency for a reduced N retention and a lower utilization of digestible N for N retention in pigs with a systemic inflammation, or by a reduction in faecal nutrient digestibility as indicated for dry matter and N in pigs from a farm with a suboptimal health status. The observed changes in protein and AA metabolism after immune stimulation imply that especially tryptophan may become limiting during immune system activation, whereas lysine becomes excessive. Furthermore, the utilization of methionine, tyrosine, and valine for immune system functioning seems to increase in pigs with a systemic lung inflammation. In addition, the dietary AA or protein supply was able to modulate the acute phase response pre- and post-challenge, stressing the importance of an adequate dietary AA supply for appropriate functioning of the immune system of growing-finishing pigs.

Before implementing targeted feeding strategies for farms sharing a common health status, future research should be conducted to study the possible beneficial effects of increasing the dietary supply of particularly tryptophan, methionine, tyrosine, and valine relative to lysine for immune system function and for body protein deposition in pigs from farms with a different health status.

Estimating requirements for apparent faecal and standardised ileal digestible amino acids in laying hens by a metaanalysis approach
Krimpen, M.M. van; Veldkamp, T. ; Riel, J.W. van; Khaksar, V. ; Hashemipour, H. ; Blok, M.C. ; Spek, W. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research report 848) - 71
hennen - aminozuren - voer - meta-analyse - verteerbaarheid - eiwitverteerbaarheid - dunne darm - voedingsstoffengehalte - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - voedingsbehoeften - pluimvee - pluimveevoeding - hens - amino acids - feeds - meta-analysis - digestibility - protein digestibility - small intestine - nutrient content - nutrient requirements - feed requirements - poultry - poultry feeding
The aim of the present study is to update the requirements for the essential amino acids of laying hens, both on a AFD and SID basis, by performing a meta-analysis on dose-response studies used to derive requirement values for essential amino acids (lysine, methionine+cysteine, threonine and tryptophan) in laying hens as presented in the literature. In this meta-analysis, the data are fitted by use of the Wood equation (see paragraph 2.4). The amino acid intake levels for realizing maximal rate of lay, egg mass and feed efficiency are provided. The amino acid requirements for use in practice are based on the amino acid intake levels at which 95% of these maximum responses were reached.
Phosphorus requirement in laying hens
Lambert, W. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Star, L. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Schothorst Feed Research (Report / Schothorst Feed Research 1362-2) - 48
hennen - fosfor - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - pluimveevoeding - voedersupplementen - diergezondheid - pluimveehokken - hens - phosphorus - nutrient requirements - poultry feeding - feed supplements - animal health - poultry housing
It was hypothesized that P supply by feed in alternative housing systems can be lowered without negative effects on bone quality and production performance. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were 1) to update the retainable phosphorus (rP) needs of two modern laying hen breeds from 36 to 90 weeks of age housed in an aviary system, 2) to investigate the influence of dietary rP levels on Ca and P content in eggs, manure, carcasses and bones.
The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens
Veldkamp, T. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van; Bikker, P. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 806) - 27
vleeskuikens - biologische beschikbaarheid - zink - belgië - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - excretie - excreten - landbouw en milieu - pluimveevoeding - pluimveehouderij - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - broilers - bioavailability - zinc - belgium - nutrient requirements - excretion - excreta - agriculture and environment - poultry feeding - poultry farming - scientific research
Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulfilling the zinc requirements of the animal and to reduce zinc excretion in excreta and the environment.
Analytical standards for the measurement of nutrients in infant formula : macronutrients, minerals, carnitine, taurine and nucleotides
Capuano, E. ; Alewijn, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT Wageningen UR 2012.019) - 54
flesvoedingsamenstelling - analytische methoden - globale analyse - macronutriënten - mineralen - taurine - carnitine - nucleotiden - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - recht - infant formulae - analytical methods - proximate analysis - macronutrients - minerals - nucleotides - nutrient requirements - law
Adequate methods with known performance characteristics for the assessment of the concentration of nutrients in infant and follow-on formula (referred to as "formula") are essential in the evaluation whether the composition deviates from the compositional provisions as laid down by law. Many standardized analytical methods for the analysis of nutrients in infant formula are internationally available.
Voeding voor wie lang fit wil blijven
Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2012
In: Voeding voor vitale 50-plussers Wageningen : Food Valley - ISBN 9789081609371 - p. 9 - 9.
ouderenvoeding - voeding en gezondheid - ouderen - productontwikkeling - gezondheidsbevordering - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - elderly nutrition - nutrition and health - elderly - product development - health promotion - nutrient requirements
Goede voeding kan helpen ouderdomskwalen te voorkomen, ook voor wie al 50-plus is. En tot die categorie behoren steeds meer mensen, in Nederland en daarbuiten. Ook gaat met de jaren de behoefte aan sommige voedingsstoffen omhoog. Volop kansen voor productontwikkeling dus.
Sustainable agricultural intensification in Sub-Saharan Africa : design of an assessment tool
Verzandvoort, S.J.E. ; Beek, C.L. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Froebrich, J. ; Jansen, H.C. ; Noij, I.G.A.M. ; Roest, C.W.J. ; Vreke, J. ; Mansfeld, M.J.M. van - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2352) - 62
landbouwproductie - duurzame landbouw - duurzaam bodemgebruik - gewasopbrengst - waterbeheer - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - voedselzekerheid - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - agricultural production - sustainable agriculture - sustainable land use - crop yield - water management - nutrient requirements - food security - africa south of sahara
The demand for agricultural products (food, feed, fibre, and biomass for other purposes) produced in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) will increase for the coming decades. In addition, the global climate change will largely impact on the agricultural sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. Major challenges for the agricultural sector in SSA are that agricultural production systems depend on resources that are for a large part non-renewable, and that the current agricultural practices in SSA are major contributors to environmental degradation. The Government of the Netherlands addresses food security and sustainable agricultural production in Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to support this process, the Ministry of EL&I has asked for ‘a concept’ to evaluate options for agricultural developments, which are aimed at increasing productivity and improving livelihoods, whilst safeguarding or improving ecosystems. This report presents analyses of yield gaps in Africa, nutrient use and requirements for crop land, and of fresh water production and crop evapotranspiration. The yield gap analysis was based on spatial databases and simulations of potential (irrigated) and water-limited maize yields with a crop growth model. The yield gap in Africa varies largely, ranging from 5 to 60%. The potential improvement for land productivity is large (up to 7 times the actual production levels), even without the help of irrigation. The analysis of nutrient use and requirements for cropland in Africa showed that closing the yield gap requires a higher N and P availability to crops. The analysis of the fresh water production per capita and evapotranspiration from cropland revealed that changes in cropland management, e.g. targeted to increase crop yields and evapotranspiration, can have a dramatic effect on fresh water production and may call for cropping systems that are efficient in water use. From a water use perspective the intensification of agriculture should be assessed at the regional (river basin) level, taking account of the spatial position of the country with respect to water-stressed basins. In the allocation of water resources, priority should be given to the areas where the highest return on water resources can be achieved in terms of types of water use or production systems. The report presents a tool to presented to evaluate strategic plans for the development of agriculture to increase food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. The tool can assist in identifying and evaluating alternative strategies for agricultural intensification in a participatory process. Apart from the Ministry of EL&I, other potential actors and stakeholders in such a process are the Dutch embassies in the pilot countries, governmental planning agencies, the private sector (local and foreign investors), NGOs (local and international NGOs), and knowledge institutes.
Growers forget the needs of the crop: More accurate feeding: lower runoff emissions and better use of fertilisers (interview a.o. with Chris Blok)
Bezemer, J. ; Blok, C. - \ 2012
In Greenhouses : the international magazine for greenhouse growers 2012 (2012)1. - ISSN 2215-0633 - p. 48 - 49.
glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - plantenvoeding - bemesting - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - gewasanalyse - toedieningshoeveelheden - groenten - sierteelt - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - plant nutrition - fertilizer application - nutrient requirements - plant analysis - application rates - vegetables - ornamental horticulture
Fertilisers received a lot of attention when growers first started using substrates. Since then the nutritional requirements of the plant have been largely driven by the need to reduce runoff emissions. In addition, more efficient use of fertilisers is playing a role. Until now growers went along with standerd fertiliser strategies. Now they are starting to adjust the nutrients given to suit the plant's needs.
Protein and energy nutrition of marine gadoids, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.)
Tibbetts, S. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.P. Lall; Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Johan Schrama. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731357 - 221
kabeljauw - schelvis - zeevissen - voedingseiwit - energie - visvoeding - diervoeding - verteerbaarheid - ingrediënten - mengvoer - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - visteelt - aquacultuur - cod - haddock - marine fishes - dietary protein - energy - fish feeding - animal nutrition - digestibility - ingredients - compound feeds - nutrient requirements - fish culture - aquaculture

Primary goals of this thesis were to: 1) examine the in vivo digestion of macronutrients from conventional or alternative feed ingredients used in practical diets of juvenile gadoids (Atlantic cod and haddock), 2) document growth potential of fish at the juvenile grower phase given varying levels of dietary protein and energy and 3) assess the potential of in vitro pH-Stat methods for rapid screening protein quality of feed ingredients, specifically for gadoids. All primary research questions were linked to and built upon one another with the goal of gaining a better understanding of protein and energy utilization of juvenile grower phase gadoids. Studies showed that cod and haddock have a high capacity to utilize a wide range of dietary feed ingredients, such as fish meals, zooplankton meal, soybean products (meal, concentrate and isolate) and wheat gluten meal. New dietary formulations for gadoids may also utilize pulse meals, corn gluten meal, canola protein concentrate and crab meal. Digestibility data in this thesis is currently the only research that examined both in vivo and in vitro macronutrient digestibility of a large number and wide range of individual ingredients, specifically for gadoids. This is essential to gain new knowledge on protein and energy utilization as well as for least-cost ration formulations and effective substitution of ingredients into new formulations. Data has demonstrated a dietary digestible protein/digestible energy (DP/DE)ratio of 30 g DP/MJ DE is required for gadoids during the juvenile phase (<100 g) to ensure maximum somatic tissue growth, high digestibility, maximum nitrogen and energy retention efficiency and minimal excessive liver growth. Preliminary nutrient requirement studies together with an applied nutritional approach has identified that feeds for juveniles farmed in the Western North Atlantic should contain 50-55% crude protein, <12% fat and <17% carbohydrate. Data in this thesis is currently the first aimed at development and application of an in vitro closed-system pH-Stat assay for rapid screening protein quality of test ingredients that is ‘species-specific’ to gadoids. It is demonstrated that in vitro results generally reflected results obtained through conventional in vivo protein digestibility methods. Studies resulted in the first generation of a ‘gadoid-specific’ proteolytic enzyme extraction method and in vitro closed-system pH-Stat assay which may be useful to investigate protein digestion, absorption and metabolism of gadoids and further development of their feeds.

Aardappel die zuinig is met stikstof
Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2011
Kennis Online 8 (2011)nov. - p. 12 - 12.
aardappelen - plantenveredeling - stikstof - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - biologische landbouw - low input landbouw - selectiemethoden - potatoes - plant breeding - nitrogen - nutrient requirements - organic farming - low input agriculture - selection methods
De mestwetgeving en problemen met uitspoeling maken veredeling van aardappels op stikstofefficiëntie steeds interessanter. Met een lowinputaardappel kunnen veredelaars ook nieuwe markten in ontwikkelingslanden bedienen. Onderzoekers speuren naar manieren om de complexe eigenschap voor veredelaars grijpbaar te maken.
Zuivelproducten zijn belangrijke bronnen van micronutriënten
Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2011
VoedingsMagazine 24 (2011)3. - ISSN 0922-8012 - p. 11 - 13.
melkproducten - melk - voedingsstoffen - aanbevolen dagelijkse hoeveelheden - voeding en gezondheid - voedingsstoffentekorten - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - sporenelementen - milk products - milk - nutrients - recommended dietary allowances - nutrition and health - nutrient deficiencies - nutrient requirements - trace elements
Het network of excellence EURRECA heeft tien micronutriënten geselecteerd die prioriteit verdienen bij de Europese harmonisatie van de voedingsaanbevelingen. Voor veel van de micronutrienënten zijn melk en zuivelproducten belangrijke bronnen. Zo bleek tijdens een symposium in Parijs.
Telers denken nog te veel in volumes water en vergeten behoeften gewas: Nauwkeuriger voeden: lagere emissie en betere benutting meststoffen (interview met Chris Blok)
Bezemer, J. ; Blok, C. - \ 2011
Onder Glas 8 (2011)6/7. - p. 54 - 55.
glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - plantenvoeding - meetinstrumenten - nutriëntengebruiksefficiëntie - bemesting - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - gewasanalyse - toedieningshoeveelheden - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - plant nutrition - indicating instruments - nutrient use efficiency - fertilizer application - nutrient requirements - plant analysis - application rates
Bij de introductie van de eerste substraten kreeg de bemesting veel belangstelling. Daarna bleef de behoefte van de plant aan voedingsstoffen lange tijd onderbelicht. Nu is er sprake van een revival. Verlaging van de emissies is een motor achter de hernieuwde belangstelling. Maar een effectiever gebruik van meststoffen begint ook mee te spelen. Tot nu toe voorzagen de telers het systeem van meststoffen. Nu beginnen ze de voedingsgift op de plant af te stemmen.
Onderzoek verband nutriëntendichtheid en gezondheid
Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2010
VoedingsMagazine 23 (2010)4. - ISSN 0922-8012 - p. 13 - 13.
voedingsstoffenbalans - voedingsstoffen - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - energiebehoefte - voedingswaarde - dieet - voeding en gezondheid - nutrient balance - nutrients - nutrient requirements - power requirement - nutritive value - diet - nutrition and health
Gastcolumn van Prof. dr. Edith Feskens, hoogleraar Voeding en Metabool Syndroom aan Wageningen Universiteit. De energiedichtheid van onze voeding is belangrijk, omdat een te hoge calorie inneming gecombineerd met lage fysieke activiteit de oorzaak is van de huidige obesitasepidemie. Maar ook de nutriëntendichtheid is belangrijk.
Teeltsturing door Ionspecifiek meten
Gieling, T.H. ; Blok, C. ; Janssen, H.J.J. ; Maas, A.A. van der; Os, E.A. van; Voogt, W. - \ 2010
ionen - macro-elementen - drainagewater - voedingsoplossingen - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - waterbehoefte - zuurstofbehoefte - ions - major elements - drainage water - nutrient solutions - nutrient requirements - water requirements - oxygen requirement
Ion specifiek meten en sturen is het online en ter plaatse meten van de macro-elementen in voedingswater en drainwater met als doel in een volgende gift water en voeding af te stemmen op de behoefte van de plant.
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