- FBR Fresh Supply Chains (14)
- Fresh Food and Chains (8)
- Fresh, Food & Chains (8)
- LEI MARKT & K - Duurzame Handel en Ketenvorming (8)
- FBR Supply Chain & Information Management (6)
- Food Informatics & Supply Chain Management (6)
- Supply Chain & Information Management (6)
- AFSG Quality in Chains (5)
- LEI Consument and Behaviour (4)
- LEI Consumer & behaviour (4)
- LEI MARKT & K - Ketenprestaties (4)
- WASS (4)
- FBR Food Technology (3)
- Food Technology (3)
- AFSG Biobased Products (2)
- Consumer Science & Intelligent Systems (2)
- LEI INT BELEID - Internationale Handel & Markten (2)
- LEI Markt en Ketens (2)
- LEI SECT & OND - Prestatie en Perspectief Agrosectoren (2)
- Operations Research and Logistics (2)
- RIKILT - Business Unit Safety & Health (2)
- AFSG Food Quality (1)
- Animal Production Systems (1)
- Business Management & Organization (1)
- CS Corporate Communications & Marketing (1)
- Corporate Communications & Marketing (1)
- FBR Post Harvest Technology (1)
- Food Microbiology (1)
- Food Microbiology Laboratory (1)
- Institute for Soil Fertility (1)
- International Policy (1)
- LEI International Policy (1)
- LEI NAT HULPB - Milieu, Natuur en Landschap (1)
- LEI Wageningen UR (1)
- LR - Backoffice (1)
- MGS (1)
- Management Studies (1)
- PE&RC (1)
- Post Harvest Technology (1)
- Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (1)
- Research (1)
- Science Shop (1)
- VLAG (1)
- WIAS (1)
- Wageningen Economic Research (1)
- M.J. Bogaardt (1)
- M.H. Bokma-Bakker (1)
- N. Bondt (2)
- K. Boogaard van den (1)
- J. Borgijink (1)
- H.E.J. Bos-Brouwers (5)
- H. Bouwmeester (1)
- E.M.F. Broek van den (1)
- J. Broeze (1)
- M. Burgh van der (3)
- Marianne Burgh van der (2)
- M. Chandrasekaran (1)
- H. Damman (1)
- M.G. Danse (1)
- E. Delahay (1)
- P. Duizer (1)
- M.M. Eppink (3)
- M. Eppink (1)
- Y. Gameren van (2)
- J.B. Gogh van (2)
- B. Groesz (1)
- J.L.F. Hagelaar (1)
- J. Hassink (1)
- S. Herrewijn (1)
- E. Heuvel van den (1)
- S.R.C.H. Hiller (2)
- J. Houtman (1)
- S.R.M. Janssens (1)
- S. Kilian (1)
- N. Kleeven (1)
- F. Kleijn (1)
- S.A. Klein Gebbink (1)
- L. Koenders (1)
- V.P.H.M. Kok de (1)
- N. Kooren (1)
- B. Luit van (1)
- H. Luitjes (1)
- P. Lune van (1)
- M.J.G. Meeusen (2)
- G.W. Meijerink (1)
- Nomathemba Mhlanga (1)
- M.A. Nijenhuis (1)
- M.J.R. Nout (1)
- P.L. Nowicki (1)
- M.C. Onwezen (2)
- E.B. Oosterkamp (2)
- K.G.J. Pauls-Worm (1)
- H.W. Peppelenbos (2)
- H. Peppelenbos (1)
- F.I.D.G. Pereira da Silva (1)
- C. Ploeg van der (1)
- R. Ramaker (1)
- M. Reinders (1)
- J.G. Roest van der (1)
- M.M. Rutten (2)
- A. Saris (1)
- P.K. Sarkar (1)
- M. Sas van (1)
- F.P. Scheer (2)
- A.S. Schripsema (1)
- A. Sikkema (1)
- A.A. Sluis van der (2)
- J.C.M.A. Snels (2)
- J.M. Soethoudt (7)
- Han Soethoudt (2)
- M. Soysal (1)
- S. Staps (2)
- V. Steeghs (1)
- M. Steverink (2)
- D.A.J.M. Stijnen (1)
- E.U. Thoden van Velzen (1)
- P. Thung (1)
- A.J.M. Timmermans (8)
- T. Timmermans (2)
- S. Tromp (2)
- J. Vaartjes (1)
- O.M.C. Valk van der (1)
- K. Verhagen (1)
- K. Versluis (1)
- J. Vierstra (1)
- Martijntje Vollebregt (2)
- H.M. Vollebregt (1)
- R. Vroon (1)
- Y.R. Waarts (8)
- C.P.A. Wagenberg van (1)
- M. Westerhoff (1)
- E.H. Westra (1)
- R.C. Wiersinga (1)
- M. Wilschut (1)
- H.H.E. Zanten van (1)
- Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research (5)
- Food & Biobased Research rapport (2)
- LEI report / LEI Wageningen UR (2)
- Fermented Foods and Beverages (1)
- IB-DLO rapport (1)
- Rapport / Food & Biobased Research (1)
- Rapport / LEI (1)
- Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 1, Internationaal beleid (1)
- Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 3, Consumenten en ketens (1)
- Rapport / RIKILT (1)
- Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (1)
- Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel (1)
- Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research (1)
- Verslag / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (1)
Monitor voedselverspilling : update 2009-2014
Soethoudt, Han ; Vollebregt, Martijntje ; Burgh, Marianne van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Food & Biobased Research rapport 1703) - 31
voedselverspilling - monitoring - voedselproducten - consumentengedrag - verliezen - voedselafval - food wastage - food products - consumer behaviour - losses - food wastes
Inventory control for a perishable product with non-stationary demand
Pauls-Worm, K.G.J. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Eligius Hendrix; Rene Haijema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578500 - 142 p.
logistics - food products - supply chain management - food wastes - industrial wastes - inventories - logistiek - voedselproducten - ketenmanagement - voedselafval - industrieel afval - inventarisaties
Globally, around one-third of the edible parts of perishable food products is wasted every year. Adequate logistics management of the food supply chain is of importance. Inventory control of processed fresh food with a best-before or use-by date deals with the questions how much to order and how often, and how to review the inventory position. For perishable products, there exists a trade-off between desired product-availability and waste. A high order quantity or frequent ordering may result in high product-availability but also waste. A small order quantity or less frequent ordering results in lower inventory levels, but may cause out-of-stock. For the inventory control of a perishable product the age-distribution of the items should be considered. This is influenced by order picking at a food producer or warehouse, or consumer behaviour at a supermarket, picking First In First Out (FIFO), where first the oldest items are used, or Last In First Out (LIFO), where first the freshest items of the product are used. This thesis investigates periodic review order policies for a food producer and a retailer for a perishable product with a fixed lifetime and a non-stationary demand. For a food producer as well as a retailer, it is not always economically feasible to reorder in every period. For planning purposes it is desirable to set the timing of the orders in advance.
The aim of this thesis is to contribute to better decision making regarding inventory control in the food supply chain from food producer to supermarket, in the trade-off between product-availability and waste. Methods are designed to generate practical order policies using commercial solvers for business rather than custom made solution procedures, where at least the timing of ordering or production is set beforehand. The practical inventory control problems discussed in this thesis are characterised by a perishable product with a fixed lifetime, non-stationary stochastic demand, a single-echelon production/inventory situation in a finite time horizon. The product has a service level requirement to ensure a certain product-availability. The decision problems deal with fixed setup or ordering cost, holding cost and disposal cost for wasted items. The age-distribution of the items in stock is considered in specific theoretical Stochastic Programming (SP) problems that deal with the service level requirement as a chance constraint or fill rate constraint. The studied problems vary in planning characteristics.
Fluctuations in demand combined with fixed setup or ordering costs imply that regular production or ordering is probably not optimal. This situation requires a strategy to deal with the fluctuations. In inventory literature, non-stationary demand for a perishable product with a fixed lifetime is hardly studied, and consequently also strategies to deal with it are little investigated. In this thesis, methods have been designed to generate practical order policies using commercial solvers, where at least the timing of ordering or production is set beforehand. The practical order policies have been benchmarked with custom made solution procedures. The developed practical policies are applicable in the practice of fresh food producers and in retail organisations, on the level of the store, as well as on the level of the distribution centre. An interesting conclusion is that the policies with fixed order timing are hardly more costly than the investigated policy with flexible order timing. The fixed order timing increases the ease of planning.
The studied cost functions in the models comprise disposal cost for which the value of the disposal cost in the experiments was varied. The results show that in the models with fixed order timing and corresponding order-up-to levels, increasing the disposal cost can reduce the percentage of waste, maintaining the service level. In setting a (fictitious) value for the disposal cost, one can steer the percentage of waste in determining the order policy, and thus contribute to better decision making in the food supply chain from food producer to supermarket in the trade-off between product-availability and waste.
Monitor voedselverspilling : zelfmonitoring pilots
Soethoudt, Han ; Vollebregt, Martijntje ; Burgh, Marianne van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Food & Biobased Research rapport 1702) - 28
voedselverspilling - reststromen - monitoring - voedselproducten - consumentengedrag - verliezen - voedselafval - food wastage - residual streams - food products - consumer behaviour - losses - food wastes
Feed sources for livestock : recycling towards a green planet
Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Paul Bikker; Bastiaan Meerburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578050 - 251 p.
cum laude - livestock - livestock feeding - feeds - resources - food wastes - leftovers - recycling - greenhouse gases - environmental impact - innovations - sustainable animal husbandry - animal production - vee - veevoeding - voer - hulpbronnen - voedselafval - etensresten - broeikasgassen - milieueffect - innovaties - duurzame veehouderij - dierlijke productie
Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as land, water, and fossil energy. The livestock sector, for example, is responsible for about 15% of the global anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and uses about 70% of global agricultural land.
Many proposed mitigation strategies to feed the world sustainably, therefore, focus primarily on reducing the environmental impact of the livestock sector, so-called production-side strategies. Other strategies focus on changing consumption patterns by reducing consumption of ASF, or on shifting from ASF with a higher environmental impact (e.g. beef) to ASF with a lower environmental impact (e.g. pork or chicken), so called consumption-side strategies.
Most of the environmental impact of production of ASF is related to production of feed. One production-side strategy to reduce the environmental impact is the use of products that humans cannot or do not want to eat, such as co-products, food-waste, and biomass from marginal lands for livestock feed (referred to as ‘leftover streams’ in this thesis). This strategy is effective, because feeding leftover streams to livestock transforms an inedible food stream into high-quality food products, such as meat, milk, and eggs.
Two production-side strategies that use leftover streams as livestock feed were explored in this thesis: replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets of growing pigs with either rapeseed meal (RSM) or with waste-fed larvae meal. Replacing SBM with RSM in growing-pig diets was assessed because RSM became increasingly available following an increase in bio-energy production in the EU. In this strategy, therefore, the RSM content in pig diets increased at the expense of SBM. SBM is an ingredient associated with a high environmental impact. It was expected, therefore, that replacing SBM with RSM in pig diets would lead to a decrease in the environmental impact of pork production. Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal was assessed because recent developments show the environmental benefits of rearing insects as livestock feed. Insects have a low feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg product) and can be consumed completely, without residual materials, such as bones or feathers. The nutritional value of insects is high, especially as a protein source for livestock. Insect-based feed products, therefore, can replace conventional feed ingredients, such as SBM. Altogether this strategy suggests that waste-fed larvae meal might become an important alternative feed source in the future.
To gain insight into the status quo of the environmental impact of both mitigation strategies, replacing SBM with RSM or with waste-fed insects, we first used the attributional life cycle assessment (ALCA) method. Based on the ALCA method, results showed that each mitigation strategy was promising. Replacing SBM with RSM in growing pig diets hardly changed either global warming potential (GWP) or energy use (EU), but decreased land use (LU) up to 16% per kg body weight gain. As expected, feed production had the largest environmental impact, responsible for about 50% of the GWP, 60% of the EU, and 77% of the total LU. Feed production in combination with feed intake, were the most sensitive parameters; a small change in both these two parameters changed the results. Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal in growing-pig diets showed that EU hardly changed, but GWP (29%) and LU (54%) decreased per kg body weight gain. Based on ALCA results, each mitigation strategy, therefore, seems to offer potential to reduce the environmental impact of pork production. An ALCA, however, has two disadvantages: it does not account for product-packages and it does not consider feed-food competition.
The first disadvantage of ALCA was that the complexity of dealing with product-packages is not fully considered. ‘Product-package’ refers to a multiple-output situation. During the processing of sugar beet, for example, beet-pulp and molasses are produced in addition to sugar. Sugar, beet-pulp, and molasses together form a ‘package of products’ because they cannot be produced independently from each other. An ALCA does not account for the fact that the production volume of the co-product(s) depends on the demand for the determining product (e.g. sugar), which results in the limited availability of co-products. Increasing the use of co-products in animal feed, consequently, results in reducing use of a co-product in another sector, requiring them to be replaced with a different product. The environmental impact of increasing the use of a co-product or food-waste, therefore, depends on the net environmental impact. The net environmental impact refers to the environmental benefits of using the product in its new application minus the environmental cost of replacing the product in its old application.
A consequential theoretical framework was developed to account for product-packages. The results, based on the consequential framework, contradicted standard ALCA results. The consequential LCA (CLCA) method we used for replacing SBM with RSM showed an increased GWP (up to 15%), EU (up to 12%), and LU (up to 10%) per kg body weight gain. Moreover, this CLCA method showed that replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal increased GWP (60%) and EU (90%), but decreased LU (73%) per kg body weight gain.
Accounting for product-packages increased the net environmental impact of each strategy, replacing SBM with RSM or with waste-fed larvae meal. The difference in results between ALCA and CLCA was especially large in the strategy with waste-fed larvae meal. The difference was caused mainly by the use of food-waste. Food-waste fed to larvae was used initially to produce bio-energy via anaerobic digestion. In CLCA, the environmental impact related to replacing the bio-energy function of food-waste with fossil-energy was included. The net environmental impact became negative, because environmental benefits of replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal were less than environmental costs related to the marginal energy source, i.e. fossil energy, replacing the bio-energy. Results of the indirect environmental impact, however, are situation specific: if the marginal energy source were wind or solar energy, the net environmental impact of using waste-fed larvae meal might be positive. Waste-fed larvae meal, therefore, appears to be an interesting mitigation strategy only when energy from wind and solar energy are used more dominantly than energy from fossil sources.
If results were based solely on ALCA, then these potentially negative impacts would have been overlooked. Consideration of the environmental consequences of product-packaging, therefore, is essential to determine total environmental costs. If policy makers or the feed industry want to assess the net environmental impact of a potential mitigation strategy, then we recommend to perform a CLCA instead of an ALCA. The framework developed in this thesis can be used to perform such an assessment.
The second disadvantage of an LCA was that it does not take into account feed-food competition, e.g. competition for land between humans and animals. Most LCA studies focus on the total amount of land required to produce one kg ASF. LCA studies do not account for competition for land between humans and animals, or so-called feed-food competition. In other words, they do not include, differences in the consumption of human-edible products by various livestock species or differences in the suitability of land used for feed production as land to cultivate food-crops directly. Given the global constraints on land, it is more efficient to grow food directly for human consumption rather than for livestock. To address the contribution of livestock to a future sustainable food supply, a measure for land use efficiency was developed, called the land use ratio (LUR). The LUR accounts for plant productivity, efficiency of converting human-inedible feed into ASF, and suitability of land for crop cultivation. The LUR also has a life-cycle perspective.
Results of the LUR illustrated that dairy cows on sandy soil, laying hens, and pig production systems in the Netherlands have a LUR >1.0. In terms of protein produced per m2, therefore, it is more efficient to use these soils for livestock production to produce crops for direct human consumption than to produce feed for livestock. Only dairy cows on peat soil produce human digestible protein (HDP) more efficiently than crops do, because peat is not suitable for crop production. The LUR allows identification of livestock production systems that are able to produce HDP more efficiently than crops do. Livestock systems with a LUR<1.0, such as dairy on peat, have an important role to play in future sustainable nutrition supply.
Results of the LUR showed that livestock production systems using mainly co-products, food-waste, and biomass from marginal land, can produce human digestible protein more efficiently than crop production systems do. The availability of those leftover streams, however, is limited and, therefore, the amount of ASF produced based only on leftover streams is also limited. Because LUR is a ratio, LUR results do not give an indication of how much ASF can be produced based on livestock systems that feed mainly on leftover streams.
The third, and last, mitigation strategy, therefore, focused on the amount of ASF that can be consumed by humans, when livestock are fed only on leftover steams, also referred to as “default livestock”. The calculation of the amount of ASF was based on the assumption that a vegan diet was consumed in principle. The resulting co-products and food-waste were fed to pigs and, biomass from grazing land was fed to ruminants. Results showed that in total 21 g animal source protein per person per day could be produced by feeding livestock entirely on leftovers.
Considering feed-food crops and feeding food-waste made an important contribution to the 21 g of protein that could be produced from default livestock. Considering feed-food crops implies that choices have to be made between different crops, based on their contribution to feed and food production. Oil production from soy cultivation, for example, resulted in the co-product SBM. Results showed that considering feed-food crops can affect the final protein production from pork. The practice of feeding food-waste to livestock is currently prohibited due to problems of food safety but the practice shows potential in extensively reducing the environmental impact of livestock production. Considering feed-food crops and feeding food-waste are examples of mitigation strategies that currently can be implemented to reduce further the environmental impact of the livestock sector.
On average, it is recommended to consume about 57 g of protein from ASF or plant-origin per person per day. Only ASF from default livestock does not fulfil the current global protein consumption of 32 g per person per day, but about one third of the protein each person needs can be produced without any competition for land between feed and food production. To feed the world more sustainably, by requiring livestock production systems with a LUR <1.0, however, a paradigm shift is needed. Global average consumption of ASF should decrease to about 21 g of protein per person per day. Innovations are needed, moreover, to overcome problems of food safety and technical concerns related to collecting the leftover streams. This applies, in particular to food-waste, which is currently unused in livestock production but which presents a valuable strategy in mitigating environmental impacts caused by livestock production. Livestock systems should change their focus, furthermore, from increasing productivity per animal towards increasing protein production for humans per ha. By using leftover streams optimally, the livestock sector is able to produce a crucial amount of protein, while still avoiding competition for land between feed and food crops. Livestock, therefore, can make an important contribution to the future nutrition supply.
Potential impacts on sub-Saharan Africa of reducing food loss and waste in the European Union : A focus on food prices and price transmission effects
Rutten, M.M. ; Mhlanga, Nomathemba - \ 2015
FAO - ISBN 9789251090282 - 64 p.
food consumption - food policy - food wastes - food prices - africa - europe - european union - voedselconsumptie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselafval - voedselprijzen - afrika - europa - europese unie
This paper investigates, by means of scenario analyses, how reductions in food loss and waste in the European Union (EU) could influence prices in sub-Saharan Africa – as a source and destination of traded agricultural and food products. Four 50 percent reduction scenarios are enacted, using the Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET), in addition to a baseline “business as usual” (BaU) scenario. The analysis provides insights on potential impacts in terms of medium- to long-term global and local price changes in sub-Saharan Africa and the mechanisms behind them (changes in production, consumption and trade patterns). It also provides insights in terms of potential welfare impacts.
Decision support modeling for sustainable food logistics management
Soysal, M. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573055 - 209
logistiek - voedsel - voedselketens - voedselproducten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ketenmanagement - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - kwantitatieve analyse - voedselafval - energiegebruik - modelleren - logistics - food - food chains - food products - sustainability - supply chain management - decision support systems - quantitative analysis - food wastes - energy consumption - modeling
For the last two decades, food logistics systems have seen the transition from traditional Logistics Management (LM) to Food Logistics Management (FLM), and successively, to Sustainable Food Logistics Management (SFLM). Accordingly, food industry has been subject to the recent challenges of reducing the amount of food waste and raising energy efficiency to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These additional challenges add to the complexity of logistics operations and require advanced decision support models which can be used by decision makers to develop more sustainable food logistics systems in practice. Hence, the overall objective of this thesis was to obtain insight in how to improve the sustainability performance of food logistics systems by developing decision support models that can address the concerns for transportation energy use and consequently carbon emissions, and/or product waste, while also adhering to competitiveness. In line with this overall objective, we have defined five research objectives.
The first research objective (RO), which is to identify key logistical aims, analyse available quantitative models and point out modelling challenges in SFLM, is investigated in Chapter 2. In this chapter, key logistical aims in LM, FLM and SFLM phases are identified, and available quantitative models are analysed to point out modelling challenges in SFLM. A literature review on quantitative studies is conducted and also qualitative studies are consulted to better understand the key logistical aims and to identify the relevant system scope issues. The main findings of the literature review indicate that (i) most studies rely on a completely deterministic environment, (ii) the food waste challenge in logistics has not received sufficient attention, (iii) traveled distance is often used as a single indicator to estimate related transportation cost and emissions, and (iv) most studies propose single objective models for the food logistics problems. This chapter concludes that new and advanced quantitative models are needed that take specific SFLM requirements from practice into consideration to support business decisions and capture food supply chain dynamics. These findings motivated us to work on the following research objectives RO2, RO3, RO4 and RO5.
RO2, which is to analyse the relationship between economic (cost) and environmental (transportation carbon emissions) performance in a network problem of a perishable product, is investigated in Chapter 3. This chapter presents a multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) model for a generic beef logistics network problem. The objectives of the model are (i) minimizing total logistics cost and (ii) minimizing total amount of greenhouse gas emissions from transportation operations. The model is solved using the e-constraint method. This study breaks away from the literature on logistics network models by simultaneously considering transportation emissions (affected by road structure, vehicle and fuel types, weight loads of vehicles, traveled distances), return hauls and product perishability in a MOLP model. We present computational results and analyses based on the application of the model to a real-life international beef logistics chain operating in Nova Andradina, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and exporting beef to the European Union. Trade-off relationships between multiple objectives are observed by the derived Pareto frontier that presents the cost of being sustainable from the point of reducing transportation emissions. The results indicate the importance of distances between actors in terms of environmental impact. Moreover, sensitivity analysis on important practical parameters show that export ports' capacities put pressure on the logistics system; decreasing fuel efficiency due to the bad infrastructure has negative effects on cost and emissions; and green tax incentives result in economic and environmental improvement.
RO3, which is to investigate the performance implications of accommodating explicit transportation energy use and traffic congestion concerns in a two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem (2E-CVRP), is investigated in Chapter 4. The multi-echelon distribution strategy in which freight is delivered to customers via intermediate depots rather than using direct shipments is an increasingly popular strategy in urban logistics. Its popularity is primarily due to the fact that it alleviates the environmental (e.g., energy usage and congestion) and social (e.g., traffic-related air pollution, accidents and noise) consequences of logistics operations. This chapter presents a comprehensive mixed integer linear programming formulation for a time-dependent 2E-CVRP that accounts for vehicle type, traveled distance, vehicle speed, load, multiple time zones and emissions. A case study in a supermarket chain operating in the Netherlands shows the applicability of the model to a real-life problem. Several versions of the model, each differing with respect to the objective function, are tested to produce a number of selected Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) relevant to distance, time, fuel consumption and cost. This chapter offers insight in the economies of environmentally-friendly vehicle routing in two-echelon distribution systems. The results suggest that an environmentally-friendly solution is obtained from the use of a two-echelon distribution system, whereas a single-echelon distribution system provides the least-cost solution.
RO4, which is to investigate the performance implications of accommodating explicit transportation energy use, product waste and demand uncertainty concerns in an inventory routing problem (IRP), is investigated in Chapter 5. Traditional assumptions of constant distribution costs between nodes, unlimited product shelf life and deterministic demand used in the IRP literature restrict the usefulness of the proposed models in current food logistics systems. From this point of view, our interest in this chapter is to enhance the traditional models for the IRP to make them more useful for decision makers in food logistics management. Therefore, we present a multi-period IRP model that includes truck load dependent (and thus route dependent) distribution costs for a comprehensive evaluation of CO2 emission and fuel consumption, perishability, and a service level constraint for meeting uncertain demand. A case study on the fresh tomato distribution operations of a supermarket chain shows the applicability of the model to a real-life problem. Several variations of the model, each differing with respect to the considered aspects, are employed to present the benefits of including perishability and explicit fuel consumption concerns in the model. The results suggest that the proposed integrated model can achieve significant savings in total cost while satisfying the service level requirements, and thus offers better support to decision makers.
RO5, which is to analyse the benefits of horizontal collaboration in a green IRP for perishable products with demand uncertainty, is investigated in Chapter 6. This chapter presents a decision support model, which includes a comprehensive evaluation of CO2 emission and fuel consumption, perishability, and a service level constraint for meeting uncertain demand, for the IRP with multiple suppliers and customers. The model allows to analyse the benefits of horizontal collaboration in the IRP with respect to several KPIs, i.e., total emissions, total driving time, total routing cost comprised of fuel and wage cost, total inventory cost, total waste cost, and total cost. A case study on the distribution operations of two suppliers, where the first supplier produces figs and the second supplier produces cherries, shows the applicability of the model to a real-life problem. The results show that horizontal collaboration among the suppliers contributes to the decrease of aggregated total cost and emissions in the logistics system, whereas the obtained gains are sensitive to the changes in parameters such as supplier size or maximum product shelf life. According to the experiments, the aggregated total cost benefit from cooperation varies in a range of about 4-24% and the aggregated total emission benefit varies in a range of about 8-33%.
Integrated findings from Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 contribute to the SFLM literature by (i) reflecting the state of the art on the topic of quantitative logistic models which have sustainability considerations, (ii) providing decision support models which can be used by decision makers to improve the performance of the sustainable food logistics systems in terms of logistics cost, transportation energy use and carbon emissions, and/or product waste, and (iii) presenting the applicability of the proposed models in different case studies based on mainly real data, multiple scenarios, and analysis. The developed decision support models exploit several logistics improvement opportunities regarding transportation energy use and emissions, and/or product waste to better aid SFLM, as distinct from their counterparts in literature. To conclude, the case study implementations in this thesis demonstrate that (i) perishability and explicit consideration of fuel consumption are important aspects in logistics problems, and (ii) the provided decision support models can be used in practice by decision makers to further improve sustainability performance of the food logistics systems.
Monitor voedselverspilling : update Monitor voedselverspilling 2009-2013 & mogelijkheden tot (zelf) monitoring van voedselverspilling door de keten heen
Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. ; Soethoudt, J.M. ; Vollebregt, H.M. ; Burgh, M. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1541) - ISBN 9789462574007 - 56
voedselverspilling - verspilling - voedsel - monitoring - voedselproducten - consumentengedrag - verliezen - voedselafval - food wastage - wastage - food - food products - consumer behaviour - losses - food wastes
Voor het ministerie van Economische Zaken is binnen het project Monitoring Voedselverspilling een update opgesteld van de stand van zaken met betrekking tot de voedselverspilling in Nederland tot en met de cijfers over 2013. Tevens is de mogelijkheid tot zelfmonitoring van voedselverspilling door bedrijven in kaart gebracht.
Driegangenmenu uit de kliko
Thung, P. ; Ramaker, R. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2015
Resource: nieuwssite voor studenten en medewerkers van Wageningen UR 9 (2015)14. - ISSN 1389-7756 - p. 14 - 15.
voedselverspilling - verliezen - voedselafval - etensresten - etensbordafval - food wastage - losses - food wastes - leftovers - plate waste
Jaarlijks gooit de gemiddelde Nederlander een kleine vijftig kilo aan voedsel in de kliko. Onderzoekers laten de inwoners van Wageningen nu tegen elkaar strijden om zo min mogelijk te verspillen. Deze foodbattle start op maandag 16 maart.
Waar is de kromme sperzieboon gebleven? (interview met Hilke Bos-Brouwers)
Sikkema, A. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2015
Resource: nieuwssite voor studenten en medewerkers van Wageningen UR 9 (2015)14. - ISSN 1389-7756 - p. 12 - 13.
voedselverspilling - verliezen - voedselketens - groenten - voedselafval - food wastage - losses - food chains - vegetables - food wastes
Begin deze week vond in Abu Dhabi een groot internationaal landbouwcongres plaats. Een grote delegatie van Wageningen UR presenteerde daar haar methode om de voedselverspilling in de wereld terug te dringen. Bovendien moet ketenonderzoek de hot spots van verspilling blootleggen. Bijvoorbeeld: waar blijft de kromme sperzieboon?
Verwaarding van reststromen in de biologische retail (deel 2) : een casestudie bij Udea/EkoPlaza
Tromp, S. ; Staps, S. ; Gogh, J.B. van; Steverink, M. ; Broek, E.M.F. van den; Burgh, M. van der - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1527) - 61
biologische voedingsmiddelen - reststromen - voedselverspilling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselafval - afvalhergebruik - houding van consumenten - veevoeder - compostering - organic foods - residual streams - food wastage - sustainability - food wastes - waste utilization - consumer attitudes - fodder - composting
Het terugdringen van voedselverliezen vormt een belangrijk thema in de verduurzaming van de voedselketen. Ook de biologische supermarkt Udea/EkoPlaza is continu op zoek naar nieuwe oplossingen voor de reststromen die ontstaan in zowel de EkoPlaza-winkels als in het distributiecentrum van Udea. De productgroep aardappelen, groente en fruit (AGF) kent bij Udea/EkoPlaza de grootste reststroom. In dit onderzoek zijn diverse mogelijkheden tot verwaarding van deze reststroom aan bod gekomen. Zo is de aankoopintentie onderzocht van consumenten ten aanzien van zogenaamde geüpcyclede producten. Dit zijn voedingsproducten die geproduceerd zijn op basis van reststromen. Er is onderzocht in hoeverre aansluiting kan worden gevonden bij lopende initiatieven omtrent de herbenutting van reststromen in diervoeder. Ook is de mogelijkheid onderzocht van de vergisting en/of compostering van reststromen.
Reducing food losses in India : postharvest strategies
Schripsema, A.S. ; Westra, E.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1523) - ISBN 9789462573598 - 48
verliezen na de oogst - voedselopslagverliezen - verwerkingsverliezen - voedselafval - ketenmanagement - oplossingen - india - voedselverspilling - postharvest losses - food storage losses - processing losses - food wastes - supply chain management - solutions - food wastage
The project goal is to link significant inhibitors with existing or custom build solutions, adapted to local circumstances, to improve efficiency in Indian postharvest fresh food chains.
Monitor voedselverspilling : update 2009-2012
Soethoudt, J.M. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1486) - ISBN 9789462570542 - 53
voedselverspilling - voedselketens - verliezen - ketenmanagement - etensresten - overschotten - voedselafval - monitoring - food wastage - food chains - losses - supply chain management - leftovers - surpluses - food wastes
In opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (MinEZ) is in 2011-2012 door Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research een monitor ontworpen, met het doel een betrouwbaar beeld te geven van de hoeveelheid voedselverspilling in Nederland. Belangrijke elementen in deze opdracht waren dat het beeld cijfermatig moet zijn, onderbouwd zoveel mogelijk op basis van openbare bronnen. Het ministerie wil met de uitkomsten van de monitor het beleid, om tussen 2009 en 2015 een reductie van 20% voedselverspilling in de keten te realiseren, verifiëren. Dit document is de eerste update na de in 2013 verschenen tussenrapportage over 2009-2011 (Soethoudt & Timmermans, 2013). De voorliggende rapportage brengt de hoeveelheid voedselverspilling in Nederland tussen 2009-2012 in kaart.
Verwaarding van reststromen in de biologische retail - Een case-studie bij Udea/EkoPlaza
Tromp, S. ; Burgh, M. van der; Staps, S. ; Gogh, J.B. van; Steverink, M. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1468) - 38
biologische voedingsmiddelen - reststromen - voedselverspilling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselafval - afvalhergebruik - organic foods - residual streams - food wastage - sustainability - food wastes - waste utilization
Dit is het verslag van een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden om reststromen van het biologische retailkanaal te verwaarden. De reststromen in de biologische sector zijn in het algemeen moeilijker te organiseren dan in de reguliere sector. Dit komt doordat het volume van de reststromen relatief klein is door de beperkte omvang van de biologische sector. Aan de andere kant is een mogelijke pré dat in de biologische sector het streven naar verwaarding van reststromen eerder past binnen het profiel (van maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen) dan in de reguliere sector. Specifiek wordt in onderliggend onderzoek gekeken naar de reststromen van de biologische retailer Udea/EkoPlaza.
Voedselverspilling in de zorg : afvalmetingen in Ziekenhuis Gelderse Vallei geven opmerkelijke resultaten
Soethoudt, J.M. ; Gameren, Y. van - \ 2013
Food Hospitality (2013)1. - ISSN 1877-8399 - p. 32 - 33.
voedselverspilling - voedselafval - ziekenhuizen - etensresten - etensbordafval - maaltijden - food wastage - food wastes - hospitals - leftovers - plate waste - meals
Metingen in Ziekenhuis Gelderse Vallei hebben aangetoond dat een groot deel van de verstrekte maaltijden in de afvalbak verdwijnt. Het in juni 2012 uitgevoerde onderzoek geeft opmerkelijke resultaten. Zo blijkt bijvoorbeeld dat 30% van al het klaargemaakte voedsel al in de keuken zelf wordt weggegooid. Met de invoering van het maaltijdconcept At Your Request verwacht het ziekenhuis de voedselverspilling te minimaliseren.
Van afval naar maaltijd
Pereira da Silva, F.I.D.G. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Food & Biobased Research 1454) - ISBN 9789461739865 - 51
reststromen - afvalverwerking - agrarische afvalstoffen - agro-industriële ketens - voedselveiligheid - economische haalbaarheid - tomaten - specerijen - voedselafval - voedselverspilling - residual streams - waste treatment - agricultural wastes - agro-industrial chains - food safety - economic viability - tomatoes - spices - food wastes - food wastage
Het doel van het project is om te onderzoeken in hoever het benutten van afval of reststromen voor de productie van, voor mensen geschikt voedsel, haalbaar is. Door middel van een case (uitgevoerd in samenwerking met het bedrijf Smeding) worden een aantal aspecten omtrent de voedselkwaliteit en -veiligheid, keteninrichting en economische haalbaarheid van dit concept onderzocht. De ontwikkeling van de Too good To waste concepten is gerealiseerd. Uit de restafvalstroom van de productie van verse kruiden en met tomaten zijn vier concepten geproduceerd: kruidensaus, basilicumpesto, tomatensoep, tomatentapenade.
Reducing food waste by households and in retail in the EU; A prioritisation using economic, land use and food security impacts
Rutten, M.M. ; Nowicki, P.L. ; Bogaardt, M.J. ; Aramyan, L.H. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report / LEI Wageningen UR 2013-035) - ISBN 9789086156535 - 156
voedselverspilling - voedselafval - reductie - huishoudens - marketing voor de detailhandel - voedselzekerheid - landgebruik - europese unie - food wastage - food wastes - reduction - households - retail marketing - food security - land use - european union
This report describes the impacts of reducing food waste by households and retail in the EU. In view of the broader aim of resource efficiency, the outcomes are contrasted with those associated with adopting a healthier diet.
Meer patiënten eten bord leeg
Soethoudt, J.M. ; Gameren, Y. van; Sas, M. van; Verhagen, K. ; Kooren, N. ; Ploeg, C. van der; Herrewijn, S. ; Assum, S. van den - \ 2013
Food Hospitality 2013 (2013)augustus. - ISSN 1877-8399 - p. 22 - 23.
ziekenhuiscatering - voedselverspilling - etensbordafval - etensresten - voedselafval - maaltijden - ziekenhuizen - meting - hospital catering - food wastage - plate waste - leftovers - food wastes - meals - hospitals - measurement
Ziekenhuis Gelderse Vallei voerde in november 2012 het nieuwe maaltijd-serviceconcept At Your Request in. In april 2013 werd in een tussenmeting de hoeveelheid voedselverspilling gemeten. Eén van de uitkomsten is dat er veel minder voeding van patiënten terugkomt. Ook blijken zij daadwerkelijk meer te zijn gaan eten.
Monitor voedselverspilling : mid-term rapportage
Soethoudt, J.M. ; Timmermans, A.J.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1372) - ISBN 9789461734877 - 74
voedselverspilling - voedselketens - verliezen - ketenmanagement - etensresten - overschotten - voedselafval - food wastage - food chains - losses - supply chain management - leftovers - surpluses - food wastes
Dit document is een mid-term rapportage, waarin de hoeveelheid voedselverspilling in 2009 en 2011 in kaart is gebracht. De onderzoeksvraag luidt: Bouw een structuur (monitor) om de voedselverspilling in Nederland in kaart te brengen en becijfer de voedselverspilling (zoveel mogelijk op basis van openbare bronnen), zodat de doelstelling van de overheid, om tussen 2009 en 2015 een reductie van 20% hierin te realiseren, geverifieerd kan worden.
Zuiniger met voedsel levert flinke besparing op
Timmermans, A.J.M. - \ 2013
voedselverspilling - verliezen - etensresten - huishoudens - voedselafval - etensbordafval - consumentengedrag - food wastage - losses - leftovers - households - food wastes - plate waste - consumer behaviour
Wie let op wat hij weggooit aan etenswaren kan honderden euro's per jaar besparen. Uit een proef van Wageningen Universiteit blijkt dat gezinnen 20% minder eten kunnen weggooien.
FoodBattle : reductie milieudruk voedselverspilling op het snijvlak van supermarkt & consument
Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. ; Scheer, F.P. ; Nijenhuis, M.A. ; Kleijn, F. ; Westerhoff, M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Food & Biobased Research Wageningen UR - 101
voedselverspilling - consumentengedrag - voedselafval - reductie - gedrag van huishoudens - consumenten - supermarkten - food wastage - consumer behaviour - food wastes - reduction - household behaviour - consumers - supermarkets
Huishoudens die bijhouden hoeveel eten ze weggooien en gestimuleerd worden om verspilling te beperken, brengen hun voedselverspilling binnen 3 weken met gemiddeld 20 procent terug. Dat blijkt uit een proef met zogenaamde Food Battles in Apeldoorn, Lochem, Brummen en Eerbeek.