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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Modelling of ammonia volatilisation in fertilised and flooded rice systems
Khairudin, Nurulhuda - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Nurul Khairudin, co-promotor(en): Karel Keesman; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576698 - 209
oryza - flooded rice - ammonia - volatilization - modeling - dynamic modeling - flooded land - nitrogen - natte rijst - ammoniak - vervluchtiging - modelleren - dynamisch modelleren - overstroomde gronden - stikstof

In flooded rice systems that are broadcast with urea, significant amounts of nitrogen (N) may be lost to the atmosphere in the form of ammonia (NH3). Many models with different complexities with regards to describing the process of NH3 volatilisation and the overall N dynamics in the systems are available. However, given the differences in local conditions, both too simple and too complex models may not be able to predict NH3 volatilisation correctly or may lead to large prediction uncertainties. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to provide a framework to determine an appropriate process-based model with corresponding uncertainty characteristics for estimating NH3 volatilisation in fertilised and flooded rice systems.

As a first step in the selection of a model for a specific application, an overview on the modelling concepts and the performance of 14 models developed to simulate N dynamics in flooded soil systems is given. Next, in order to understand differences in modelling concepts for a specific process, co-validation was conducted at single process level: urea hydrolysis, NH3 volatilisation, and floodwater pH. Then, a new process-based model for estimating NH3 volatilisation in fertilised and flooded rice systems, which is of a complexity appropriate for scarce soil N data, is presented and evaluated with field observations. For the flooded rice systems in the Philippines, conceptualisation of the two-step urea hydrolysis, partitioning between ammonium and NH3, and a time-varying rate coefficient of NH3 volatilisation in the proposed model improved the prediction of the net NH3 loss. Subsequently, a set-membership parameter estimation approach with soft-error-bounds was used to characterise the uncertainty in the parameter estimates in the proposed model. The set-membership approach is appropriate for poor quality data sets as it allows simultaneous consideration of the different sources of uncertainty affecting the model prediction, such as uncertainty in the model structure, parameters, and observations. Findings of this study can be used as criteria for stakeholders to make an informed selection of models, to modify the existing models for a specific purpose, and to interpret model-output responses critically.

Ontwikkeling van de N-balans, het N-verlies en de beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Langenkamp-Niens in 2014/2015
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2016
Wageningen UR, Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 936) - 42 p.
melkvee - melkveehouderij - loopstallen - ligstro - samenstelling - stikstofverliezen - vervluchtiging - verontreiniging - dierlijke productie - dairy cattle - dairy farming - loose housing - litter - composition - nitrogen losses - volatilization - pollution - animal production
NPK balans, N-verlies en beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Hoogland in 2014
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 886) - 24
rundvee - huisvesting van koeien - loopstallen - dierenwelzijn - stikstofkringloop - stikstof - vervluchtiging - bemesting - vergelijkingen - landbouw en milieu - stikstofverliezen - dierlijke productie - melkvee - milieu - cattle - cow housing - loose housing - animal welfare - nitrogen cycle - nitrogen - volatilization - fertilizer application - comparisons - agriculture and environment - nitrogen losses - animal production - dairy cattle - environment
Een aantal Nederlandse melkveehouders stapt de laatste jaren over van een ligboxenstal met roostervloer naar een vrijloopstal zonder boxen en met een organische bedding. Een belangrijke reden voor deze overstap is het realiseren van een beter dierenwelzijn in de stal. Naast een beter dierenwelzijn heeft de overstap ook andere effecten, waaronder op de stikstofkringloop op het bedrijf. Stikstof (N) verdwijnt uit deze kringloop onder andere door vervluchtiging uit de stal, uit de mestopslag en na het uitrijden van mest op het land. N kan vervluchtigen in de vorm van ammoniak (NH3), lachgas (N2O), stikstofgas (N2) en overige stikstofoxiden (NOx). De vervluchtiging van ammoniak kan bijdragen aan verzuring en eutrofiëring van de natuur en vervluchtiging van lachgas aan opwarming van de aarde. De vervluchtiging van stikstofgas heeft geen directe negatieve effecten op de omgeving. Echter, door het verdwijnen van N uit de bedrijfskringloop moet er wel meer N op het bedrijf aangevoerd worden om de productiviteit van de bodem, de gewassen en de koeien op niveau te houden. Gebeurt dit met dierlijke mest of kunstmest, dan leidt dit alsnog tot een hogere milieubelasting. Gezien de bovenstaande consequenties is het wenselijk om de N-vervluchtiging op het melkveebedrijf zo laag mogelijk te houden. Om inzicht te krijgen in milieu- en productiviteitseffecten van de omschakeling van een ligboxenstal naar een vrijloopstal is het dus nodig om inzicht te krijgen in de hoeveelheid N die vervluchtigt uit de vrijloopstal en deze te vergelijken met de ligboxenstal. N vervluchtigt niet alleen uit de stal maar ook na het uitrijden van mest uit de stal op het land. Een stalsysteem met een relatief lage Nvervluchtiging direct uit de stal kan een relatief hoge N-vervluchtiging na mesttoediening hebben, en omgekeerd. Bij de ligboxenstal met productie van drijfmest wordt bijna de helft van de totale Nvervluchtiging (stal + land) na het emissiearm uitrijden van de mest op het land gerealiseerd (zie paragraaf 2.4). Om een meer volledig en betrouwbaar beeld te hebben van de N-vervluchtiging van een stalsysteem is het daarom gewenst om de N-vervluchtiging direct uit de stal en na mestaanwending gezamenlijk te beoordelen.
Ontwikkeling van de N-balans, het N-verlies en de beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Ottema-Wiersma in 2013/2014
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 881)
huisvesting van koeien - melkveehouderij - stikstofbalans - stikstofverliezen - stikstofkringloop - vervluchtiging - rundveemest - stalinrichting - loopstallen - rundveeteelt - dierenwelzijn - landbouw en milieu - cow housing - dairy farming - nitrogen balance - nitrogen losses - nitrogen cycle - volatilization - cattle manure - animal housing design - loose housing - cattle farming - animal welfare - agriculture and environment
Een aantal Nederlandse melkveehouders stapt de laatste jaren over van een ligboxenstal met een roostervloer naar een vrijloopstal met een organische bedding. Deze overstap heeft meerdere effecten, waaronder op de stikstofkringloop op het melkveebedrijf. Het onderzoek in dit rapport richtte zich op het vaststellen van het N-verlies door vervluchtiging uit de vrijloopstal van de VOF Ottema-Wiersma in Midwolde (Groningen).
Effect of application timing and grass height on the nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of cattle slurry applied with a trailing-shoe application system
Lalor, S.T.J. ; Schroder, J.J. ; Lantinga, E.A. ; Schulte, R.P.O. - \ 2014
Grass and Forage Science 69 (2014)3. - ISSN 0142-5242 - p. 488 - 501.
ammonia-emission - soil compaction - animal slurry - pig slurry - manure - volatilization - yield - reduction - herbage
This study investigated the effect of using a trailing-shoe system to apply cattle slurry, under different conditions of grass height (low [LG]: freshly cut sward [4–5 cm height] vs. high [HG]: application delayed by 7–19 d and applied to taller grass sward [4–11 cm] height) and month of application (June vs. April), on the nitrogen fertilizer replacement value (NFRV) and apparent N recovery (ANRS) of cattle slurry applied to grassland. NFRV was calculated using two methods: (i) NFRVN based on the apparent recovery of slurry-N relative to that of mineral-N fertilizer; and (ii) NFRVDM based on DM yield. The effect of applying slurry into HG swards, relative to LG swards, decreased the DM yield by 0·47 t ha-1 (P = 0·001), N uptake by 5 kg ha-1 (P = 0·05), ANRS by 0·05 kg kg-1 (P = 0·036), NFRVN by 0·05 kg kg-1 (P = 0·090) and NFRVDM by 0·11 kg kg-1 (P <0·001). It was concluded that the main factor causing these decreases with HG, compared with LG applications, was wheel damage affecting subsequent N uptake and growth of the taller grass sward.
Sensitivity analysis of mechanistic models for estimating ammonia emission from dairy cow urine puddles
Snoek, J.W. ; Stigter, J.D. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2014
Biosystems Engineering 121 (2014). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 12 - 24.
volatile weak electrolytes - aqueous-solutions - mass-transfer - computer-model - swine manure - volatilization - solubility - release - house - temperature
Ammonia (NH3) emission can cause acidification and eutrophication of the environment, is an indirect source of nitrous oxide, and is a precursor of fine dust. The current mechanistic NH3 emission base model for explaining and predicting NH3 emissions from dairy cow houses with cubicles, a floor and slurry pit is based on measured data from a limited number of studies. It requires input values for numerous variables, but the empirical equations for the model parameters in the literature vary. Furthermore, many of the input variables cannot be assessed accurately, and their actual influence on the prediction is unknown. We aimed to improve NH3 emission modelling, by assessing the contribution to the variation in NH3 emission of each input variable and each model parameter related to a single urine puddle. We did so for 27 candidate models, created by each possible combination of three equations per model parameter: the acid dissociation constant, Henry’s law constant, and the mass transfer coefficient. After analysing each candidate model with a Global Sensitivity Analysis we found that at least 71% of the model variation in NH3 emission for each candidate model was explained by five puddle related input variables: pH, depth, area, initial urea concentration and temperature. NH3 emission was not sensitive to the other four variables: air temperature, air velocity, maximum rate of urea conversion and the MichaeliseMenten constant for urea conversion. Based on these results we recommend simplifying the model structurally and reducing the number of input variables.
Resource use efficiency and farm productivity gaps of smallholder dairy farming in North-west Michoacán, Mexico
Cortez Arriola, J. ; Groot, J.C.J. ; Amendola Massiotti, R.D. ; Scholberg, J.M.S. ; Mariscal Aguayo, D.V. ; Tittonell, P.A. ; Rossing, W.A.H. - \ 2014
Agricultural Systems 126 (2014). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 15 - 24.
recent trends - nitrogen - performance - volatilization - tropics - systems - losses - yield
Smallholder dairy farms that intensify production risk resource degradation and increased dependence on external feeds and fertilizers due to lack of knowledge and appropriate technology, which undermines farm productivity and profitability. Here we analyze underlying causes at farm level of such process through an integrated analysis at the farm scale by assessing current resource use efficiency for grazing-based dairy farming systems representative of NW Michoacán, Mexico. Whole-farm yield gaps were quantified by comparing current farms to virtual reference farms that have the same farm surface area but improved farm management. Productivity of reference farms was calculated by assuming best crop production practices (as observed within the set of case study farms) and improved herd management. Three family-based (FB) and three semi-specialized (SS) dairy systems spanning three levels of intensification in terms of density of livestock units (LU): extensive (E, 1.2 LU ha-1) were monitored during one year (rainy and dry seasons) to assess productivity and resource use efficiencies. Milk production was generally low and variable (2.2–4.3 Mg milk cow-1 lactation-1, and 0.6–5.8 Mg ha-1) due to high incidence of mastitis, a large fraction of non-productive animals in the herd and inefficient reproduction management. During the dry season, grazing areas provided insufficient metabolizable energy, and milk production was sustained through increased use of concentrates (from 310 g kg-1 DMI in rainy season to 454 g kg-1 DMI-1 in dry season of the herd) and conserved forage. All farms had positive nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium balances, averaging 75 ± 16, 15 ± 6, and 19 ± 6 kg ha-1, respectively. Nutrients in animal excreta were mostly not recycled on the farms but lost to the environment, and nutrient surpluses increased with livestock density. The reference farms exhibited an attainable milk yield of 2.7 Mg ha-1 on the basis of full feed self-supply, and 4.2 Mg ha-1 when the crude protein limitation in the ration was lifted. Compared to the reference farm actual milk yields were on average 78.4% lower on FB farms and 57.9% lower on SS farms. The underlying causes of the farm yield gap differed between farms and were due to sub-optimal areas of forage maize, low forage and forage maize productivity and deficient herd management. We conclude that the farm yield gap analysis was effective in identifying the major shortcomings in management of the dairy farming systems and enabled formulation of change avenues for farm reconfiguration focusing on combined improvements in crop, feed and herd management and recycling of nutrients through manure management.
Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition
Sutton, M.A. ; Reis, S. ; Riddick, S.N. ; Dragosits, U. ; Nemitz, E. ; Theobald, M.R. ; Tang, Y.S. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2013
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 368 (2013)1621. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 13 p.
plant-atmosphere exchange - gas-particle interactions - compensation point - managed grassland - dutch heathland - model - volatilization - nitrogen - canopy - soil
Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission–deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 58C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28–67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45–85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89–179) Tg by 2100.
Pesticide volatilization from small surface waters : rationale of a new parameterization for TOXSWA
Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Adriaanse, P.I. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2316) - 42
pesticiden - vervluchtiging - waterverontreiniging - oppervlaktewater - modellen - pesticides - volatilization - water pollution - surface water - models
In the TOXSWA (TOXic substances in Surface WAters) model volatilization of pesticides from surface water is computed because it may be an important component of the mass balance of pesticides in water bodies. Here, we briefly review the physics of air-water gas exchange relevant in this context. A new parameterization of volatilization is proposed. This new TOXSWA parameterization would take into account key physical aspects of the air-water gas exchange process, while still fitting into the TOXSWA philosophy. It is recommended to cast the new parameterization into a micrometeorological framework, based on two atmospheric resistances and one aqueous resistance against gas transport. In this context, the dimensionless Henry coefficient is a crucial characteristic of the pesticides and determines whether atmospheric properties as modelled by the atmospheric resistances exert the main dynamic control on air-water gas exchange or the aqueous properties and resistance. Most pesticides will be subject to atmospherically controlled volatilization.
Ammonia emission from crop residues : quantification of ammonia volatilization based on crop residue properties
Ruijter, F.J. de; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 470) - 30
oogstresten - oogstresten als veevoer - ammoniak - vervluchtiging - nederland - degradatie - akkerbouw - ammoniakemissie - crop residues - stover - ammonia - volatilization - netherlands - degradation - arable farming - ammonia emission
This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.
A model for inventory of ammonia emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands
Velthof, G.L. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Haan, B.J. de; Hoogeveen, M.W. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2012
Atmospheric Environment 46 (2012). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 248 - 255.
manure management - dairy-cattle - nitrogen-fertilizer - gaseous nitrogen - animal manures - pig manure - volatilization - excretion - europe - carbon
Agriculture is the major source of ammonia (NH3). Methodologies are needed to quantify national NH3 emissions and to identify the most effective options to mitigate NH3 emissions. Generally, NH3 emissions from agriculture are quantified using a nitrogen (N) flow approach, in which the NH3 emission is calculated from the N flows and NH3 emission factors. Because of the direct dependency between NH3 volatilization and Total Ammoniacal N (TAN; ammonium–N + N compounds readily broken down to ammonium) an approach based on TAN is preferred to calculate NH3 emission instead of an approach based on total N. A TAN-based NH3-inventory model was developed, called NEMA (National Emission Model for Ammonia). The total N excretion and the fraction of TAN in the excreted N are calculated from the feed composition and N digestibility of the components. TAN-based emission factors were derived or updated for housing systems, manure storage outside housing, manure application techniques, N fertilizer types, and grazing. The NEMA results show that the total NH3 emission from agriculture in the Netherlands in 2009 was 88.8 Gg NH3–N, of which 50% from housing, 37% from manure application, 9% from mineral N fertilizer, 3% from outside manure storage, and 1% from grazing. Cattle farming was the dominant source of NH3 in the Netherlands (about 50% of the total NH3 emission). The NH3 emission expressed as percentage of the excreted N was 22% of the excreted N for poultry, 20% for pigs, 15% for cattle, and 12% for other livestock, which is mainly related to differences in emissions from housing systems. The calculated ammonia emission was most sensitive to changes in the fraction of TAN in the excreted manure and to the emission factor of manure application. From 2011, NEMA will be used as official methodology to calculate the national NH3 emission from agriculture in the Netherlands
Methods for estimating the vapour pressure of organic chemicals; Application to five pesticides
Leistra, M. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2215) - 60
dampdruk - vervluchtiging - pesticiden - chloorthalonil - chloorpyrifos - lindaan - pirimicarb - chinolinefungiciden - vapour pressure - volatilization - pesticides - chlorothalonil - chlorpyrifos - lindane - quinoline fungicides
When studying and modelling the volatilisation of pesticides from crops, their vapour pressure is an essential property. In the critical evaluation of vapour pressures stated by various sources, problems were encountered. Therefore, an inventory was made of readily-usable methods for estimating vapour pressures of organic chemicals, for checking the stated values. When applied to some of the five example pesticides, the estimates were at the same level as the stated values. However, for other pesticides there were substantial differences. Unfortunately, there is a wide range of uncertainty in both measurement and estimation of comparatively low vapour pressures. The solid (crystalline) and sub-cooled-liquid states of the chemical have to be distinguished when specifying and using vapour pressures, because the latter can be much higher. The influence of the uncertainty in vapour pressure on the source strength of volatilisation from plants is illustrated in a few computations. Only data for pesticides with accurately known vapour pressure are usable in the development and testing of computation models on the volatilisation from crops.
Milk urea concentration as an indicator of ammonia emission from dairy cow barn under restricted grazing
Duinkerken, G. van; Smits, M.C.J. ; Andre, G. ; Sebek, L.B.J. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2011
Journal of Dairy Science 94 (2011)1. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 321 - 335.
livestock buildings - nitrogen-excretion - dietary nitrogen - ventilation rate - manure stores - protein - cattle - model - volatilization - houses
Bulk milk urea concentration was evaluated to assess its potential as an indicator of ammonia emission from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing. An experiment was carried out with a herd of, on average, 52 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The cows were housed in a naturally ventilated barn with cubicles and a slatted floor, were fed ensiled forages and feed supplements, and each day were allowed 8.5 h of grazing. The experiment was a balanced randomized block design, replicated 3 times. The experimental factor was the bulk milk urea level, which was adjusted to levels of 15, 35, and 55 mg of urea per 100 g of milk, respectively, by changing the level of nitrogen fertilization of the pasture, the herbage mass and grass regrowth age, and the level and type of feed supplement. Ammonia emission from the barn was measured using sulfur hexafluoride as the tracer gas. Ammonia emission generally increased upon an increase in adjusted milk urea levels. A dynamic regression model was used to predict ammonia emission from bulk milk urea concentration, temperature, and a slurry mixing index. This model accounted for 66% of the total variance in ammonia emission and showed that emission increases exponentially with increasing milk urea concentration. At levels of 20 and 30 mg of urea per 100 g of milk, ammonia emission increased by about 2.5 and 3.5%, respectively, when milk urea concentration increased by 1 mg/100 g. Furthermore, emissions from the barn increased 2.6% when temperature increased by 1°C. The study showed that bulk milk urea concentration is a useful indicator for ammonia emissions from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing.
Nutrient loss pathways from grazed grasslands and the effects of decreasing inputs: experimental results for three soil types
Beek, C.L. ; Salm, C. van der; Plette, A. ; Weerd, H. van de - \ 2009
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 83 (2009)2. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 99 - 110.
surface-water - agricultural land - nitrogen - phosphorus - denitrification - netherlands - balances - ammonia - model - volatilization
Agriculture is a main contributor of diffuse emissions of N and P to the environment. For N the main loss pathways are NH3-volatilization, leaching to ground and surface water and N-2(O) emissions. Currently, imposing restraints on farm inputs are used as policy tool to decrease N and P leaching to ground water and to surface water, and the same measure is suggested to combat emissions of N2O. The response, however, to these measures largely depends on the soil type. In this study nutrient flows of three dairy farms in The Netherlands with comparable intensity on sand, peat and clay soils were monitored for at least 2 years. The first aim was to provide quantitative data on current nutrient loss pathways. The second aim was to explore the responses in partitioning of the nutrient loss pathways when farm inputs were altered. Mean denitrification rates ranged from 103 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) for the sandy soil to 170 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) for the peat soil and leaching to surface water was about 73 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) for the sandy soil, 15 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) for the clay soil and 38 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) for the peat soil. For P, leaching to surface water ranged from 2 kg P ha(-1) year(-1) for the sandy site to 5 kg P ha(-1) year(-1) for the peat site. The sandy soil was most responsive to changes in N surpluses on leaching to surface water, followed by the peat soil and least responsive was the clay soil. For P, a similar sequence was found. This article demonstrates that similar reductions of N and P inputs result in different responses in N and P loss pathways for different soil types. These differences should be taken into account when evaluating measures to improve environmental performance of (dairy) farms
NH3 dynamics in composting : assessment of the integration of composting in manure management chains
Szanto, G.L. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Rulkens, co-promotor(en): A.H.M. Veeken. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853695 - 140
dierlijke meststoffen - compostering - ammoniak - vervluchtiging - nitrificatie - mestverwerking - ammoniakemissie - animal manures - composting - ammonia - volatilization - nitrification - manure treatment - ammonia emission
The Dutch animal production sector copes with a manure problem. Their high nitrogen content makes manures popular fertilizers, but most of this nitrogen is emitted before it could be used by plants. Ammonia is the main emission form during the manure management chain of storage, transportation and land application. Composting these manures could improve their general storage and transport features, and produce stable composts. Still, the nitrogen retaining efficiency of composting is a matter of debate. This aspect of high- and low-tech composting treatments was examined through a technological research. The low-tech applications appeared to retain the nitrogen from ammonia by facilitating a complete nitrogen conversion process. High-tech processes do lose most of the ammonia, but this ammonia can be trapped to manufacture a separate fertilizer product. Although composting treatments are not free of emissions, their abilities to control the form and extent of harmful nitrogen emissions makes them potential choices in manure management.
Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Litter-based manure systems
Reidy, B. ; Webb, J. ; Misselbrook, T.H. ; Menzi, H. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Hutchings, N.J. ; Eurich-Menden, B. ; Dohler, H. ; Dammgen, U. - \ 2009
Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009)9. - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 1632 - 1640.
dietary-protein content - nitrous-oxide - volatilization - storage - management - livestock - abatement - cattle
Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardized inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for emission factors (EFs) (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario for beef cattle produced very similar estimates of total losses of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) (±6% of the mean total), but large differences in NH3 emissions (±24% of the mean). These differences arose from the different approaches to TAN immobilization in litter, other N losses and mineralization in the models. As a result of those differences estimates of TAN available at spreading differed by a factor of almost 3. Results of the FF scenario for broilers produced a range of estimates of total changes in TAN (±9% of the mean total), and larger differences in the estimate of NH3 emissions (±17% of the mean). The different approaches among the models to TAN immobilization, other N losses and mineralization, produced estimates of TAN available at spreading which differed by a factor of almost 1.7. The differences in estimates of NH3 emissions decreased as estimates of immobilization and other N losses increased. Since immobilization and denitrification depend also on the C:N ratio in manure, there would be advantages to include C flows in mass-flow models. This would also provide an integrated model for the estimation of emissions of methane, non-methane VOCs and carbon dioxide. Estimation of these would also enable an estimate of mass loss, calculation of the N and TAN concentrations in litter-based manures and further validation of model outputs
Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems
Beusen, A.H.W. ; Bouwman, A.F. ; Heuberger, P.S.C. ; Drecht, G. van; Hoek, K.W. van der - \ 2008
Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008)24. - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 6067 - 6077.
volatilization - acidification - deposition - inventory - world - model
Here we present an uncertainty analysis of NH3 emissions from agricultural production systems based on a global NH3 emission inventory with a 5×5 min resolution. Of all results the mean is given with a range (10% and 90% percentile). The uncertainty range for the global NH3 emission from agricultural systems is 27¿38 (with a mean of 32) Tg NH3-N yr¿1, N fertilizer use contributing 10¿12 (11) Tg yr¿1 and livestock production 16¿27 (21) Tg yr¿1. Most of the emissions from livestock production come from animal houses and storage systems (31¿55%); smaller contributions come from the spreading of animal manure (23¿38%) and grazing animals (17¿37%). This uncertainty analysis allows for identifying and improving those input parameters with a major influence on the results. The most important determinants of the uncertainty related to the global agricultural NH3 emission comprise four parameters (N excretion rates, NH3 emission rates for manure in animal houses and storage, the fraction of the time that ruminants graze and the fraction of non-agricultural use of manure) specific to mixed and landless systems, and total animal stocks. Nitrogen excretion rates and NH3 emission rates from animal houses and storage systems are shown consistently to be the most important parameters in most parts of the world. Input parameters for pastoral systems are less relevant. However, there are clear differences between world regions and individual countries, reflecting the differences in livestock production systems
Ammonia emissions from organic housing systems with fattening pigs
Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Ivanova-Peneva, S.G. - \ 2008
Biosystems Engineering 99 (2008)3. - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 412 - 422.
biologische landbouw - varkenshouderij - varkensmest - slachtdieren - ammoniakemissie - uitloop - luchtkwaliteit - organic farming - pig farming - pig manure - meat animals - ammonia emission - outdoor run - air quality - partially slatted floors - livestock buildings - gaseous emissions - manure stores - volatilization - model - reduction - yards
The aim of this study was to determine the level and variations in ammonia emissions from buildings and outside yards, with different manure removal systems, for organically raised fattening pigs. Ammonia emissions were determined at three farms with organically raised pigs. Amongst other differences, farms mainly differed in manure removal system at the outside yard. Measurements were carried out during two measuring seasons, with two categories of pigs: fatteners of 45 and 80 kg. Excreting behaviour was analysed by video observations and ammonia emission was measured by the ventilated chamber technique. There were clear differences in ammonia emission between farms (probability, P
Interactive effects of dietary crude protein and fermentable carbohydrate levels on odour from pig manure
Le, D.P. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Jongbloed, A.W. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2008
Livestock Science 114 (2008)1. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 48 - 61.
growing-finishing pigs - volatile fatty-acids - nitrogen-excretion - ammonia emission - nonstarch polysaccharide - swine manure - slurry - fiber - colon - volatilization
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary levels of crude protein (CP) and levels of fermentable carbohydrates (FC) and their interaction on odour emission, odour intensity, odour hedonic tone, and ammonia emission from pig manure, and manure characteristics. An experiment was conducted with finishing pigs (n = 36) in a 2 × 3 factorial randomized complete block arrangement with 6 treatment combinations in 6 blocks. There were 2 dietary CP levels (low 12%; high 18%) and 3 digestible FC levels: (low 95.5; medium 145.5; and high 195.5 g/kg feed, as-fed basis). Pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of 57.7 ± 2.5 kg were penned individually in partly slatted floor pens. Faeces and urine of each pig accumulated in separate manure pits under the slatted floor. In the 6th week of the collection period air samples were collected directly above the manure in each pit. Manure samples were taken for manure characteristics. Air samples were analyzed for odour concentration and for hedonic tone and odour intensity. Manure samples were analyzed for volatile fatty acids (VFA), indoles, phenoles, sulphurous compounds, ammonium, and total N concentrations. Dietary CP level and FC level did not affect odour emission, odour intensity and hedonic tone but their interaction affected odour emission at P = 0.06. At a high dietary CP level, increased FC level decreased odour emission, while at a low CP level, increased FC level increased odour emission from pig manure. Total N and ammonium concentrations, and ammonia emission from pig manure were reduced at low dietary CP level (P <0.001). High FC level led to low ammonia emission from pig manure (P = 0.01). Manure pH increased at high dietary CP level (P <0.001) and decreased when FC level increased (P <0.05). Total VFA concentration increased at high dietary CP level (P <0.001) and when FC level increased (P <0.001). Enhanced dietary CP increased the manure concentrations of phenol (P <0.001), cresols (P = 0.01), indole (P <0.001), 4-ethylphenol (P <0.001) and carbon disulfide (P <0.001), but FC did not affect concentrations of these compounds (P > 0.05) in the manure. We conclude that the interaction between dietary CP and FC plays a role in odour production and emission. Ammonia emission from pig manure can be reduced substantially by decreasing dietary CP and by increasing FC.
Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Liquid manure systems
Reidy, B. ; Dammgen, U. ; Dohler, H. ; Eurich-Menden, B. ; Evert, F.K. van; Hutchings, N.J. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Menzi, H. ; Misselbrook, T.H. ; Monteny, G.J. ; Webb, J. - \ 2008
Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008)14. - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 3452 - 3464.
nitrogen-fertilizer application - volatilization - grassland - cattle - losses - slurry - inputs
Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture commonly account for >80% of the total NH3 emissions. Accurate agricultural NH3 emission inventories are therefore required for reporting within the framework of the Gothenburg Protocol of the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. To allow a co-ordinated implementation of the Protocol, different national inventories should be comparable. A core group of emission inventory experts therefore developed a network and joint programme to achieve a detailed overview of the best inventory techniques currently available and compiled and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH3 emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard datasets. Two scenarios for slurry-based systems were run separately for dairy cattle and for pigs, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardised inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for EFs (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario showed very good agreement among models, indicating that the underlying N flows of the different models are highly similar. As a result of the different national EFs and N excretion rates, larger differences among the results were observed for the FN and the NN scenarios. Reasons for the differences were primarily attributed to differences in the agricultural practices and climatic factors reflected in the EFs and the N excretion rates. The scientific debate necessary to understand the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models.
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