Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Foreign investment, organizational innovation and transformation in food supply chains : evidence from the Ethiopian barley sector
Tefera, Delelegne Abera - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jos Bijman; Maja Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437165 - 217
foreign investment - organizations - innovations - management science - food supply - supply chain management - farmers - barley - economic sectors - ethiopia - east africa - buitenlandse investering - organisaties - innovaties - bedrijfswetenschap - voedselvoorziening - ketenmanagement - boeren - gerst - economische sectoren - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Driven by rapid urbanization, economic growth, and changes in consumption patterns, food chains in emerging and developing economies are experiencing a fundamental transformation process. This transformation is usually characterized by increased vertical coordination, growth of modern distribution channels (e.g. supermarkets), consolidation of retail markets, and an increase in export orientation. The rapid growth in demand of modern food with higher quality and safety attracts multinational enterprises to invest in agriculture and food processing in emerging economies. The appearance of multinationals in the food systems of developing countries has been claimed to have a positive impact on economic development and reduction of poverty. The multinationals have adopted modern supply chain management practices for securing a large volume and consistent supply of high quality products. They introduce new technologies that boost productivity and post-harvest management for product upgrading.

While so far most research on the modernization of food systems has focused on export chains, there is growing interest in the transformation of domestic and staple food chains. Upgrading domestic food chains is needed for a more efficient supply to fast growing urban markets and to sustain access to affordable food for the rapidly growing urban consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. As domestic food value chains are more inclusive than high-value export chains, upgrading these food chains can contribute more to poverty reduction and food security. However, much remains to be understood about the process of modernization in domestic food chains and its implications for rural development. The overarching aim of this dissertation was to deepen our understanding on how organizational innovations facilitate modernization of domestic food chains using case studies from the Ethiopian barley sector. In particular, the thesis examines the effectiveness and impacts of foreign direct investments (FDI), contract farming arrangements (CFAs), producer organizations (POs), and partnerships on the upgrading of malt barley value chains and welfare of local suppliers. To address this objective, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Data were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric econometric models.

The findings from the empirical chapters show that: First, our analysis reveals that the appearance of foreign companies in the malt barley chain has brought important changes in the structure and economics of the barley value chain, resulting in the development of a modern chain next to the conventional chain. It is also shown that participation in modern supply chains is determined by a range of factors that include farmer and farm characteristics. Second, the results show that participation in modern supply chains has a positive and significant impact on commercialization, intensification, quality improvement and farm gate prices, ultimately resulting in increased farmer income and spillovers towards productivity of other food crops. Third, we found that POs perform diverse economic functions to enhance rural development , but tighter coordination in food value chains demands alignment of chain activities among actors which leads to changes in the strategies and functions of POs. Fourth, we showed that POs have a positive impact on farm productivity and smallholder income. However, this positive impact of POs come at the expense of inclusiveness, i.e. POs are less inclusive. Thus, there is a tension between business performance and inclusiveness of POs. Moreover, the results show that the motivation to participate in a PO is determined by demographic and economic factors. Lastly, we found that the determinants of quality improvement at farm level are socioeconomic, technological and institutional factors. Specifically, the identified factors are farmers’ level of education, age (as a proxy for farming experience), entrepreneurial attitude, PO membership, CFA participation, and type of improved seed varieties. The thesis concludes that enhancing the modernization of food value chains involving smallholders requires organizational innovation that facilitate coordination and collaborative activities among chain actors.

Microcredit to women and its contribution to production and household food security
Namayengo, Mayanja Muyonga Faith - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides, co-promotor(en): Johan van Ophem. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431101 - 235
credit - women - agricultural production - food security - crop production - animal production - household income - household budgets - food supply - uganda - krediet - vrouwen - landbouwproductie - voedselzekerheid - gewasproductie - dierlijke productie - gezinsinkomen - huishoudbudgetten - voedselvoorziening

The contents of this dissertation are based on a quantitative and qualitative survey that was conducted to assess the contribution of microcredit access of women to production and household food security status, and the factors associated with enterprise performance and food security outcomes. In order to do so four main issues were addressed: (a) assessment of the borrowing context and the match or mismatch between lender and borrower goals and objectives; (b) the extent to which taking microcredit affected business input expenditures and performance of non-farm MEs; (c) the extent to which taking microcredit affected production input expenditures and outputs from farming activities; (d) the changes in household food security associated with microcredit.

The study was conducted among female microcredit clients of BRAC, one of the largest micro lenders in Uganda. The overall study design was a panel approach, involving two waves of data collection. In one analytical approach, baseline data for a group of existing borrowers (Old borrowers=OB) and incoming borrowers (New borrowers=NB) before they received their first loan, was used in a quasi-experimental cross-sectional design to assess the effect of borrowing as the difference between the two groups using propensity score matching (PSM).

In an alternative approach, two waves of data for the NB and a control group (CG) of women who never borrowed from BRAC or other MFI, was subjected to difference-in-difference analysis (DID), with Kernel matching, to assess differences between borrowers and non-borrowers.

We found that BRAC reaches poor, less educated subsistence farmers who also run diverse non-farm microenterprises (MEs). The group-lending model BRAC uses is effective in ensuring loan repayment. However, much as BRAC gives out production loans, many women borrow to meet lump-sum monetary needs, in addition to investment in non-farm MEs. High costs of borrowing, limited loan amounts, the stress caused by weekly loan repayment and resolution of lump-sum cash needs were identified as reasons for women to stop borrowing. The diversion of loans to non-production activities, the size and types of businesses, and loan terms and processes were identified and factors that could diminish the contribution of microcredit to ME expansion and income increase.

Assessment of the effect of borrowing on non-farm ME performance revealed that much as borrowers invested reasonable fractions of received loans into non-farm MEs leading to improvement in monetary worth, the borrowing context, loan repayment terms, type and size of microenterprises did favour higher profits.

In regard to farm production, borrowing did not lead to extra recurrent crop and animal production expenditures. The prevailing subsistence nature of crop and animal production did not seem to favour extra investment. As such, borrowing did not improve household food availability, through own production.

Assessment of the effect of borrowing on household food security revealed a decline in food security following the uptake of microcredit. The analysis reveals robustly lower dietary diversity among long-time borrowers than among new borrowers, and larger reductions in dietary diversity scores among new borrowers, after one year, compared to controls. The reduction in dietary diversity was traced to a reduction in animal-source food, fruit and sugar intake. This was partly explained by observation of an apparent shift from own production to reliance on food purchase by households, which is not accompanied by substantial increase in income.

Overall, we found that taking microcredit did not lead to improved farm and non-farm production or food security among the rural women borrowers studied. This was mainly attributed to nature of activities the women engage in, the loan terms and processes, and the local context the women operate under.

Towards an inclusive and sustainable economy
Meijl, Hans van; Ruben, Ruerd ; Reinhard, Stijn - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 44
food security - food supply - food production - sustainable agriculture - sustainable development - biobased economy - agro-industrial chains - economic development - voedselzekerheid - voedselvoorziening - voedselproductie - duurzame landbouw - duurzame ontwikkeling - agro-industriële ketens - economische ontwikkeling
One of the major challenges facing global society today is the provision of food, water, energy, healthcare and other resources & services in a world characterised by increasing population, mounting environmental stresses and rising inequality. There is a need for circular and resilient food systems which close material flow loops in the entire supply chain from farm ers to consumers and back. This should be done in a resource-efficient manner that includes all relevant actors. This position paper summarises insights by Hans van Meijl, Stijn Reinhard and Ruerd Ruben from Wageningen Economic Research into what has been dubbed the inclusive and sustainable economy. Therefore, five overarching challenges, five scoping issues, and five beneficial economic principles are discussed. In addition, the authors formulate five key insights regarding feasible policy strategies and attempt to contribute to the analysis of leverage points relevant to upscaling and to anchoring market innovations that sustain sustainable and inclusive agri-food systems.
An updated generic architecture describingcompliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains : (D1.2.3)
Kruize, J.W. ; Robbemond, R.M. ; Verwaart, T. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-061) - ISBN 9789462578289 - 21 p.
agro-industrial chains - food chains - food supply - computer software - efficiency - business economics - agro-industriële ketens - voedselketens - voedselvoorziening - efficiëntie - bedrijfseconomie
In this report a generic architecture is presented comprising an inventory of the most important actors, roles, processes and information that are relevant in the processes of standardisation, certification and compliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains. This architecture becomes part of an architectural framework. The architectural framework aims to reduce the paper -based administration by improving digitalisation of compliance processes and to enable a more efficient and effective data exchange in the field of compliance.
Sustainability metrics for agri-food supply chains
Gaitán Cremaschi, D. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Frits van Evert; Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578012 - 244 p.
food supply - food chains - agro-industrial chains - sustainability - western europe - vietnam - voedselvoorziening - voedselketens - agro-industriële ketens - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - west-europa

Enhancing sustainability in food production requires knowledge about the economic, environmental and social performance of the various stages of agri-food supply chains. An integrated indicator can provide synthetized information about the extent to which food products are sustainably produced and can guide sustainability improvements. The overall objective of this thesis was to perform integrated assessments of relative sustainability performance of (stages of) agri-food supply chains using integrated indicators. To achieve the overall objective this thesis first developed a theoretical framework for benchmarking agri-food supply chains in terms of their relative sustainability performance. Two integrated indicators were proposed, i.e. the Social Profit indicator that integrates sustainability performance indicators using prices and the Technical Inefficiency indicator that uses distance functions. Next, the Social Profit indicator was illustrated for Brazilian soybean meal chains: non-genetically modified (non-GM) and genetically modified (GM) chains. Further, relative sustainability performance (economic and environmental) of specialized potato farms in Germany and the Netherlands was assessed using both the Social Profit indicator and the Technical Inefficiency indicator. Finally, an alternative approach, the Nerlovian Social Profit Inefficiency indicator, was used for the assessment of relative sustainability performance of coffee farms in Vietnam. The results of this thesis suggests that the three proposed integrated indicators can be used in different socio-economic and environmental contexts to capture the multidimensional nature of relative agri-food supply chain sustainability. Their implementation helps to overcome some of the limitations of the single-issue and composite indicators that are commonly used in sustainability assessments such as incommensurability, subjectivity and comparability. The indicators provide information that can be used by businesses, stakeholders and policy makers to identify opportunities for relative sustainability performance improvements of agri-food supply chains.

Keywords: Total Factor Productivity, Total Price Recovery, technical inefficiency, agri-food supply chain, externality, social profit.

Geëcologiseerde samenleving versus arme mensen
Gils, S.H. van; Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)4. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 22 - 29.
voedselvoorziening - voedselzekerheid - milieueffect - meerlagenteelt - alternatieve landbouw - voedselproductie - agro-ecologie - boeren - inkomen van landbouwers - food supply - food security - environmental impact - multi-layer cultivation - alternative farming - food production - agroecology - farmers - farmers' income
Niemand weet hoeveel milieubelasting de aarde precies kan hebben, maar een ecologische crisis van ongekende proporties ligt voortdurend op de loer, stellen Stijn van Gils en Louise Vet. Ze pleiten voor radicale veranderingen in de maatschappij. Zo’n ‘geëcologiseerde samenleving’ is volgens hen niet alleen goed voor de aarde, het geeft ook nieuw economisch perspectief. Ralf Bodelier vindt echter dat de ecologen Vet en Van Gils te weinig rekening houden met miljarden armen.
De permanente groene revolutie van Swaminathan
Fresco, L.O. ; Rabbinge, R. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)3. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 66 - 71.
green revolution - genetic engineering - human feeding - hunger - food supply - scientific research - scientists - society - fertilizers - pesticides - environmental impact - india - netherlands - potatoes - wheat - groene revolutie - genetische modificatie - humane voeding - honger - voedselvoorziening - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - wetenschappers - samenleving - kunstmeststoffen - pesticiden - milieueffect - nederland - aardappelen - tarwe
Het weekblad Time kwalificeerde hem als een van de twintig meest invloedrijke Aziaten van de twintigste eeuw: ‘The father of the Green Revolution used his skills in genetic engineering and his powers of persuasion to make famine an unfamiliar word in Asia’. Tegelijkertijd wees hij al vroeg op de gevaren van een te grote afhankelijkheid van kunstmest en bestrijdingsmiddelen en milieugevolgen daarvan. Dr. Monkombu Sambasivan Swaminathan is een fervent pleitbezorger van de Evergreen Revolution, de permanente groene revolutie. Op 7 augustus werd hij 90 jaar. Louise Fresco en Rudy Rabbinge schetsen zijn enorme betekenis voor wetenschap en samenleving.
Sustainable Urban Food Provisioning : Policy Brief
Dubbeling, Marielle ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. ; Moschitz, Heidrun - \ 2015
SUPURBFOOD - 4 p.
urban agriculture - urban areas - participation - food supply - stadslandbouw - stedelijke gebieden - participatie - voedselvoorziening
Food is an integral part of the urban agenda Growing urbanisation and food insecurity, rising food prices, climate change impacts and resource depletion, have all prompted cities and citizens around the world to develop policy and programmes for more sustainable resilient urban food provisioning.
Developing the Rotterdam City Region Food System: acting and thinking at the same time
Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2015
Urban Agriculture Magazine (2015)29. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 14 - 17.
regional food chains - food supply - urban development - rotterdam - urban agriculture - supply chain management - food policy - regionale voedselketens - voedselvoorziening - stadsontwikkeling - stadslandbouw - ketenmanagement - beleid inzake voedsel
The city region of Rotterdam is located in the western part of the Netherlands, bordering the North Sea. It contains the municipality of Rotterdam and several neighbouring municipalities, with about 1.2 million inhabitants. Rotterdam hosts Europe’s largest sea port as well as a large (inland-oriented) river port. Shipped through the ports into Europe (by barge, rail or lorry) are goods including food (e.g., exotic fruits and vegetables, juices, rapeseed and palm oil) and feed products (soybeans, grains, tapioca).
Green vegetable supply in Dar es Salaam
Wegerif, M.C.A. - \ 2015
Urban Agriculture Magazine (2015)29. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 65 - 67.
farmers - farmers' income - livelihoods - urban agriculture - food supply - vegetables - rural urban relations - tanzania - peasant farming - boeren - inkomen van landbouwers - middelen van bestaan - stadslandbouw - voedselvoorziening - groenten - relaties tussen stad en platteland - landbouw bedrijven in het klein
This article constructs a picture of green vegetable growing and supply in Dar es Salaam by looking at the lives and work of a small trader and an urban farmer. It reveals the importance of a range of distribution and trade networks and the integration of a wider city region, alongside urban and periurban production, for the large-scale supply of these vegetables to urban eaters. The livelihood benefit for the many actors involved is clear as are some of the threats emerging as the city changes.
Paniek over Peak Food
Koning, N.B.J. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)2. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 10 - 15.
voedselproductie - voedselconsumptie - voedselzekerheid - voedselvoorziening - hulpbronnen - landbouw - agrarische economie - food production - food consumption - food security - food supply - resources - agriculture - agricultural economics
Het kon niet uitblijven. De groei van de voedselproductie stagneert en na Peak Oil dreigt nu Peak Food. Onzin, vindt Niek Koning, die zogenaamde peak is een van de toppen in een langjarige golfbeweging op de landbouwmarkten. Toch zijn er genoeg redenen om je zorgen te maken over de wereldvoedselvoorziening en is het hoog tijd voor een aanpak die verder gaat dan gemakzuchtig marktdenken of biologische alternatiefjes.
How does the fruit and vegetable sector contribute to food and nutrition security?
Joosten, F.J. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. ; Sertse, Y. ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-076) - 57
voedselzekerheid - fruit - groenten - landbouwsector - tuinbouw - geslacht (gender) - voedselvoorziening - ontwikkelingslanden - food security - vegetables - agricultural sector - horticulture - gender - food supply - developing countries
The Dutch Food & Business Knowledge Platform (F&BKP) commissioned an explorative study regarding the existing knowledge base from development practice and research about the potential of the Fruit and Vegetables (F&V) sector to contribute to Food & Nutrition Security (FNS) in the context of (a) sustainable development (i.e. economic, social, ecological and gender equity) and (b) the Dutch international cooperation agenda (i.e. combining aid, trade and investments). The outcome of this explorative study is reflected in this document. The findings and recommendations in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Food & Business Knowledge Platform.
Alternative Food Networks (AFNs) in Calabria : a sociological exploration of interaction dynamics
amico, S. D' - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke; G. Gulisano, co-promotor(en): Bettina Bock; Stefano Pascucci. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572713 - 269
voedsel - sociale netwerken - gemeenschappen - voedselvoorziening - voedselgroepen - consumenten - participatie - boeren - markten - landbouw - calabrië - italië - food - social networks - communities - food supply - food groups - consumers - participation - farmers - markets - agriculture - calabria - italy
Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables
Waldhauer, N. ; Broek, W.H.A.M. van den; Soethoudt, J.M. ; Boerrigter, H.A.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1548) - ISBN 9789462574038 - 15
hydrocultuur - voedselzekerheid - verliezen na de oogst - internationale samenwerking - proefprojecten - kosten-batenanalyse - egypte - voedselvoorziening - hydroponics - food security - postharvest losses - international cooperation - pilot projects - cost benefit analysis - egypt - food supply
This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the improvement of food security in Egypt in general and the reduction of post-harvest losses in particular.
Stadslandbouw in kantoorpanden: Optie of utopie?
Spruijt, J. ; Jansma, J.E. ; Vermeulen, T. ; Haan, J.J. de; Sukkel, W. - \ 2015
Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO Rapport 623) - 33
stadslandbouw - utrecht - kantoren - voedselproductie - voedselvoorziening - industrieterreinen - onderzoeksprojecten - teeltsystemen - cultuurmethoden - urban agriculture - offices - food production - food supply - industrial sites - research projects - cropping systems - cultural methods
In potentie zou stadslandbouw leegstaande kantoorgebouwen een nieuwe bestemming kunnen geven. Op papier zijn er volop kansen: veel leegstand, productieruimte dicht bij stedelijke afzetmarkt, maatschappelijke belangstelling voor lokale producten en beschikbaarheid van geavanceerde teelttechnieken (LED, aquaponics). Uit verschillende hoeken (o.a. Provinciale Staten Utrecht en de gemeenteraad van Nieuwegein) komt de vraag of stadslandbouw leegstaande kantoren en industrieterreinen inderdaad weer een duurzame, productieve en maatschappelijke bestemming kan geven. Hoofdvraag voor de provincie Utrecht is: is stadslandbouw een substantieel alternatief voor leegstaande kantoorgebouwen? Het rapport richt zich op de plantaardige productie (incl. biobased productie), aquacultuur en de kweek van insecten, omdat hiervan de meeste expertise is en omdat deze vormen van stadslandbouw maatschappelijk geaccepteerd zijn. Benutting van daken, (buiten-) wanden of buitenruimten van gebouwen voor landbouw krijgt beperkt aandacht in deze studie.
Innoveerkracht 2014: Jan Willem van der Schans, Wageningen UR
Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
stadslandbouw - voedselproductie - voedselketens - innovaties - duurzaamheid (durability) - voedselvoorziening - urban agriculture - food production - food chains - innovations - durability - food supply
Jan-Willem van der Schans geeft een presentatie over het voedselvraagstuk en wat we hier aan kunnen doen? Elk jaar verliest de wereld bijna een derde van haar voedsel. Zijn voedselsystemen te ontwikkelen die effectiever en efficiënter zijn? Welke maatregelen kunnen waar in de keten (van landbouw en oogst, tot verwerking, distributie en consumptie) worden genomen? Jan Willem van de Schans zijn kijk op het voedselvraagstuk en gaat met het publiek in discussie.
We are what we eat: An economic tool for tracing the origins of nutrients with entry points for action
Rutten, M.M. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Godeschalk, F.E. - \ 2014
The Hague : FOODSECURE project office LEI Wageningen UR (University & Research centre) (FOODSECURE technical paper no. 28) - 65
voedselzekerheid - voedselvoorziening - ketenmanagement - economische analyse - scenario-analyse - voedingsstoffen - voeding - gezondheid - food security - food supply - supply chain management - economic analysis - scenario analysis - nutrients - nutrition - health
We develop a methodology for incorporating nutrition impacts in economy-wide analyses, providing entry points for where, when and how to act. It accounts for three channels of consumption, directly via primary commodities and indirectly via processed foods and food-related services, and produces indicators showing content by nutrient (currently calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates), channel, source region and sector. The paper applies the framework in a CGE model (MAGNET) and uses FAO data to project nutritional outcomes resulting from the global food system over time. The analysis confirms that developing regions catch up with developed regions, with the USA at the high-end of nutrient consumption, whilst Southern Africa lags behind. In the USA the processed food channel dominates, whereas in Southern Africa the direct channel dominates. In the USA, and similar regions, fat taxes (thin subsidies) on unhealthy (healthy) processed foods, technologies reducing bad ingredients (e.g. trans fats, salt), improved food labelling, information and marketing campaigns, and/or targeted cash transfers may be worthwhile to investigate. In Southern Africa, and regions alike, technological advances increasing nutrient availability via primary agriculture and/or cash transfers enabling access may be more pertinent. The relative fixedness of sectoral origins shows that consumption habits change slowly and are visible only in the long term. For certain regions, including Southern Africa and USA, nutrient import dependency increases with substantial variations in regional sourcing. This implies that concerted action across the globe is crucial to reach diet, nutrition and health goals, and should include upcoming Asian economies, Africa (excl. Southern Africa) and the Middle East. Heterogeneity of results necessitates future ex-ante quantitative policy analyses on a more detailed and context-specific basis.
Feeding the world with Agroecology
Tittonell, P.A. - \ 2014
Ede : TEDxEde
agro-ecologie - voedselproductie - voedselvoorziening - voedselzekerheid - agroecology - food production - food supply - food security
Pablo Tittonell is professor 'Farming Systems Ecology' at Wageningen University and one of the worlds most famous experts in the field of agriculture and ecology. He advocates intensification of agriculture by making optimal use of natural processes and the landscape to meet the worlds growing demand for food.
Metropolitan food supply: commitment mission Egypt
Broek, W.H.A.M. van den; Boerrigter, H.A.M. ; Waldhauer, N. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1511) - ISBN 9789462573536 - 13
verse producten - vennootschappen - egypte - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - voedselvoorziening - fresh products - partnerships - egypt - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - food supply
The present study is to investigate the commitment of potential participants to contribute to these opportunities and what their conditions are to the 3 main activities.
Prof. Hilde Bras: 'Ongelijke voedselzekerheid kan mensen leven lang achtervolgen'
Bras, H.A.J. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR
voedselzekerheid - voedselvoorziening - sociale ongelijkheden - voeding en gezondheid - food security - food supply - social inequalities - nutrition and health
Ongelijke toegang tot voldoende en gezonde voeding is een belangrijke verklaringsgrond voor sociaal-economische ongelijkheid. Vooral de eerste duizend dagen in het leven van een jong kind, inclusief de fase vóór de geboorte, zijn van cruciale invloed op de levensloop. Opgelopen achterstand in de voeding kunnen vaak moeilijk worden ingehaald en kunnen invloed hebben op ongelijkheid in de cognitieve ontwikkeling of kansen op de arbeidsmarkt. Ondanks verbeteringen zijn op wereldschaal grote ongelijkheden rond voedselzekerheid en gezonde voeding nog altijd hardnekkig, zegt prof. Hilde Bras, hoogleraar Sociologie van consumenten en huishoudens aan Wageningen University.
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